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The extent of population genetic subdivision differs among four co-distributed shark species in the Indo-Australian archipelago
Jenny R Ovenden, Tom Kashiwagi, Damien Broderick, Jenny Giles, John Salini
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-9-40
Abstract: Populations of four commercially harvested shark species (Carcharhinus obscurus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Prionace glauca, Sphyrna lewini) were sampled from northern Australia and central Indonesia. Neutral genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA control region sequence and allelic variation at co-dominant microsatellite loci) revealed genetic subdivision between Australian and Indonesian populations of C. sorrah. Further research is needed to address the possibility of genetic subdivision among C. obscurus populations. There was no evidence of genetic subdivision for P. glauca and S. lewini populations, but the sampling represented a relatively small part of their distributional range. For these species, more detailed analyses of population genetic structure is recommended in the future.Cooperative management between Australia and Indonesia is the best option at present for P. glauca and S. lewini, while C. sorrah and C. obscurus should be managed independently. On-going research on these and other exploited shark and ray species is strongly recommended. Biological and ecological similarity between species may not be a predictor of population genetic structure, so species-specific studies are recommended to provide new data to assist with sustainable fisheries management.The Indo-Australian archipelago is a biogeograhically complex region encompassing a series of continental shelves, volcanic mountainous islands and deep-sea trenches. The Indonesian section straddles the equator and extends about 5000 km from east to west. It has the world's highest marine endemism; including most the diverse sea-grass meadows, greatest expanses of mangroves and most extensive coral reef communities [1]. The Australian section is dominated by an extensive continental shelf extending offshore from three Australian state jurisdictions; Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia. As the world's fourth most populous nation, Indonesia has a high demand for food from the sea. The landed
Potassium and Manganese Fertilization and the Effects on Millet Seed Yield, Seed Quality, and Forage Potential of Residual Stalks  [PDF]
Maru Kipleting Kering, Cyril Broderick
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/as.2018.97061
Abstract: Millets are important natural grain source for wild and game birds and the domesticated varieties are good sources of grain for human and livestock nutrition as well as summer forage. Unlike sorghum, millet seed has less anti-nutrient factors and is a better choice for animal feed formulations. Pearl millet is an example of such millets and has both forage- and grain-type varieties. However, opportunities exist for dual use of millet for grain and residue for forage. In this study two millets: Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. (Pearl millet var. TifGrain 102) and Panicum ramosum (L.) (Browntop millet) were evaluated for their response to potassium (K) and manganese (Mn) fertilizer. The experiment was a randomized complete block with treatments in a split-split arrangement. Potassium and Mn were supplied as K fertilizer (0-0-60) and manganese sulfate (MnSO4·2H2O), respectively. Potassium and Mn fertilizer rates and their interaction with each other and variety had no effect on determined parameters. TifGrain 102 grain yield averaged at 5900 kg·ha-1 was significantly greater than 4680 kg·ha-1 obtained for Browntop millet. While grain oil contents were similar, Browntop grain had greater contents of crude proteins. And except for K, Browntop seed had greater contents of all determined macro-and micronutrients. Residual stalks of Browntop had greater forage crude protein, total digestible nutrient (TDN) and lower acid detergent fiber (ADF). Browntop residual material had greater quantities of estimated net energy for growth (NEG), lactation (NEL), maintenance (NME). While TifGrain 102 residual stalks had greater contents of P and K, it had significantly lower contents of Ca, Mg and S compared to Browntop. Overall, while these two millets have shown good potential for dual use, Browntop may offer a better choice for high quality seed and residual stalks for forage.
Bipolar Lawson tau-surfaces and generalized Lawson tau-surfaces
Broderick Causley
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: Recently Penskoi generalized the well known two-parametric family of Lawson tau-surfaces $\tau_{r,m}$ minimally immersed in spheres to a three-parametric family $T_{a,b,c}$ of tori and Klein bottles minimally immersed in spheres. It was remarked that this family includes surfaces carrying all extremal metrics for the first non-trivial eigenvalue of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on the torus and on the Klein bottle: the Clifford torus, the equilateral torus and surprisingly the bipolar Lawson Klein bottle $\tilde{\tau}_{3,1}.$ In the present paper we show in Theorem 2 that this three-parametric family $T_{a,b,c}$ includes in fact all bipolar Lawson tau-surfaces $\tilde{\tau}_{r,m}.$ In Theorem 3 we show that no metric on $T_{a,b,c}$ is maximal except for $\tilde{\tau}_{3,1}$ and the equilateral torus.
Finite orbits in random subshifts of finite type
Ryan Broderick
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: For each $n, d \in \mathbb{N}$ and $0 < \alpha < 1$, we define a random subset of $\mathcal{A}^{\{1, 2, \dots, n\}^d}$ by independently including each element with probability $\alpha$ and excluding it with probability $1-\alpha$, and consider the associated random subshift of finite type. Extending results of McGoff and of McGoff and Pavlov, we prove there exists $\alpha_0 = \alpha(d, |\mathcal{A}|) > 0$ such that for $\alpha < \alpha_0$ and with probability tending to $1$ as $n \to \infty$, this random subshift will contain only finitely many elements. In the case $d = 1$, we obtain the best possible such $\alpha_0$, $1/|\mathcal{A}|$.
The Scientist as an Advocate: When and When Not  [PDF]
Michael J. Wade, Urs Broderick Furrer
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.95030
Abstract: As most of us fundamentally know, there are times a scientist should and should not act as an advocate. As an individual, advocating for environmental preservation is almost required as a member of the world’s scholarly scientific community. However, when that same scientist is asked to offer opinion testimony as an expert witness within the parameters of a lawsuit filed within their particular legal system, there is no room for advocacy. Because it appears that the line an expert scientist must not cross is becoming ever more blurred, we intend to discuss when a scientist should and should not act as an advocate and the reasons that the line between advocate and impartial expert exists. In a legal setting such as a trial or an arbitration hearing, scientists are required to be qualified as an “expert” on the technical subject being considered by the trier of fact before rendering any opinions. Indeed, scientists, unlike all other witnesses, are permitted to present opinions regarding otherwise admissible evidence after being accepted by the Judge as a qualified expert in the field to which he or she intends to testify. However, while the scientist is permitted to present his or her opinions, the scientist is not permitted to advocate for a position or for their interpretation of the evidence presented in a courtroom trial or an arbitration hearing. Rather, those roles are reserved for the parties’ attorneys. Rather, it is the role of the scientist to solely offer opinions with respect to the evidence or facts which are the subject of the dispute. In doing so, the scientist is expected to act as disinterested scholar or teacher faithfully interpreting the data whatever it may reveal. In the eyes of established legal systems, such as the United States (U.S.) or United Kingdom (U.K.), were a scientist to attempt to become an advocate, rather than a scholar and teacher, that scientist’s opinions would no longer be based on fact but, rather, the interests of his or her client, thus damaging the scientist’s credibility. In doing so, the expert could potentially cause irreparable harm to his or her client’s case and his or her reputation.
Free Anterolateral Thigh Perforator Flap for Head and Neck Cancer Resection in a Nonagenarian  [PDF]
Frank Lin, Damien Grinsell
Modern Plastic Surgery (MPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/mps.2012.21001
Abstract: With an aging population, free flap reconstruction for head and neck cancer ablation in the elderly is becoming more commonplace. In nonagenarians, however, such major operations are still rarely offered due to its physiological demands. We report the first case of successful resection and reconstruction of head and neck cancer with a free perforator flap in a 96 year old patient. We feel that with careful patient and flap selection, careful preoperative workup and close collaboration between treating teams, age alone should not preclude patients from receiving the best possible curative treatment and reconstruction in head and neck cancers. Even in nonagenarians, perforator free flaps, such as the anterolateral thigh flap, can be used safely to achieve good functional and aesthetic outcomes.
An Inquiry into the Effectiveness of Student Generated MCQs as a Method of Assessment to Improve Teaching and Learning  [PDF]
Damien Hutchinson, Jason Wells
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.47A2014

In anticipation of helping students mature from passive to more active learners while engaging with the issues and concepts surrounding computer security, a student generated Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) learning strategy was designed and deployed as a replacement for an assessment task that was previously based on students providing solutions to a series of short-answer questions. To determine whether there was any educational value in students generating their own MCQs students were required to design MCQs. Prior to undertaking this assessment activity each participant completed a pre-test which consisted of 45 MCQs based on the topics of the assessment. Following the assessment activity the participants completed a post-test which consisted of the same MCQs as the pre-test. The pre and post test results as well as the post test and assessment activity results were tested for statistical significance. The results indicated that having students generate their own MCQs as a method of assessment did not have a negative effect on the learning experience. By providing a framework to the students based on the literature to support their engagement with the learning material, we believe the creation of well-structured MCQs resulted in a more advanced understanding of the relationships between the concepts of the learning material as compared with plainly answering a series of short-answer questions from a textbook. Further study is required to determine to what degree this learning strategy encouraged a deeper approach to learning.

What Is the Natural Weight of the Current Old?  [PDF]
Damien Gaumont, Daniel Leonard
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.35043
Abstract: We consider a simple overlapping generations model with an externality à la Arrow-Romer [1,2] and a government with fiscal powers. If it wishes to maximize a criterion depending on the lifelong utility of agents, is there a natural weight for the utility of the current old? We show in a simple example that this weight depends on the specific features of the model, in particular the length of the horizon, and cannot be chosen arbitrarily. Our result has a neat economic interpretation [2].
On stochastic comparisons of energy functions with applications
Broderick O. Oluyede
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2001, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171201006883
Abstract: We develop simple methods for the stochastic comparisons of informational energy functions. We introduce modified informational energy functions and uncertainty of parameter functions are introduced for models with realistic parameterspaces. We present inequalities, comparisons, and applications including test procedures for testing the equality of informational energy functions. Some illustrative examples are also presented.
Recognizing Chordal Graphs: Lex BFS and MCS1
Broderick Arneson, Piotr Rudnicki
Formalized Mathematics , 2006, DOI: 10.2478/v10037-006-0022-z
Abstract: We are formalizing the algorithm for recognizing chordal graphs by lexicographic breadth-first search as presented in [13, Section 3 of Chapter 4, pp. 81-84]. Then we follow with a formalization of another algorithm serving the same end but based on maximum cardinality search as presented by Tarjan and Yannakakis [25]. This work is a part of the MSc work of the first author under supervision of the second author. We would like to thank one of the anonymous reviewers for very useful suggestions.
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