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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401289 matches for " Dallas M. Swallow "
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A worldwide correlation of lactase persistence phenotype and genotypes
Yuval Itan, Bryony L Jones, Catherine JE Ingram, Dallas M Swallow, Mark G Thomas
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-36
Abstract: We used surface interpolation of Old World lactase persistence genotype and phenotype frequency estimates obtained from all available literature and perform a comparison between predicted and observed trait frequencies in continuous space. By accommodating additional data on sample numbers and known false negative and false positive rates for the various lactase persistence phenotype tests (blood glucose and breath hydrogen), we also apply a Monte Carlo method to estimate the probability that known lactase persistence-associated allele frequencies can explain observed trait frequencies in different regions.Lactase persistence genotype data is currently insufficient to explain lactase persistence phenotype frequency in much of western and southern Africa, southeastern Europe, the Middle East and parts of central and southern Asia. We suggest that further studies of genetic variation in these regions should reveal additional nucleotide variants that are associated with lactase persistence.An estimated 65% of human adults (and most adult mammals) downregulate the production of intestinal lactase after weaning. Lactase is necessary for the digestion of lactose, the main carbohydrate in milk [1], and without it, milk consumption can lead to bloating, flatulence, cramps and nausea [2]. Continued production of lactase throughout adult life (lactase persistence, LP) is a genetically determined trait and is found at moderate to high frequencies in Europeans and some African, Middle Eastern and Southern Asian populations (see Additional File 1 and Figure 1).The most frequently used non-invasive methods for identifying the presence of intestinal lactase are based upon detecting digestion products of lactose produced by the subject (Blood Glucose, BG) or gut bacteria (Breath Hydrogen, BH). For both methods a lactose load is administered to the subject following an overnight fast. In individuals producing lactase this leads to a detectable increase in blood glucose. In individua
Mucin Variable Number Tandem Repeat Polymorphisms and Severity of Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease: Significant Association with MUC5AC
XueLiang Guo, Rhonda G. Pace, Jaclyn R. Stonebraker, Clayton W. Commander, Anthony T. Dang, Mitchell L. Drumm, Ann Harris, Fei Zou, Dallas M. Swallow, Fred A. Wright, Wanda K. O'Neal, Michael R. Knowles
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025452
Abstract: Variability in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is partially due to non-CFTR genetic modifiers. Mucin genes are very polymorphic, and mucins play a key role in the pathogenesis of CF lung disease; therefore, mucin genes are strong candidates as genetic modifiers. DNA from CF patients recruited for extremes of lung phenotype was analyzed by Southern blot or PCR to define variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) length polymorphisms for MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC7. VNTR length polymorphisms were tested for association with lung disease severity and for linkage disequilibrium (LD) with flanking single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). No strong associations were found for MUC1, MUC2, or MUC7. A significant association was found between the overall distribution of MUC5AC VNTR length and CF lung disease severity (p = 0.025; n = 468 patients); plus, there was robust association of the specific 6.4 kb HinfI VNTR fragment with severity of lung disease (p = 6.2×10?4 after Bonferroni correction). There was strong LD between MUC5AC VNTR length modes and flanking SNPs. The severity-associated 6.4 kb VNTR allele of MUC5AC was confirmed to be genetically distinct from the 6.3 kb allele, as it showed significantly stronger association with nearby SNPs. These data provide detailed respiratory mucin gene VNTR allele distributions in CF patients. Our data also show a novel link between the MUC5AC 6.4 kb VNTR allele and severity of CF lung disease. The LD pattern with surrounding SNPs suggests that the 6.4 kb allele contains, or is linked to, important functional genetic variation.
First-principles calculation of H vibrational excitations at a dislocation core of Pd
Hadley M. Lawler,Dallas R. Trinkle
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.82.172101
Abstract: Palladium is an ideal system for understanding the behavior of hydrogen in metals. In Pd, H is located both in octahedral sites and in dislocation cores, which act as nanoscale H traps and form Cottrell atmospheres. Adjacent to a dislocation core, H experiences the largest possible distortion in alpha-Pd. Ab initio density-functional theory computes the potential energy for a hydrogen in an octahedral site in alpha-Pd and in a trap site at the core of a partial of an edge dislocation. The Pd partial dislocation core changes the environment for H, distorting the H-Pd bonding which changes the local potential, vibrational spectra, and inelastic form factor for an isolated H atom. The decrease in excitation energy is consistent with experiments, and the calculations predict distortions to the H wavefunction.
Concentration of Rutin Model Solutions from Their Mixtures with Glucose Using Ultrafiltration
Swallow Wei,Md. M. Hossain,Zaid S. Saleh
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijms11020672
Abstract: Separation of polyphenolic phytochemical compounds from their mixtures with sugars is necessary to produce an added-value sugar-reduced extract with high biological activity from fruit juice processing industry waste streams. The separation characteristics of a binary mixture of rutin and glucose using a Pellicon-2 regenerated cellulose ultrafiltration membrane with an area of 0.1 m 2 having nominal MWCO of 1,000 Da were investigated, to demonstrate the separation of phenolic compounds from sugars. The effects of the operating variables–transmembrane pressure, feed solution temperature and pH, initial feed concentration and feed flow rate–on the permeate flux and enrichment of rutin, were determined. The permeate flux increased with the increase in transmembrane pressure up to a certain limit and after that the flux remained more or less constant. The optimum transmembrane pressure was within 4–5 bar. The flux increased with the increase in feed solution temperature because of reduced feed viscosity, and better solubility. The concentration of rutin was optimum at lower temperature (30oC), with an enrichment factor of 1.3. The effect of pH on permeate flux was less obvious. Lowering the feed solution pH increased the retention of rutin and the optimum separation was obtained within pH 3–4. The permeate flux decreased with the increase in feed concentration of rutin (concentration range 0.1–0.5 g/L). The enrichment of rutin was significant in the glucose concentration range 0.35–0.5 g/L. The feed flow rate had a significant effect on the flux and separation characteristics. Higher cross-flow through the membrane reduced the fouling by providing a shear force to sweep away deposited materials from the membrane surface. At high feed flow rate, more rutin was retained by the membrane with less sugar permeating through. The optimum feed flow rate was 1.5 L/min. For the separation of rutin (in the retentate) and glucose (in the permeate), the best results were obtained at rutin enrichment of 2.9 and recovery 72.5%, respectively. The performance of this system was further improved by operating it in a diafiltration mode, in which only approx. 11% of glucose remained in the retentate.
The Conditions for Functional Mechanisms of Compensation and Reward for Environmental Services
Brent M. Swallow,Beria Leimona,Thomas Yatich,Sandra J. Velarde
Ecology and Society , 2010,
Abstract: Mechanisms of compensation and reward for environmental services (CRES) are becoming increasingly contemplated as means for managing human–environment interactions. Most of the functional mechanisms in the tropics have been developed within the last 15 years; many developing countries still have had little experience with functional mechanisms. We consider the conditions that foster the origin and implementation of functional mechanisms. Deductive and inductive approaches are combined. Eight hypotheses are derived from theories of institution and policy change. Five case studies, from Latin America, Africa, and Asia, are then reviewed according to a common framework. The results suggest the following to be important conditions for functional CRES mechanisms: (1) localized scarcity for particular environmental services, (2) influence from international environmental agreements and international organizations, (3) government policies and public attitudes favoring a mixture of regulatory and market-based instruments, and (4) security of individual and group property rights.
Comparative Pharmacology of Cholecystokinin Induced Activation of Cultured Vagal Afferent Neurons from Rats and Mice
Dallas C. Kinch, James H. Peters, Steven M. Simasko
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034755
Abstract: Cholecystokinin (CCK) facilitates the process of satiation via activation of vagal afferent neurons innervating the upper gastrointestinal tract. Recent findings indicate CCK acts on these neurons via a ruthenium red (RuR) sensitive pathway that involves members of the vanilloid (V) subfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. To further test this mechanism, the mouse provides an ideal model in which genetic tools could be applied. However, whether CCK acts by similar mechanism(s) in mice has not been determined. In the present study we explored the actions of CCK on nodose neurons isolated from Sprague Dawley (SD) rat and two strains of mice; C57BL/6 and BalbC using fluorescence-based calcium imaging. With minor exceptions nodose neurons isolated from all species/strains behaved similarly. They all respond to brief depolarization with a large calcium transient. A significant subset of neurons responded to capsaicin (CAP), a TRPV1 agonist, although neurons from C57BL/6 were 10-fold more sensitive to CAP than SD rats or BalbC mice, and a significantly smaller fraction of neurons from BalbC mice responded to CAP. CCK-8 dose-dependently activated a subpopulation of neurons with similar dose dependency, percent responders, and overlap between CCK and CAP responsiveness. In all species/strains CCK-8 induced activation was significantly attenuated (but not completely blocked) by pretreatment with the TRPV channel blocker RuR. Surprisingly, the CCK analogue JMV-180, which is reported to have pure antagonistic properties in rat but mixed agonist/antagonist properties in mice, behaved as a pure antagonist to CCK in both rat and mouse neurons. The pure antagonistic action of JMV-180 in this in vitro preparation suggests that prior reported differential effects of JMV-180 on satiation in rats versus mouse must be mediated by a site other than vagal afferent activation.
Relativistic electrons on a rotating spherical magnetic dipole: surface orbitals
James M. Gelb,Kaundinya S. Gopinath,Dallas C. Kennedy
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1142/S0218271899000195
Abstract: The semiclassical orbitals of a relativistic electron on a rotating sphere threaded by an intense magnetic dipole field are examined. Several physically distinct regimes emerge, depending on the relative sizes of the mass, total energy, canonical azimuthal angular momentum, and magnetic field strength. Magnetic flux enclosed by orbits is quantized very close to the poles, suggesting a quantum Hall-like state. Application of this system to neutron star surfaces is outlined. The semiclassical orbitals of a relativistic electron on a rotating sphere threaded by an intense magnetic dipole field are examined. Several physically distinct regimes emerge, depending on the relative sizes of the mass, total energy, canonical azimuthal angular momentum, and magnetic field strength. Magnetic flux enclosed by orbits is quantized very close to the poles, suggesting a quantum Hall-like state. Application of this system to neutron star surfaces is outlined.
Relativistic charged particle in the dipole-sphere configuration. II. General tilted surface orbits
Kaundinya S. Gopinath,Dallas C. Kennedy,James M. Gelb
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: The original version of this paper has been withdrawn by the authors and merged with the revised version of astro-ph/9702014.
Relativistic electrons in a rotating spherical magnetic dipole: localized three-dimensional states
James M. Gelb,Kaundinya S. Gopinath,Dallas C. Kennedy
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1142/S0218271899000201
Abstract: Paralleling a previous paper, we examine single- and many-body states of relativistic electrons in an intense, rotating magnetic dipole field. Single-body orbitals are derived semiclassically and then applied to the many-body case via the Thomas-Fermi approximation. The many-body case is reminiscent of the quantum Hall state. Electrons in a realistic neutron star crust are considered with both fixed density profiles and constant Fermi energy. In the first case, applicable to young neutron star crusts, the varying magnetic field and relativistic Coriolis correction lead to a varying Fermi energy and macroscopic currents. In the second, relevant to older crusts, the electron density is redistributed by the magnetic field.
Energy density in density functional theory: Application to crystalline defects and surfaces
Min Yu,Dallas R. Trinkle,Richard M. Martin
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.83.115113
Abstract: We propose a method to decompose the total energy of a supercell containing defects into contributions of individual atoms, using the energy density formalism within density functional theory. The spatial energy density is unique up to a gauge transformation, and we show that unique atomic energies can be calculated by integrating over Bader and charge-neutral volumes for each atom. Numerically, we implement the energy density method in the framework of the Vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP) for both norm-conserving and ultrasoft pseudopotentials and the projector augmented wave method, and use a weighted integration algorithm to integrate the volumes. The surface energies and point defect energies can be calculated by integrating the energy density over the surface region and the defect region, respectively. We compute energies for several surfaces and defects: the (110) surface energy of GaAs, the mono-vacancy formation energies of Si, the (100) surface energy of Au, and the interstitial formation energy of O in the hexagonal close-packed Ti crystal. The surface and defect energies calculated using our method agree with size-converged calculations of the difference between the total energies of the system with and without the defect. Moreover, the convergence of the defect energies with size can be found from a single calculation.
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