Abstract:
We study phantom maps and homology theories in a stable homotopy category S via a certain Abelian category A. We express the group P(X,Y) of phantom maps X -> Y as an Ext group in A, and give conditions on X or Y which guarantee that it vanishes. We also determine P(X,HB). We show that any composite of two phantom maps is zero, and use this to reduce Margolis's axiomatisation conjecture to an extension problem. We show that a certain functor S -> A is the universal example of a homology theory with values in an AB 5 category and compare this with some results of Freyd.

Abstract:
We reformulate ten-dimensional type II supergravity as a generalised geometrical analogue of Einstein gravity, defined by an $O(9,1)\times O(1,9)\subset O(10,10)\times\mathbb{R}^+$ structure on the generalised tangent space. Using the notion of generalised connection and torsion, we introduce the analogue of the Levi-Civita connection, and derive the corresponding tensorial measures of generalised curvature. We show how, to leading order in the fermion fields, these structures allow one to rewrite the action, equations of motion and supersymmetry variations in a simple, manifestly $\mathit{Spin}(9,1)\times\mathit{Spin}(1,9)$-covariant form.

Abstract:
We reformulate eleven-dimensional supergravity, including fermions, in terms of generalised geometry, for spacetimes that are warped products of Minkowski space with a $d$-dimensional manifold $M$ with $d\leq7$. The reformation has a $E_{d(d)} \times \mathbb{R}^+$ structure group and is has a local $\tilde{H}_d$ symmetry, where $\tilde{H}_d$ is the double cover of the maximally compact subgroup of $E_{d(d)}$. The bosonic degrees for freedom unify into a generalised metric, and, defining the generalised analogue $D$ of the Levi-Civita connection, one finds that the corresponding equations of motion are the vanishing of the generalised Ricci tensor. To leading order, we show that the fermionic equations of motion, action and supersymmetry variations can all be written in terms of $D$. Although we will not give the detailed decompositions, this reformulation is equally applicable to type IIA or IIB supergravity restricted to a $(d-1)$-dimensional manifold. For completeness we give explicit expressions in terms of $\tilde{H}_4=\mathit{Spin}(5)$ and $\tilde{H}_7=\mathit{SU}(8)$ representations for $d=4$ and $d=7$.

Abstract:
We define intrinsic torsion in generalised geometry and use it to introduce a new notion of generalised special holonomy. We then consider generic warped supersymmetric flux compactifications of M theory and Type II of the form $\mathbb{R}^{D-1,1}\times M$. Using the language of $E_{d(d)}\times\mathbb{R}^+$ generalised geometry, we show that, for $D\geq 4$, preserving minimal supersymmetry is equivalent to the manifold $M$ having generalised special holonomy and list the relevant holonomy groups. We conjecture that this result extends to backgrounds preserving any number of supersymmetries. As a prime example, we consider $\mathcal{N}=1$ in $D=4$. The corresponding generalised special holonomy group is $SU(7)$, giving the natural M theory extension to the notion of a $G_2$ manifold, and, for Type II backgrounds, reformulating the pure spinor $SU(3)\times SU(3)$ conditions as an integrable structure.

Abstract:
We show that generalised geometry gives a unified description of maximally supersymmetric consistent truncations of ten- and eleven-dimensional supergravity. In all cases the reduction manifold admits a "generalised parallelisation" with a frame algebra with constant coefficients. The consistent truncation then arises as a generalised version of a conventional Scherk-Schwarz reduction with the frame algebra encoding the embedding tensor of the reduced theory. The key new result is that all round-sphere $S^d$ geometries admit such generalised parallelisations with an $SO(d+1)$ frame algebra. Thus we show that the remarkable consistent truncations on $S^3$, $S^4$, $S^5$ and $S^7$ are in fact simply generalised Scherk-Schwarz reductions. This description leads directly to the standard non-linear scalar-field ansatze and as an application we give the full scalar-field ansatz for the type IIB truncation on $S^5$.

Abstract:
We show that generalised geometry gives a unified description of bosonic eleven-dimensional supergravity restricted to a $d$-dimensional manifold for all $d\leq7$. The theory is based on an extended tangent space which admits a natural $E_{d(d)} \times \mathbb{R}^+$ action. The bosonic degrees of freedom are unified as a "generalised metric", as are the diffeomorphism and gauge symmetries, while the local $O(d)$ symmetry is promoted to $H_d$, the maximally compact subgroup of $E_{d(d)}$. We introduce the analogue of the Levi--Civita connection and the Ricci tensor and show that the bosonic action and equations of motion are simply given by the generalised Ricci scalar and the vanishing of the generalised Ricci tensor respectively. The formalism also gives a unified description of the bosonic NSNS and RR sectors of type II supergravity in $d-1$ dimensions. Locally the formulation also describes M theory variants of double field theory and we derive the corresponding section condition in general dimension. We comment on the relation to other approaches to M theory with $E_{d(d)}$ symmetry, as well as the connections to flux compactifications and the embedding tensor formalism.

Abstract:
We study the uniaxial compressive behavior of disordered colloidal free-standing micropillars composed of a bidisperse mixture of 3 and 6 um polystyrene particles. Mechanical annealing of confined pillars enables variation of the packing fraction across the phase space of colloidal glasses. The measured normalized strengths and elastic moduli of the annealed freestanding micropillars span almost three orders-of-magnitude despite similar plastic morphology governed by shear banding. We measure a robust correlation between ultimate strengths and elastic constants that is invariant to relative humidity, implying a critical strain of $\sim$0.01 that is strikingly similar to that observed in metallic glasses (MGs) [W.L. Johnson, K. Samwer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 195501, 2005] and suggestive of a universal mode of cooperative plastic deformation. We estimate the characteristic strain of the underlying cooperative plastic event by considering the energy necessary to create an Eshelby-like ellipsoidal inclusion in an elastic matrix. We find that the characteristic strain is similar to that found in experiments and simulations of other disordered solids with distinct bonding and particle sizes, suggesting a universal criterion for the elastic to plastic transition in glassy materials with the capacity for finite plastic flow.

Abstract:
The impact of physico-chemical factors on percent coral cover and coral health was examined on a spatial basis for two dominant Acropora species, A. digitifera and A. spicifera, at Ningaloo Reef (north-western Australia) in the southeast Indian Ocean. Coral health was investigated by measuring metabolic indices (RNA/DNA ratio and protein concentration), energy levels (lipid ratio) and autotrophic indices (chlorophyll a (chl a) and zooxanthellae density) at six stations during typical seasons (austral autumn 2010 (March and April), austral winter 2010 (August)) and during an extreme La Ni？a event in summer 2011 (February). These indices were correlated with 15 physico-chemical factors (measured immediately following coral sampling) to identify predictors for health indices. Variations in metabolic indices (protein concentration and RNA/DNA ratio) for A. spicifera were mainly explained by nitrogen, temperature and zooplankton concentrations under typical conditions, while for A. digitifera, light as well as phytoplankton, in particular picoeukaryotes, were important, possibly due to higher energy requirement for lipid synthesis and storage in A. digitifera. Optimum metabolic values occurred for both Acropora species at 26–28°C when autotrophic indices (chl a and zooxanthellae density) were lowest. The extreme temperature during the La Ni？a event resulted in a shift of feeding modes, with an increased importance of water column plankton concentrations for metabolic rates of A. digitifera and light and plankton for A. spicifera. Our results suggest that impacts of high sea surface temperatures during extreme events such as La Ni？a may be mitigated via reduction on metabolic rates in coral host. The high water column plankton concentrations and associated low light levels resulted in a shift towards high symbiont densities, with lower metabolic rates and energy levels than the seasonal norm for the coral host.

Abstract:
Sampling from Gaussian Markov random fields (GMRFs), that is multivariate Gaussian ran- dom vectors that are parameterised by the inverse of their covariance matrix, is a fundamental problem in computational statistics. In this paper, we show how we can exploit arbitrarily accu- rate approximations to a GMRF to speed up Krylov subspace sampling methods. We also show that these methods can be used when computing the normalising constant of a large multivariate Gaussian distribution, which is needed for both any likelihood-based inference method. The method we derive is also applicable to other structured Gaussian random vectors and, in particu- lar, we show that when the precision matrix is a perturbation of a (block) circulant matrix, it is still possible to derive O(n log n) sampling schemes.

Abstract:
i discuss the physics of non-abelian plasmas which are locally anisotropic in momentum space. such momentum-space anisotropies are generated by the rapid longitudinal expansion of the matter created in the first 1 fm/c of an ultrarelativistic heavy ion collision. in contrast to locally isotropic plasmas anisotropic plasmas have a spectrum of soft unstable modes which are characterized by exponential growth of transverse chromo-magnetic/-electric fields at short times. this instability is the qcd analogue of the weibel instability of qed. parametrically the chromo-weibel instability provides the fastest method for generation of soft background fields and dominates the short-time dynamics of the system. the existence of the chromo-weibel instability has been proven using diagrammatic methods, transport theory, and numerical solution of classical yang-mills fields. i review the results obtained from each of these methods and discuss the numerical techniques which are being used to determine the late-time behavior of plasmas subject to a chromo-weibel instability.