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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 324753 matches for " Dale J. Hu "
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Hepatitis E: Epidemiology and prevention
Eyasu H Teshale,Dale J Hu
World Journal of Hepatology , 2011, DOI: 10.4254/wjh.v3.i12.285
Abstract: Hepatitis E is caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), the major etiologic agent of enterically transmitted non-A hepatitis worldwide. HEV is responsible for major outbreaks of acute hepatitis in developing countries, especially in many parts of Africa and Asia. The HEV is a spherical, non-enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus that is approximately 32 nm to 34 nm in diameter and is the only member in the family Hepeviridae and genus Hepevirus. There are four distinct genotypes of HEV (genotypes 1-4). While genotype 1 is predominantly associated with large epidemics in developing countries, genotype 3 has recently emerged as a significant pathogen in developed countries. The clinical manifestations and the laboratory abnormalities of hepatitis E are not distinguishable from that caused by other hepatitis viruses. However, high mortality among pregnant women particularly during the third trimester distinguishes HEV from other causes of acute viral hepatitis. Specific etiologic diagnosis among infected cases can be made by serological testing or detection of viral nucleic acid by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Although there are vaccine candidates that had been shown to be safe and efficacious in clinical trials, none are approved currently for use. There is no specific therapy for acute hepatitis E as treatment remains supportive.
The Increasing Burden of Imported Chronic Hepatitis B — United States, 1974–2008
Tarissa Mitchell, Gregory L. Armstrong, Dale J. Hu, Annemarie Wasley, John A. Painter
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027717
Abstract: Background Without intervention, up to 25% of individuals chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) die of late complications, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. The United States, which in 1991 implemented a strategy to eliminate HBV transmission through universal immunization, is a country of low prevalence. Approximately 3,000–5,000 U.S.-acquired cases of chronic hepatitis B have occurred annually since 2001. Many more chronically infected persons migrate to the United States yearly from countries of higher prevalence. Although early identification of chronic HBV infection can reduce the likelihood of transmission and late complications, immigrants are not routinely screened for HBV infection during or after immigration. Methods To estimate the number of imported cases of chronic hepatitis B, we multiplied country-specific prevalence estimates by the yearly number of immigrants from each country during 1974–2008. Results During 1974–2008, 27.9 million immigrants entered the U.S. Sixty-three percent were born in countries of intermediate or high chronic hepatitis B prevalence (range 2%–31%). On average, an estimated 53,800 chronic hepatitis B cases were imported to the U.S. yearly from 2004 through 2008. The Philippines, China, and Vietnam contributed the most imported cases (13.4%, 12.5%, and 11.0%, respectively). Imported cases increased from an estimated low of 105,750 during the period 1974–1977 to a high of 268,800 in 2004–2008. Conclusions Imported chronic hepatitis B cases account for approximately 95% of new U.S. cases. Earlier case identification and management of infected immigrants would strengthen the U.S. strategy to eliminate HBV transmission, and could delay disease progression and prevent some deaths among new Americans.
Artificial diets for rearing the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata
Dale B. Gelman,Robert A. Bell,Lynda J. Liska,Jing S. Hu
Journal of Insect Science , 2001,
Abstract: Colorado potato beetles have been reared successfully through 12 generations on artificial diets containing either 2.5% potato leaf powder or 2.5% lettuce leaf powder/0.75% potato leaf powder. For all but one of the treatment groups, the mean duration of each of the four larval stages was between 0.8 and 1.5 days longer than the durations exhibited by control beetles that had been fed on potato leaves. Maximum weights of prepupae, newly emerged adults and day 5 - 9 adults were approximately 78, 80 and 82%, respectively, of the weights for comparable stages of control beetles. Mean percent mortality for 1st instars was two to six times higher for artificial diet-fed CPBs than for leaf-fed beetles. However, since pupal mortality was four times higher for control beetles than for beetles reared on artificial diet, mean percent total mortality (newly hatched through the 9 day old adult) was equivalent for leaf-fed beetles and for later generations of potato and Lettuce+Potato diet-fed CPBs. Hemolymph ecdysteroid levels and fluctuations in mature 4th instar larvae and prepupae were similar in controls and experimental groups. Number of hatchlings produced per adult pair per day (fertility) was approximately eight times greater in control beetles than in later generations of artificial diet-fed beetles, primarily because fewer egg masses were laid per day, percent hatch was lower and cannibalism of eggs was higher in these latter groups. Interestingly, the mean percent hatch, although only 68% of the control value, was 1.5 times greater for beetles reared on diet containing lettuce-leaf powder, and a small percentage of potato leaf powder, than on diet containing only potato leaf powder. Percent hatch was equal for beetles fed on diet containing only lettuce-leaf powder and those fed on potato leaves.
Reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in rats following 7-day oral supplementation with a proprietary eggshell membrane-derived product  [PDF]
Kevin J. Ruff, Dale P. DeVore
Modern Research in Inflammation (MRI) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/mri.2014.31003
Abstract: NEM® brand eggshell membrane is a novel dietary supplement that has been clinically shown to alleviate arthritis joint pain and stiffness; however the mechanism of action is not well understood. Preliminary evidence from an in vitro study of NEM® indicated that the mechanism of action may be based on the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In vivo studies were therefore initiated to evaluate the effects of NEM® on pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines following oral administration in rats. NEM® was administered daily at doses of 6.13 mg/kg bw/day (Study 1), 10.0 mg/kg bw/day (Study 2), or at doses of 0 (control), 26.0 or 52.0 mg/kg bw/day (Study 3) by oral gavage for 7 consecutive days. Inflammation was induced in the Study 3 rats by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide. Changes in plasma cytokine levels from baseline following 7 days of oral supplementation with NEM® at 6.13 mg/kg bw/ day (Study 1) were statistically significant at Day 8 for IL-2, TIMP-1 and VEGF, at Day 21 for IL-10, and at Day 35 for MCP-1, MCP-3 and TIMP-1, and at 10.0 mg/kg
Assessment of BED HIV-1 Incidence Assay in Seroconverter Cohorts: Effect of Individuals with Long-Term Infection and Importance of Stable Incidence
Janet M. McNicholl,J. Steven McDougal,Punneeporn Wasinrapee,Bernard M. Branson,Michael Martin,Jordan W. Tappero,Philip A. Mock,Timothy A. Green,Dale J. Hu,Bharat Parekh
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014748
Abstract: Performance of the BED assay in estimating HIV-1 incidence has previously been evaluated by using longitudinal specimens from persons with incident HIV infections, but questions remain about its accuracy. We sought to assess its performance in three longitudinal cohorts from Thailand where HIV-1 CRF01_AE and subtype B′ dominate the epidemic.
Development and Validation of an Objective Risk Scoring System for Assessing the Likelihood of Virus Introduction in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus-Free Sow Farms in the US  [PDF]
Derald J. Holtkamp, Hui Lin, Chong Wang, Dale D. Polson
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2013.32026

The lack of validated tools to predict how long sow farms will remain PRRS virus-free following successful elimination of the virus has deterred veterinarians and producers from attempting to eliminate the PRRS virus from sow farms. The aim of this study was to use the database of PRRS Risk Assessments for the Breeding Herd in PADRAP to develop and validate an objective risk scoring system for predicting the likelihood of virus introduction in PRRS virus-free sow farms in the US. To overcome the challenges of dealing with a large number of variables, group lasso for logistic regression (GLLR) was applied to a retrospective dataset of PRRS Risk Assessment for the Breeding Herd surveys completed for 704 farms to develop the risk scoring system. The validity of the GLLR risk scoring system was then evaluated by testing its predictive ability on a dataset from a long-term prospective study of 196 sow farms to assess risk factors associated with how long PRRS virus-free sow farms remained PRRS virus-free. Receiver operator characteristic(ROC) curves were estimated to compare the performance of the GLLR risk scoring system to the risk scoring system based on expert opinion (EO), currently used in the PRRS Risk Assessment for the Breeding Herd, for predicting whether herds remained PRRS virus-free for 130 weeks. The GLLR risk scoring system (AUC, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.67 - 0.84) performed significantly better than the EO risk scoring system (AUC, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.27 - 0.46) for predicting whether to sow farms in the prospective study survived for 130 weeks (p < 0.001). Dividing farms into 3 risk groups (low, medium and high) using a low and high cutoff values for the GLLR risk score was informative as the differences in the KM survival curves for the 3 groups were both

1st degree acromioclavicular sprain, elevated 1st rib, or both? A case study of a rodeo cowboy  [PDF]
Mark R. Lafave, Dale J. Butterwick, Blaine Bugg, Dave Roberts
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2014.21005
Abstract: Objective: To present a case of a rodeo cowboy who suffered a seemingly routine 1st degree acromioclavicular (AC) sprain. The AC sprain was exacerbated by an elevated 1st rib. Background: Saddle bronc riding is one of three rough stock events in North American rodeo and the least common event for injury relative to bull riding and bareback riding. Shoulder injury in rodeo rough stock events make up 9.3% of all injuries. Approximately 28% of injuries in rodeo are considered minor sprains. The professional cowboy was thrown from his horse landing on the tip of his shoulder. The cowboy presented with a routine 1st degree AC sprain based on the Tossey and Rockwood definitions. Differential Diagnosis: Due to the mechanism of injury and forces produced with the cowboy being thrown to the ground, elimination of serious neck injury was critical. A scanning examination revealed some neck dysfunction. A cervical rotation, lateral flexion special test confirmed the additional elevated 1st rib in addition to the 1st degree AC sprain. Treatment: A chiropractic adjustment of the 1st rib reduced pain in the AC joint from a 6/10 to 1/10 immediately. Subsequently, the patient iced and was treated with one other 1st rib adjustment at a later date. Uniqueness: There were no cases of 1st degree AC sprains with an associated elevated first rib in the literature. It was very unique to relieve to the patient’s shoulder symptoms so dramatically in a short period of time with manual therapy to the first rib. Conclusions: It is important to follow a thorough history and physical examination of patients who suffer from a 1st degree AC sprain. The use of a scanning examination will help identify the primary source of pain (i.e. neck and/or shoulder). Manual therapy of the 1st rib may be useful in the treatment.
Investigation of Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission among Severely Mentally Ill Residents at a Long Term Care Facility
Supriya Jasuja, Nicola D. Thompson, Philip J. Peters, Yury E. Khudyakov, Megan T. Patel, Purisima Linchangco, Hong T. Thai, William M. Switzer, Anupama Shankar, Walid Heneine, Dale J. Hu, Anne C. Moorman, Susan I. Gerber
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043252
Abstract: Background A high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections have been reported among persons with severe mental illness. In October, 2009, the Cook County Department of Public Health (CCDPH) initiated an investigation following notification of a cluster of HBV infections among mentally ill residents at a long term care facility (LTCF). Methods LTCF staff were interviewed and resident medical records were reviewed. Residents were offered testing for HBV, HCV, and HIV. Serum specimens from residents diagnosed with HBV or HIV infection were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for analysis. Results Eleven newly diagnosed HBV infections were identified among mentally ill residents at the LTCF. Of these 11 infections, 4 serum specimens were available for complete HBV genome sequencing; all 4 genomes were found to be closely related. Four newly diagnosed HIV infections were identified within this same population. Upon molecular analysis, 2 of 4 HIV sequences from these new infections were found to be nearly identical and formed a tight phylogenetic cluster. Conclusions HBV and HIV transmission was identified among mentally ill residents of this LTCF. Continued efforts are needed to prevent bloodborne pathogen transmission among mentally ill residents in LTCFs.
Genomic DNA Methylation Changes in Response to Folic Acid Supplementation in a Population-Based Intervention Study among Women of Reproductive Age
Krista S. Crider, Eoin P. Quinlivan, Robert J. Berry, Ling Hao, Zhu Li, David Maneval, Thomas P. Yang, Sonja A. Rasmussen, Quanhe Yang, Jiang-Hui Zhu, Dale J. Hu, Lynn B. Bailey
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028144
Abstract: Folate is a source of one-carbons necessary for DNA methylation, a critical epigenetic modification necessary for genomic structure and function. The use of supplemental folic acid is widespread however; the potential influence on DNA methylation is unclear. We measured global DNA methylation using DNA extracted from samples from a population-based, double-blind randomized trial of folic acid supplementation (100, 400, 4000 μg per day) taken for 6 months; including a 3 month post-supplementation sample. We observed no changes in global DNA methylation in response to up to 4,000 μg/day for 6 months supplementation in DNA extracted from uncoagulated blood (approximates circulating blood). However, when DNA methylation was determined in coagulated samples from the same individuals at the same time, significant time, dose, and MTHFR genotype-dependent changes were observed. The baseline level of DNA methylation was the same for uncoagulated and coagulated samples; marked differences between sample types were observed only after intervention. In DNA from coagulated blood, DNA methylation decreased (?14%; P<0.001) after 1 month of supplementation and 3 months after supplement withdrawal, methylation decreased an additional 23% (P<0.001) with significant variation among individuals (max+17%; min-94%). Decreases in methylation of ≥25% (vs. <25%) after discontinuation of supplementation were strongly associated with genotype: MTHFR CC vs. TT (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 12.9, 95%CI 6.4, 26.0). The unexpected difference in DNA methylation between DNA extracted from coagulated and uncoagulated samples in response to folic acid supplementation is an important finding for evaluating use of folic acid and investigating the potential effects of folic acid supplementation on coagulation.
Age-specific interaction between the parasitoid, Encarsia formosa and its host, the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Strain B)
Jing S. Hu,Dale B. Gelman,Michael B. Blackburn
Journal of Insect Science , 2003,
Abstract: The effect of hostage, the instar of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) parasitized, on the growth and development of Encarsia formosa (Gahan) was studied. E. formosa was able to parasitize and complete its life cycle no matter which instar of B. tabaci (Strain B), [also identified as B. argentifolii (Bellows and Perring)], was provided for oviposition, but parasitoid development was significantly slower when 1st or 2nd instar B. tabaci rather than 3rd or 4th instars were parasitized. Host age influenced the day on which E. formosa nymphs hatching from eggs was first observed. Mean embryonic development was significantly longer when 1st (5.4 days) rather than 2nd, 3rd or 4th instars (4.1, 3.4 and 3.5 days, respectively) were parasitized. The duration of the 1st instar parasitoid and the pupa, but not the 2nd or 3rd instar parasitoid, were also significantly greater when 1st instars were parasitized than when older host instars were parasitized. Interestingly, no matter which instar was parasitized, the parasitoid did not molt to the 3rd instar until the 4th instar host had reached a depth of about 0.23 mm (Stage 4-5) and had initiated the nymphal-adult molt and adult development. Histological studies revealed that whitefly eye and wing structures had either disintegrated or were adult in nature whenever a 3rd instar parasitoid was present. It appears, then, that the molt of the parasitoid to its last instar is associated with the host whitefly's nymphal-adult molt. However, the initiation of the host's final molt, while a prerequisite for the parasitoid's 2nd-3rd instar molt, did not necessarily trigger this molt. In contrast to its significant effect on various aspects of parasitoid development, host instar did not significantly influence the mean size of the parasitoid larva, pupa, or adult. Larval and pupal length and adult head width were similar for all parasitoids, regardless of which host instar was parasitized as was adult longevity. Adult parasitoid emergence was more synchronous when 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars were parasitized than when 1st instars were parasitized. Results are compared with those reported when the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, was parasitized by E. formosa, and provide possible explanations for why T. vaporariorum is a more suitable host than B. tabaci for E. formosa.
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