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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 237616 matches for " Daniel L. Segal "
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Retrospective Assessments of Childhood Psychopathology by Adults and Their Parents  [PDF]
Frederick L. Coolidge, Gina M. Tambone, Robert L. Durham, Daniel L. Segal
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23026
Abstract: The present study compared retrospective personality and psychopathological assessments of adults about their childhood and adolescence with concurrent assessments by one of their parents. One-hundred three college stu-dents (Mage = 23.1 years) and one of their parents (Mage = 51.2 years) completed a retrospective version of the 200-item, parent-as-respondent, Coolidge Personality and Neuropsychological Inventory (R-CPNI). The median internal scale reliabilities (Cronbach’s α) for all 46 scales of the R-CPNI were substantial for the adult retrospec-tive (α = 0.78) and the parent retrospective versions (α = 0.79), and there was a strong correlation between the adult and parent retrospective scale reliabilities (r = 0.88). To evaluate group differences, t tests revealed that the parent means were significantly lower than the adult means on 45 of the 46 scales with mostly large effect sizes. Principal components analyses of the scales for both adult and parent retrospective versions were strongly and positively correlated (r = 0.88) for the total number of components extracted. These findings appear to support the contention that retrospective assessments tend to be reliable and valid and that parents’ retrospective recol-lections of their children’s psychopathology tend to be more positive than the retrospective reports by the adults. Based on these preliminary findings, it appears that the R-CPNI may provide a unique and interesting tool for the retrospective measurement of psychopathology.
Heritability Estimates of Karen Horney’s Core Neurotic Trends in a Young Adult Twin Sample  [PDF]
Frederick L. Coolidge, Daniel L. Segal, Alisa J. Estey, Frank M. Spinath, Elisabeth Hahn, Juliana Gottschling
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.615199
Abstract: Objective: The purpose of the present study was to explore the heritability of psychoanalyst Karen Horney’s three core neurotic trends (i.e., compliance, aggression, and detachment) in a twin paradigm to evaluate the validity of her theoretically assumed origins of neuroses. Method: Data were collected from 168 adult participants (M age = 21.54 years; range = 18 - 25 years) including 60 monozygotic twin pairs (10 male pairs and 50 female pairs) and 24 dizygotic twin pairs (4 male pairs and 20 female pairs). Participants completed the 57-item Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory (HCTI). Results: The best fitting model for compliance and detachment included additive genetic and nonshared environmental influences. For aggression, phenotypic variance was completely traced back to shared and nonshared environmental influences. Conclusions: The results are discussed in light of Horney’s hypotheses for the genesis of neurotic trends as well as findings from behavioral genetic research.
An Empirical Investigation of a New Measure to Assess Abrasive Personality Disorder Traits  [PDF]
Frederick L. Coolidge, Ivan Valenzuela, Daniel L. Segal, Leilani Feliciano
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.91008
Abstract: The psychometric properties of a new measure, the 33-item Abrasive Personality Traits scale, were investigated. College students (N = 84) completed the scale about someone they perceived as abrasive and an additional 75 college students completed it about someone who they did not consider abrasive. The scale had good internal reliability and acceptable test-retest reliability. Abrasive people were rated significantly higher on the scale than non-abrasive people (large effect size). The scale was also strongly and significantly correlated with the Narcissistic, Paranoid, Sadistic, Antisocial, and Passive-Aggressive personality disorders on the Coolidge Axis II Inventory. The results preliminarily demonstrate that abrasiveness may constitute a psychometrically reliable personality cluster, warranting further investigation.
Neuromuscular Junction Defects in Mice with Mutation of dynein heavy chain 1
Stephanie L. Courchesne,Maria F. Pazyra-Murphy,Daniel J. Lee,Rosalind A. Segal
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016753
Abstract: Disruptions in axonal transport have been implicated in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. Cramping 1 (Cra1/+) and Legs at odd angles (Loa/+) mice, with hypomorphic mutations in the dynein heavy chain 1 gene, which encodes the ATPase of the retrograde motor protein dynein, were originally reported to exhibit late onset motor neuron disease. Subsequent, conflicting reports suggested that sensory neuron disease without motor neuron loss underlies the phenotypes of Cra1/+ and Loa/+ mice. Here, we present behavioral and anatomical analyses of Cra1/+ mice. We demonstrate that Cra1/+ mice exhibit early onset, stable behavioral deficits, including abnormal hindlimb posturing and decreased grip strength. These deficits do not progress through 24 months of age. No significant loss of primary motor neurons or dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons was observed at ages where the mice exhibited clear symptomatology. Instead, there is a decrease in complexity of neuromuscular junctions. These results indicate that disruption of dynein function in Cra1/+ mice results in abnormal morphology of neuromuscular junctions. The time course of behavioral deficits, as well as the nature of the morphological defects in neuromuscular junctions, suggests that disruption of dynein function in Cra1/+ mice causes a developmental defect in synapse assembly or stabilization.
Delayed Resolution of Acute Inflammation in Ulcerative Colitis Is Associated with Elevated Cytokine Release Downstream of TLR4
Farooq Z. Rahman,Andrew M. Smith,Bu'Hussain Hayee,Daniel J. B. Marks,Stuart L. Bloom,Anthony W. Segal
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009891
Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is widely viewed as a leukocyte-mediated disorder. Although strong evidence implicates an exuberant response to microbial components in its pathogenesis, no intrinsic immune defect has been identified and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain obscure.
ZODET: Software for the Identification, Analysis and Visualisation of Outlier Genes in Microarray Expression Data
Daniel L. Roden, Gavin W. Sewell, Anna Lobley, Adam P. Levine, Andrew M. Smith, Anthony W. Segal
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081123
Abstract: Summary Complex human diseases can show significant heterogeneity between patients with the same phenotypic disorder. An outlier detection strategy was developed to identify variants at the level of gene transcription that are of potential biological and phenotypic importance. Here we describe a graphical software package (z-score outlier detection (ZODET)) that enables identification and visualisation of gross abnormalities in gene expression (outliers) in individuals, using whole genome microarray data. Mean and standard deviation of expression in a healthy control cohort is used to detect both over and under-expressed probes in individual test subjects. We compared the potential of ZODET to detect outlier genes in gene expression datasets with a previously described statistical method, gene tissue index (GTI), using a simulated expression dataset and a publicly available monocyte-derived macrophage microarray dataset. Taken together, these results support ZODET as a novel approach to identify outlier genes of potential pathogenic relevance in complex human diseases. The algorithm is implemented using R packages and Java. Availability The software is freely available from http://www.ucl.ac.uk/medicine/molecular-?medicine/publications/microarray-outlier?-analysis.
Cooling Techniques for Trapped Ions
Daniel M. Segal,Christof Wunderlich
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1142/9781783264063_0003
Abstract: This book chapter gives an introduction to, and an overview of, methods for cooling trapped ions. The main addressees are researchers entering the field. It is not intended as a comprehensive survey and historical account of the extensive literature on this topic. We present the physical ideas behind several cooling schemes, outline their mathematical description, and point to relevant literature useful for a more in-depth study of this topic.
Quantum fluctuation theorem for heat exchange in the strong coupling regime
L. Nicolin,D. Segal
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.161414
Abstract: We study quantum heat exchange in a multi-state impurity coupled to two thermal reservoirs. Allowing for strong system-bath interactions, we show that a steady-state heat exchange fluctuation theorem holds, though the dynamical processes nonlinearly involve the two reservoirs. We accomplish a closed expression for the cumulant generating function, and use it obtain the heat current and its cumulants in a nonlinear thermal junction, the two-bath spin-boson model.
Vibrational cooling, heating, and instability in molecular conducting junctions: Full counting statistics analysis
L. Simine,D. Segal
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1039/c2cp40851a
Abstract: We study current-induced vibrational cooling, heating, and instability in a donor-acceptor rectifying molecular junction using a full counting statistics approach. In our model, electron-hole pair excitations are coupled to a given molecular vibrational mode which is either harmonic or highly anharmonic. This mode may be further coupled to a dissipative thermal environment. Adopting a master equation approach, we confirm the charge and heat exchange fluctuation theorem in the steady-state limit, for both harmonic and anharmonic models. Using simple analytical expressions, we calculate the charge current and several measures for the mode effective temperature. At low bias, we observe the effect of bias-induced cooling of the vibrational mode. At higher bias, the mode effective temperature is higher than the environmental temperature, yet the junction is stable. Beyond that, once the vibrational mode (bias-induced) excitation rate overcomes its relaxation rate, instability occurs. We identify regimes of instability as a function of voltage bias and coupling to an additional phononic thermal bath. Interestingly, we observe a reentrant behavior where an unstable junction can properly behave at a high enough bias. The mechanism for this behavior is discussed.
A histone arginine methylation localizes to nucleosomes in satellite II and III DNA sequences in the human genome
Capurso Daniel,Xiong Hao,Segal Mark R
BMC Genomics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-13-630
Abstract: Background Applying supervised learning/classification techniques to epigenomic data may reveal properties that differentiate histone modifications. Previous analyses sought to classify nucleosomes containing histone H2A/H4 arginine 3 symmetric dimethylation (H2A/H4R3me2s) or H2A.Z using human CD4+ T-cell chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) data. However, these efforts only achieved modest accuracy with limited biological interpretation. Here, we investigate the impact of using appropriate data pre-processing —deduplication, normalization, and position- (peak-) finding to identify stable nucleosome positions — in conjunction with advanced classification algorithms, notably discriminatory motif feature selection and random forests. Performance assessments are based on accuracy and interpretative yield. Results We achieved dramatically improved accuracy using histone modification features (99.0%; previous attempts, 68.3%) and DNA sequence features (94.1%; previous attempts, <60%). Furthermore, the algorithms elicited interpretable features that withstand permutation testing, including: the histone modifications H4K20me3 and H3K9me3, which are components of heterochromatin; and the motif TCCATT, which is part of the consensus sequence of satellite II and III DNA. Downstream analysis demonstrates that satellite II and III DNA in the human genome is occupied by stable nucleosomes containing H2A/H4R3me2s, H4K20me3, and/or H3K9me3, but not 18 other histone methylations. These results are consistent with the recent biochemical finding that H4R3me2s provides a binding site for the DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt3a) that methylates satellite II and III DNA. Conclusions Classification algorithms applied to appropriately pre-processed ChIP-Seq data can accurately discriminate between histone modifications. Algorithms that facilitate interpretation, such as discriminatory motif feature selection, have the added potential to impart information about underlying biological mechanism.
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