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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 53028 matches for " David Ahl "
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Increased Recruitment but Impaired Function of Leukocytes during Inflammation in Mouse Models of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
Ulrika Sofia Pettersson,Gustaf Christoffersson,Sara Massena,David Ahl,Leif Jansson,Johanna Henriksn?s,Mia Phillipson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022480
Abstract: Patients suffering from diabetes show defective bacterial clearance. This study investigates the effects of elevated plasma glucose levels during diabetes on leukocyte recruitment and function in established models of inflammation.
iNOS-Dependent Increase in Colonic Mucus Thickness in DSS-Colitic Rats
Olof Schreiber, Joel Petersson, Tomas Waldén, David Ahl, Stellan Sandler, Mia Phillipson, Lena Holm
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071843
Abstract: Aim To investigate colonic mucus thickness in vivo in health and during experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Methods Colitis was induced with 5% DSS in drinking water for 8 days prior to experiment, when the descending colonic mucosa of anesthetized rats was studied using intravital microscopy. Mucus thickness was measured with micropipettes attached to a micromanipulator. To assess the contributions of NOS and prostaglandins in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, the non-selective NOS-inhibitor L-NNA (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h), the selective iNOS-inhibitor L-NIL (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h) and the non-selective COX-inhibitor diclofenac (5 mg/kg) were administered intravenously prior to experiment. To further investigate the role of iNOS in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, iNOS ?/? mice were used. Results Colitic rats had a thicker firmly adherent mucus layer following 8 days of DSS treatment than untreated rats (88±2 μm vs 76±1 μm). During induction of colitis, the thickness of the colonic mucus layer initially decreased but was from day 3 significantly thicker than in untreated rats. Diclofenac reduced the mucus thickness similarly in colitic and untreated rats (?16±5 μm vs ?14±2 μm). While L-NNA had no effect on colonic mucus thickness in DSS or untreated controls (+3±2 μm vs +3±1 μm), L-NIL reduced the mucus thickness significantly more in colitic rats than in controls (?33±4 μm vs ?10±3 μm). The importance of iNOS in regulating the colonic mucus thickness was confirmed in iNOS?/? mice, which had thinner colonic mucus than wild-type mice (35±3 μm vs 50±2 μm, respectively). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of iNOS in the colonic surface epithelium following DSS treatment. Conclusion Both prostaglandins and nitric oxide regulate basal colonic mucus thickness. During onset of colitis, the thickness of the mucus layer is initially reduced followed by an iNOS mediated increase.
Quantum discord of Bell cat-states under amplitude damping
M. Daoud,R. Ahl Laamara
Mathematics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/1751-8113/45/32/325302
Abstract: The evolution of pairwise quantum correlations of Bell cat-states under amplitude damping is examined using the concept of quantum discord which goes beyond entanglement. A closed expression of the quantum discord is explicitly derived. We used of the Koashi-Winter relation. A relation which facilitates the optimization process of the conditional entropy. We also discuss the temporal evolution of bipartite quantum correlations under a dephasing channel and compare the behaviors of quantum discord and entanglement whose properties are characterized through the concurrence.
Multipartite quantum correlations in even and odd spin coherent states
M. Daoud,R. Ahl Laamara,W. Kaydi
Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/1751-8113/46/39/395302
Abstract: The key ingredient of the approach, presented in this paper, is the factorization property of $SU(2)$ coherent states upon splitting or decay of a quantum spin system. In this picture, the even and odd spin coherent states are viewed as comprising two, three or more spin subsystems. From this perspective, we investigate the multipartite quantum correlations defined as the sum of the correlations of all possible bi-partitions. The pairwise quantum correlations are quantified by entanglement of formation and quantum discord. A special attention is devoted to tripartite splitting schemes. We explicitly derive the sum of entanglement of formation for all possible bi-partitions. It coincides with the sum of all possible pairwise quantum discord. The conservation relation between the distribution of entanglement of formation and quantum discord, in the tripartite splitting scheme, is discussed. We show that the entanglement of formation and quantum discord possess the monogamy property for even spin coherent states, contrarily to odd ones which violate the monogamy relation when the the overlap of the coherent states approaches the unity.
Long-Term, Open-Label, Safety Study of Edivoxetine as Adjunctive Treatment for Adult Patients with Major Depressive Disorder Who Were Partial Responders to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment in Japan  [PDF]
Emel Serap Monkul, Mark Bangs, Keita Asato, Masashi Takahashi, Yasushi Takita, Mary Anne Dellva, Jonna Ahl, Celine Goldberger
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.52022
Abstract: Edivoxetine is a highly selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) that has been investigated in short-term studies as adjunctive therapy toselective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who were partial responders to their SSRIs. This 52-week open-label study investigated the safety and tolerability of longer-term treatment with adjunctive edivoxetine in patients with MDD in Japan, who had completed one of two placebo-controlled acute studies of edivoxetine as adjunctive therapy to SSRIs. All patients continued on their stable dose of SSRI. Two hundred eighty-eight patients were enrolled and assessed for up to 1 year using standard safety and tolerability measures. Of these, 195 patients previously received only placebo in the parent study and, therefore, were first exposed to edivoxetine in this study. Approximately 46% of patients completed the study. The most frequently cited (>5%) reasons for discontinuation were sponsor decision (19.4%, which included patients discontinued due to early study termination), adverse event (17.4%) and subject decision (8.7%). Adverse events leading to discontinuation in more than 2 patients (>1%) were palpitations, vomiting, hepatic function abnormal, hypertension, nausea, and tachycardia. Treatment-emergent elevations in diastolic blood pressure and pulse were at least twice that reported in the literature for non-Asian patients. Twenty percent of patients had sustained elevations in pulse. Treatment-emergent changes in laboratory measures were small and not clinically meaningful. Assessment across all safety measures in this study indicated that the safety profile of edivoxetine was consistent with that expected for a selective NRI.
Identifying patterns in treatment response profiles in acute bipolar mania: a cluster analysis approach
Ilya A Lipkovich, John P Houston, Jonna Ahl
BMC Psychiatry , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-8-65
Abstract: Patients (n = 222) were selected from a randomized, double-blind study of treatment with olanzapine or divalproex in bipolar I disorder, manic or mixed episode, with or without psychotic features. Hierarchical clustering based on Ward's distance was used to identify groups of patients based on Young-Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total scores at each of 5 assessments over 7 weeks. Logistic regression was used to identify baseline predictors for clusters of interest.Four distinct clusters of patients were identified: Cluster 1 (n = 64): patients did not maintain a response (YMRS total scores ≤ 12); Cluster 2 (n = 92): patients responded rapidly (within less than a week) and response was maintained; Cluster 3 (n = 36): patients responded rapidly but relapsed soon afterwards (YMRS ≥ 15); Cluster 4 (n = 30): patients responded slowly (≥ 2 weeks) and response was maintained. Predictive models using baseline variables found YMRS Item 10 (Appearance), and psychosis to be significant predictors for Clusters 1 and 4 vs. Clusters 2 and 3, but none of the baseline characteristics allowed discriminating between Clusters 1 vs. 4. Experiencing a mixed episode at baseline predicted membership in Clusters 2 and 3 vs. Clusters 1 and 4. Treatment with divalproex, larger number of previous manic episodes, lack of disruptive-aggressive behavior, and more prominent depressive symptoms at baseline were predictors for Cluster 3 vs. 2.Distinct treatment response profiles can be predicted by clinical features at baseline. The presence of these features as potential risk factors for relapse in patients who have responded to treatment should be considered prior to discharge.The clinical trial cited in this report has not been registered because it was conducted and completed prior to the inception of clinical trial registries.Manic episodes in bipolar disorder requiring hospitalization contribute to substantial personal and economic burden on patients, their families and society [1], which could b
The function of 7D-cadherins: a mathematical model predicts physiological importance for water transport through simple epithelia
Mareike Ahl, Agnes Weth, Sebastian Walcher, Werner Baumgartner
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4682-8-18
Abstract: We developed a simple mathematical model describing the epithelial lining of a lumen with a content of variable osmolarity covering an interstitium of constant osmolarity. The width of the lateral intercellular cleft was found to influence the water transport significantly. In the case of hypertonic luminal content a narrow cleft is necessary to further increase concentration of the luminal content. If the cleft is too wide, the water flux will change direction and water is transported into the lumen. Electron microscopic images show that in fact areas of the gut can be found where the lateral intercellular cleft is narrow throughout the lateral cell border whereas in other areas the lateral intercellular cleft is widened.Our simple model clearly predicts that changes of the width of the lateral intercellular cleft can regulate the direction and efficiency of water transport through a simple epithelium. In a narrow cleft the cells can increase the concentration of osmotic active substances easily by active transport whereas if the cleft is wide, friction is reduced but the cells can hardly build up high osmotic gradients. It is now tempting to speculate that 7D-cadherins, owing to their location and their Ca2+-dependence, will adapt their binding activity and thereby the width of the lateral intercellular cleft automatically as the Ca2+-concentration is coupled to the overall electrolyte concentration in the lateral intercellular cleft. This could provide a way to regulate the water resorption in a passive manner adapting to different osmotic conditions.Epithelia cover inner and outer surfaces of the body, thus they represent the primary barrier for controlled transport of water or dissolved molecules into or out of the body. For this barrier to be efficient the adhesion between neighbouring epithelial cells is vital [1].Adhesive contacts between adjoined cells play a crucial role in various physiological and pathophysiological aspects of tissue organization, differ
A Proposal Solution for Interference Inter-Operators
Abdelouahed Jraifi;R. Ahl Laamara;A. Belhaj;E. H. Saidi
PIER C , 2010, DOI: 10.2528/PIERC09110904
Abstract: With deregulation of telecom sector (law 24/96) in our country (Morocco), many operators of cellular network appear. Among the operators technology that operate, we find GSM9800 and CDMA900 that are used by two different operators. It turns out from the measurements of indicator of quality of service that the performance of GSM900 is degraded, and the major cause is the interference created by CDM800 which cannot be neglected. In this paper, we adopt a new approach in order to make GSM900 and CDMA800 operate in harmony. This method is based on a physical optimization of antenna systems and could be understood as a physical symmetry rotation in the space of parameters such that tilt and Azmit control the system. It independently reduces the interference effects on the distance between the base stations. Moreover, it allows us to improve client service without using hard installations and inexpensive technologies.
Safety and Tolerability of Edivoxetine for Long-Term Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder in Adult Patients  [PDF]
Tina M. Oakes, James M. Martinez, Mary Anne Dellva, Celine Goldberger, Beth A. Pangallo, Mark E. Bangs, Jonna Ahl, William B. White
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2014.42017
Abstract:

This 12-month open-label, but dose-blinded extension phase, evaluated the safety and tolerability of flexibly-dosed edivoxetine (6, 9, 12 or 18 mg once daily) in patients (N = 397) with major depressive disorder, who completed the 10-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled acute phase of the study.All patients were treated with edivoxetine during the extension phase. The mean age of the patients was 45 years, and most were white females. Safety evaluations included assessment of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), laboratory and vital sign measures, and suicidality. Within-group t-tests based on a 2-sided significance level of 0.05 and 95% confidence levels were used to assess whether changes from baseline were statistically significant from zero. The overall completion rate was 54%. Adverse event was the most common (14.4%) reason for discontinuation, which included blood pressure increased (1.3%), heart rate increased (1.3%), anxiety (1.0%), and tachycardia (1.0%). At least 1 TEAE was reported by 72.3% of patients, of which headache (10.8%) and hyperhidrosis (10.1%) were the most common; 2.8% of patients had ≥1 serious adverse events, and there were no completed suicides. No

Efficacy and Safety of Duloxetine in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain Who Used versus Did Not Use Concomitant Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs or Acetaminophen: A Post Hoc Pooled Analysis of 2 Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials
Vladimir Skljarevski,Peng Liu,Shuyu Zhang,Jonna Ahl,James M. Martinez
Pain Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/296710
Abstract: This subgroup analysis assessed the efficacy of duloxetine in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) who did or did not use concomitant nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or acetaminophen (APAP). Data were pooled from two 13-week randomized trials in patients with CLBP who were stratified according to NSAID/APAP use at baseline: duloxetine NSAID/APAP user ( ), placebo NSAID/APAP user ( ), duloxetine NSAID/APAP nonuser ( ), and placebo NSAID/APAP nonuser ( ). NSAID/APAP users were those patients who took NSAID/APAP for at least 14 days per month during 3 months prior to study entry. An analysis of covariance model that included therapy, study, baseline NSAID/APAP use (yes/no), and therapy-by-NSAID/APAP subgroup interaction was used to assess the efficacy. The treatment-by-NSAID/APAP use interaction was not statistically significant ( ) suggesting no substantial evidence of differential efficacy for duloxetine over placebo on pain reduction or improvement in physical function between concomitant NSAID/APAP users and non-users. 1. Introduction Low back pain has a lifetime prevalence rate of 80% in the United States and is one of the primary causes of disability in individuals younger than 45 years of age [1, 2]. Low back pain usually resolves spontaneously within a few days or weeks, but for some individuals, this pain becomes chronic [1]. Commonly prescribed medications for chronic low back pain (CLBP) include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) [3]. Over-the-counter medications that are frequently used include acetaminophen (APAP), aspirin, and certain NSAIDs [4]. However, there is no clinical evidence to support the efficacy of any of these agents in CLBP [4, 5]. Furthermore, a number of these treatments pose safety risks that include sedation, respiratory depression and addiction (opioids), gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers, and cardiovascular events (NSAIDs) [6]. In addition, antidepressants with serotonin reuptake inhibition properties may increase the risk of bleeding events [7, 8], either when taken alone or in combination with other drugs that affect coagulation, such as NSAIDs [9]. Duloxetine hydrochloride (hereafter referred to as duloxetine) is a potent serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) that has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and chronic musculoskeletal pain (as established in studies in CLBP and chronic pain
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