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A Lei Antimonopólio da China e o seu regime de controle de concentra??o
Dan, Wei;
Revista Direito GV , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1808-24322012000100010
Abstract: as the biggest emerging economy and a major economic power in the world, china is a late but a significant entrant into the competition law club, with the implementation of a new anti-monopoly law (aml) on 1st august, 2008. the article focuses on the merger enforcement by examining the implementing regulations and orders related to merger control which were issued after the enactment of the aml. in light of the substantive standards and the procedural requirements of merger control, the article makes a comparison between chinese regime and the u.s. and eu's standards. some empirical findings on the aml and its merger enforcement has largely illustrated that china is making its efforts to realize a soft convergence with international norms, meanwhile, the gradual approach of convergence gives china the flexibility to stop, to adjust and to make an exception whenever necessary.
Common Development Strategies for Asian and Latin American Developing Countries from a Foreign Trade Perspective
Wei Dan
Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology , 2009,
Abstract: The biggest developing countries in the world in terms of territory size, population and GDP are located in the continents of Asia and Latin America. In these regions, there are also the most emerging-market economies with great potential for sustaining high growth rates in the coming decades (so called the BRICs) like China, India and Brazil. Since the last quarter of the nineteenth century to the present, the major developing countries in Asia and in Latin America, such as China, India, Brazil, Argentina, Chile and Mexico, etc have gone through various stages of development. paper makes an analysis of globalization’s influences, the strengths and weaknesses of the system of WTO, participation of Asian and Latin American developing countries in the negotiations of Doha Round, development strategies to be adopted by these economies and also some important implications for building new balance in international agenda of 21st century.
Testing The Light Dark Matter Hypothesis With AMS
Hooper, Dan;Xue, Wei
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2013,
Abstract: The spectrum and morphology of gamma-rays from the Galactic Center and the spectrum of synchrotron emission observed from the Milky Way's radio filaments have each been interpreted as possible signals of $\sim$7-10 GeV dark matter particles annihilating in the Inner Galaxy. In dark matter models capable of producing these signals, the annihilations should also generate significant fluxes of $\sim$7-10 GeV positrons which can lead to a distinctive bump-like feature in local cosmic ray positron spectrum. In this letter, we show that while such a feature would be difficult to detect with PAMELA, it would likely be identifiable by the currently operating AMS experiment. As no known astrophysical sources or mechanisms are likely to produce such a sharp feature, the observation of a positron bump at around 7-10 GeV would significantly strengthen the case for a dark matter interpretation of the reported gamma-ray and radio anomalies.
Rethinking of Some Issues Regarding Ethnic Tourismunder Modern Linguistic Environment
Wei LI,Dan LIU
International Business and Management , 2010,
Abstract: The issue of ethnic tourism presently has officially entered the vision as well as the linguistic environment of the authoritative tourism research institutes in China. Regardless of plentiful highlighted unsatisfactory issues in ethnic tourism development, overall however appropriately developed and effectively controlled ethnic tourism will be beneficial to the protection of traditional cultures. The paper believes ethnic tourism should be recognized and it is neither considerate nor objective to totally repudiate ethnic tourism positive effects in ethnic regions simply because of some issues occurred. This paper proposes author’s own views countering some important issues in ethnic tourism studies. Key word: ethnic tourism; authenticity; positive effect
Testing The Light Dark Matter Hypothesis With AMS
Dan Hooper,Wei Xue
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.041302
Abstract: The spectrum and morphology of gamma-rays from the Galactic Center and the spectrum of synchrotron emission observed from the Milky Way's radio filaments have each been interpreted as possible signals of $\sim$7-10 GeV dark matter particles annihilating in the Inner Galaxy. In dark matter models capable of producing these signals, the annihilations should also generate significant fluxes of $\sim$7-10 GeV positrons which can lead to a distinctive bump-like feature in local cosmic ray positron spectrum. In this letter, we show that while such a feature would be difficult to detect with PAMELA, it would likely be identifiable by the currently operating AMS experiment. As no known astrophysical sources or mechanisms are likely to produce such a sharp feature, the observation of a positron bump at around 7-10 GeV would significantly strengthen the case for a dark matter interpretation of the reported gamma-ray and radio anomalies.
Particle Filtering Optimized by Swarm Intelligence Algorithm  [PDF]
Wei Jing, Hai Zhao, Chunhe Song, Dan Liu
Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications (JILSA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jilsa.2010.21007
Abstract: A new filtering algorithm — PSO-UPF was proposed for nonlinear dynamic systems. Basing on the concept of re-sampling, particles with bigger weights should be re-sampled more time, and in the PSO-UPF, after calculating the weight of particles, some particles will join in the refining process, which means that these particles will move to the region with higher weights. This process can be regarded as one-step predefined PSO process, so the proposed algo-rithm is named PSO-UPF. Although the PSO process increases the computing load of PSO-UPF, but the refined weights may make the proposed distribution more closed to the poster distribution. The proposed PSO-UPF algorithm was compared with other several filtering algorithms and the simulating results show that means and variances of PSO-UPF are lower than other filtering algorithms.
ADPF Algorithm for Target Tracking in WSN  [PDF]
Chunhe Song, Hai Zhao, Wei Jing, Dan Liu
Communications and Network (CN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2010.21007
Abstract: Particle filtering (PF) has been widely used in solving nonlinear/non Gaussian filtering problems. Inferring to the target tracking in a wireless sensor network (WSN), distributed PF (DPF) was used due to the limitation of nodes’ computing capacity. In this paper, a novel filtering method—asynchronous DPF (ADPF) for target tracking in WSN is proposed. There are two keys in the proposed algorithm. Firstly, instead of transferring value and weight of particles, Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is used to approximate the posteriori distribution, and only GMM parameters need to be transferred which can reduce the bandwidth and power consumption. Secondly, in order to use sampling information effectively, when target moving to the next cluster head region, the GMM parameters are transfer to the next cluster head, and combine with the new local GMM parameters to compose the new GMM parameters incrementally. The ADPF can also deal with the situation of different number of nodes in different cluster when using the dynamic cluster structure. The proposed ADPF is compared to some other DPF for WSN target tracking, and the experimental results show that not only the precision is improved, but also the bandwidth and power is reduced.
Statistical Machine Translation by Generalized Parsing
I. Dan Melamed,Wei Wang
Computer Science , 2004,
Abstract: Designers of statistical machine translation (SMT) systems have begun to employ tree-structured translation models. Systems involving tree-structured translation models tend to be complex. This article aims to reduce the conceptual complexity of such systems, in order to make them easier to design, implement, debug, use, study, understand, explain, modify, and improve. In service of this goal, the article extends the theory of semiring parsing to arrive at a novel abstract parsing algorithm with five functional parameters: a logic, a grammar, a semiring, a search strategy, and a termination condition. The article then shows that all the common algorithms that revolve around tree-structured translation models, including hierarchical alignment, inference for parameter estimation, translation, and structured evaluation, can be derived by generalizing two of these parameters -- the grammar and the logic. The article culminates with a recipe for using such generalized parsers to train, apply, and evaluate an SMT system that is driven by tree-structured translation models.
Enrichment of Phosphate on Ferrous Iron Phases during Bio-Reduction of Ferrihydrite  [PDF]
Qingman Li, Xingxiang Wang, Dan Kan, Rebecca Bartlett, Gilles Pinay, Yu Ding, Wei Ma
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2012.32033
Abstract: The reduction of less stable ferric hydroxides and formation of ferrous phases is critical for the fate of phosphorus in anaerobic soils and sediments. The interaction between ferrous iron and phosphate was investigated experimentally during the reduction of synthetic ferrihydrite with natural organic materials as carbon source. Ferrihydrite was readily reduced by dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB) with between 52% and 73% Fe(III) converted to Fe(II) after 31 days, higher than without DIRB. Formation of ferrous phases was linearly coupled to almost complete removal of both aqueous and exchangeable phosphate. Simple model calculations based on the incubation data suggested ferrous phases bound phosphate with a molar ratio of Fe(II):P between 1.14 - 2.25 or a capacity of 246 - 485 mg·P·g-1 Fe(II). XRD analysis indicated that the ratio of Fe(II): P was responsible for the precipitation of vivianite (Fe3(PO4)2·8H2O), a dominant Fe(II) phosphate mineral in incubation systems. When the ratio of Fe(II):P was more than 1.5, the precipitation of Fe(II) phosphate was soundly crystallized to vivianite. Thus, reduction of ferric iron provides a mechanism for the further removal of available phosphate via the production of ferrous phases, with anaerobic soils and sediments potentially exhibiting a higher capacity to bind phosphate than some aerobic systems.
FISST Based Method for Multi-Target Tracking in the Image Plane of Optical Sensors
Yang Xu,Hui Xu,Wei An,Dan Xu
Sensors , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/s120302920
Abstract: A finite set statistics (FISST)-based method is proposed for multi-target tracking in the image plane of optical sensors. The method involves using signal amplitude information in probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter which is derived from FISST to improve multi-target tracking performance. The amplitude of signals generated by the optical sensor is modeled first, from which the amplitude likelihood ratio between target and clutter is derived. An alternative approach is adopted for the situations where the signal noise ratio (SNR) of target is unknown. Then the PHD recursion equations incorporated with signal information are derived and the Gaussian mixture (GM) implementation of this filter is given. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves significantly better performance than the generic PHD filter. Moreover, our method has much lower computational complexity in the scenario with high SNR and dense clutter.
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