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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 324887 matches for " Daniel J Diekema "
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Daptomycin exposure precedes infection and/or colonization with daptomycin non-susceptible enterococcus
Jeremy C Storm, Daniel J Diekema, Jennifer S Kroeger, Sarah J Johnson, Birgir Johannsson
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2047-2994-1-19
Abstract: The study is a retrospective case-series involving all patients with DNSE infection and/or colonization at UIHC, a 734-bed academic referral center, from June 1, 2005 to June 1, 2011.The majority of patients with DNSE colonization and/or infection had prior daptomycin exposure (15 of 25; 60%), a concomitant gastrointestinal process (19 of 25; 76%), or were immunosuppressed (21 of 25; 84%). DNSE infection was confirmed in 17 of 25 (68%) patients, including 9 patients with bacteremia. Twelve of 17 (71%) patients with DNSE infection had prior daptomycin exposure, including 7 of 9 (78%) patients with bacteremia. Compared to patients without prior daptomycin exposure, patients with prior daptomycin exposure were less likely to harbor E. faecalis (0% vs. 33%; p?=?0.019). A high proportion of patients (10 of 25; 40%) died during their hospitalizations. Most enterococcal isolates were E. faecium (86%), and were vancomycin-resistant (72%). Molecular typing revealed a diverse population of DNSE.Prior daptomycin exposure, immunosuppression, and/or a concomitant gastrointestinal process, may be associated with the development of DNSE. PFGE revealed a diverse population of DNSE, which along with both increasing numbers of DNSE detected yearly and increasing annual rates of daptomycin usage, suggests the emergence of DNSE under antimicrobial pressure.
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Strain ST398 Is Present in Midwestern U.S. Swine and Swine Workers
Tara C. Smith, Michael J. Male, Abby L. Harper, Jennifer S. Kroeger, Gregory P. Tinkler, Erin D. Moritz, Ana W. Capuano, Loreen A. Herwaldt, Daniel J. Diekema
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004258
Abstract: Background Recent research has demonstrated that many swine and swine farmers in the Netherlands and Canada are colonized with MRSA. However, no studies to date have investigated carriage of MRSA among swine and swine farmers in the United States (U.S.). Methods We sampled the nares of 299 swine and 20 workers from two different production systems in Iowa and Illinois, comprising approximately 87,000 live animals. MRSA isolates were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SmaI and EagI restriction enzymes, and by multi locus sequence typing (MLST). PCR was used to determine SCCmec type and presence of the pvl gene. Results In this pilot study, overall MRSA prevalence in swine was 49% (147/299) and 45% (9/20) in workers. The prevalence of MRSA carriage among production system A's swine varied by age, ranging from 36% (11/30) in adult swine to 100% (60/60) of animals aged 9 and 12 weeks. The prevalence among production system A's workers was 64% (9/14). MRSA was not isolated from production system B's swine or workers. Isolates examined were not typeable by PFGE when SmaI was used, but digestion with EagI revealed that the isolates were clonal and were not related to common human types in Iowa (USA100, USA300, and USA400). MLST documented that the isolates were ST398. Conclusions These results show that colonization of swine by MRSA was very common on one swine production system in the midwestern U.S., suggesting that agricultural animals could become an important reservoir for this bacterium. MRSA strain ST398 was the only strain documented on this farm. Further studies are examining carriage rates on additional farms.
Epidemiology and Outcomes of Invasive Candidiasis Due to Non-albicans Species of Candida in 2,496 Patients: Data from the Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH) Registry 2004–2008
Michael A. Pfaller, David R. Andes, Daniel J. Diekema, David L. Horn, Annette C. Reboli, Coleman Rotstein, Billy Franks, Nkechi E. Azie
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101510
Abstract: This analysis describes the epidemiology and outcomes of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans species of Candida in patients enrolled in the Prospective Antifungal Therapy Alliance (PATH Alliance) registry from 2004 to 2008. A total of 2,496 patients with non-albicans species of Candida isolates were identified. The identified species were C. glabrata (46.4%), C. parapsilosis (24.7%), C. tropicalis (13.9%), C. krusei (5.5%), C. lusitaniae (1.6%), C. dubliniensis (1.5%) and C. guilliermondii (0.4%); 111 infections involved two or more species of Candida (4.4%). Non-albicans species accounted for more than 50% of all cases of invasive candidiasis in 15 of the 24 sites (62.5%) that contributed more than one case to the survey. Among solid organ transplant recipients, patients with non-transplant surgery, and patients with solid tumors, the most prevalent non-albicans species was C. glabrata at 63.7%, 48.0%, and 53.8%, respectively. In 1,883 patients receiving antifungal therapy on day 3, fluconazole (30.5%) and echinocandins (47.5%) were the most frequently administered monotherapies. Among the 15 reported species, 90-day survival was highest for patients infected with either C. parapsilosis (70.7%) or C. lusitaniae (74.5%) and lowest for patients infected with an unknown species (46.7%) or two or more species (53.2%). In conclusion, this study expands the current knowledge of the epidemiology and outcomes of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans species of Candida in North America. The variability in species distribution in these centers underscores the importance of local epidemiology in guiding the selection of antifungal therapy.
The fractional orthogonal derivative
E. Diekema
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: This paper builds on the notion of the so-called orthogonal derivative, where an n-th order derivative is approximated by an integral involving an orthogonal polynomial of degree n. This notion was reviewed in great detail in a paper in J. Approx. Theory (2012) by the author and Koornwinder. Here an approximation of the Weyl or Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative is considered by replacing the n-th derivative by its approximation in the formula for the fractional derivative. In the case of, for instance, Jacobi polynomials an explicit formula for the kernel of this approximate fractional derivative can be given. Next we consider the fractional derivative as a filter and compute the transfer function in the continuous case for the Jacobi polynomials and in the discrete case for the Hahn polynomials. The transfer function in the Jacobi case is a confluent hypergeometric function. A different approach is discussed which starts with this explicit transfer function and then obtains the approximate fractional derivative by taking the inverse Fourier transform. The theory is finally illustrated with an application of a fractional differentiating filter. In particular, graphs are presented of the absolute value of the modulus of the transfer function. These make clear that for a good insight in the behavior of a fractional differentiating filter one has to look for the modulus of its transfer function in a log-log plot, rather than for plots in the time domain.
Pediatric Ethics Guidelines for Hereditary Medullary Thyroid Cancer
M Rosenthal, Douglas S Diekema
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/847603
Abstract: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is an uncommon type of aggressive thyroid cancer that does not respond to systemic radioactive iodine, an effective treatment for most other types of thyroid cancer. This cancer's aggressive biological behavior also diminishes the effectiveness of surgical therapy, and there is currently no standard effective chemotherapy for this cancer.The etiology of MTC is well documented in the literature; it may occur sporadically or present as part of an autosomal dominant inherited disorder. If inherited, MTC is 100% penetrant [1], although the age of onset is variable [1–5]. In 1993, germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene were found to be responsible for hereditary MTC [3], allowing genetic testing to be used as the primary tool for detecting its presence in at-risk family members. We use the term hereditary medullary thyroid cancer to discuss both familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC) and medullary thyroid cancer arising from MEN 2 syndromes (MEN 2A and MEN 2B). In the general population, MTC accounts for 5%–8% percent of all thyroid cancers [6–8] and about 15% of all thyroid cancer-related deaths [6]. However, the published statistics on this type of cancer are based on narrow studies and a small literature; the true incidence and prevalence of MTC is likely much higher than what has been reported. According to 2009 SEER data available from the National Cancer Institute, we estimate the national incidence rate of MTC to be approximately 3000 new index cases per year, with a national prevalence of roughly 35,000. Since MTC can be either inherited (familial or hereditary) or not inherited (sporadic), it is also standard of care to offer all index patients genetic testing to rule out the genetic mutation for the inherited form. If an index patient decides not to get tested, he or she may unknowingly represent a large kindred comprising dozens, or hundreds, of at-risk individuals who may eventually die from this cancer because the oppor
Generalizations of an integral for Legendre polynomials by Persson and Strang
Enno Diekema,Tom H. Koornwinder
Mathematics , 2010, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmaa.2011.12.001
Abstract: Persson and Strang (2003) evaluated the integral over [-1,1] of a squared odd degree Legendre polynomial divided by x^2 as being equal to 2. We consider a similar integral for orthogonal polynomials with respect to a general even orthogonality measure, with Gegenbauer and Hermite polynomials as explicit special cases. Next, after a quadratic transformation, we are led to the general nonsymmetric case, with Jacobi and Laguerre polynomials as explicit special cases. Examples of indefinite summation also occur in this context. The paper concludes with a generalization of the earlier results for Hahn polynomials. There some adaptations have to be made in order to arrive at relatively nice explicit evaluations.
Differentiation by integration using orthogonal polynomials, a survey
Enno Diekema,Tom H. Koornwinder
Mathematics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.jat.2012.01.003
Abstract: This survey paper discusses the history of approximation formulas for n-th order derivatives by integrals involving orthogonal polynomials. There is a large but rather disconnected corpus of literature on such formulas. We give some results in greater generality than in the literature. Notably we unify the continuous and discrete case. We make many side remarks, for instance on wavelets, Mantica's Fourier-Bessel functions and Greville's minimum R_alpha formulas in connection with discrete smoothing.
A Brief Overview of Amblyaudia  [PDF]
RaeLynn J. Lamminen, Daniel Houlihan
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.78110
Abstract: Amblyaudia, a recent subcategory of auditory processing disorder, is characterized by asymmetrical auditory processing of an individual’s ears. Amblyaudia can result in speech comprehension difficulties, reading difficulties, information processing deficits, and inattention. These difficulties can be mistakenly attributed to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Specific Learning Disorders (SLD), depression, anxiety disorders, and communication disorders. Unfortunately, traditional hearing tests do not place the two ears in competition and cannot detect asymmetry. Therefore, students who exhibit these difficulties and have normal performance on traditional hearing tests should be also evaluated for amblyaudia with dichotic listening tests. Amblyaudia can be addressed through dichotic listening tasks that strengthen the non-dominant ear, as well as minor adjustments to the classroom environment. This paper will examine the current literature on amblyaudia and provide a brief overview of the causes, diagnosis, treatments, and prognosis.
Seasonal ARIMA Modeling and Forecasting of Rainfall in Warri Town, Nigeria  [PDF]
Daniel Eni, Fola J. Adeyeye
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2015.36015
Abstract:

We obtained historical data of rainfall in Warri Town for the period 2003-2012 for the purpose of model identification and those of 2013 for forecast validation of the identified model. Model identification was by visual inspection of both the sample ACF and sample PACF to postulate many possible models and then use the model selection criterion of Residual Sum of Square (RSS), Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) complemented by the Schwartz’s Bayesian Criterion (SBC), to choose the best model. The chosen model was the Seasonal ARIMA (1, 1, 1) (0, 1, 1) process which met the criterion of model parsimony with RSS value of 81.098,773, AIC value of 281.312,35 and SBC value of 289.330,84. Model adequacy checks showed that the model was appropriate. We used the model to forecast rainfall for 2013 and the result compared very well with the observed empirical data for 2013.

Analytical Calculation of the Compton Single Scatter Component of Pencil Beam Scatter Kernel for Scatter Correction in kV Cone Beam CT (kV-CBCT)  [PDF]
Jie Liu, J. Daniel Bourland
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2018.72019
Abstract:

The accuracy of conventional superposition or convolution methods for scatter correction in kV-CBCT is usually compromised by the spatial variation of pencil-beam scatter kernel (PBSK) due to finite size, irregular external contour and heterogeneity of the imaged object. This study aims to propose an analytical method to quantify the Compton single scatter (CSS) component of the PBSK, which dominates the spatial distribution of total scatter assuming that multiple scatter can be estimated as a constant background and Rayleigh scatter is the secondary source of scatter. The CSS component of PBSK is the line integration of scatter production by incident primary photons along the beam line followed by the post-scattering attenuation as the scattered photons traverse the object. We propose to separate the object-specific attenuation term from the line integration and equivalently replace it with an average value such that the line integration of scatter production is object independent but only beam specific. We derived a quartic function formula as an approximate solution to the spatial distribution of the unattenuated CSS component of PBSK. The “effective scattering center” is introduced to calculate the average attenuation. The proposed analytical framework to calculate the CSS was evaluated using parameter settings of the On-Board Imager kV-CBCT system and was found to be in high agreement with the reference results. The proposed method shows highly increased computational efficiency compared to conventional analytical calculation methods based on point scattering model. It is also potentially useful for correcting the spatial variant PBSK in adaptive superposition method.

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