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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 191328 matches for " D. McGill "
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Drugs Supply and Laboratory Services in Dots System of Kaduna State: A Health Care Worker Perspective  [PDF]
Shehu Usman Adamu, D. McGill
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.61003
Abstract: A study was conducted in Kaduna State Nigeria to ascertain the impact of Drug Supply and laboratory services towards effective functioning of DOTS system. Six DOTS providing centres were identified for the study and in each centre, three respondents were selected based on their profession, the Medical Officer, the Pharmacist and the Laboratory Technician totaling 18. The officers were interviewed for the purpose of the research. Semi structured Interviews were conducted in this research as a means of obtaining Health workers perspective. The Interview which was conducted in their respective work station was open ended and all questions are same for all respondents. During the course of the study, all respondents agreed that the sources of drugs supply to their respective centres was the Kaduna State Tuberculosis and leprosy control Program office from the state capital and that drugs are been supplied quarterly and are adequate with slight interruption due to Logistic while for Laboratory services the respondents were of the view that there is the need to improve on it as there are cases of shortage of reagents and erratic supply of Electricity for effective Laboratory functioning.
Does Spine Posture Affect Isometric Torso Muscle Endurance Profiles in Adolescent Children?  [PDF]
Aleksandar Dejanovic, Edward D. J. Cambridge, Stuart McGill
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2013.33019
Abstract:

The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine mean values of isometric torso muscle profiles of four spinal postures (good posture, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis and scoliosis) among 743 children from the ages of 7 to 14 years old. It was hypothesized that having good posture, thoracic hyper-kyphosis, lumbar hyper-lordosis and scoliosis is linked to different isometric torso muscle endurance profiles. Torso muscle endurance, established through four tests (Biering-S?rensen Test for extensor endurance, Flexor Endurance Test and right and left Side Bridge Tests for lateral endurance) performed in random order and spine postural screening categorized subjectively by observation was measured. Posture was proved to be linked to endurance scores. Hyper-lordotic spines demonstrated a decreased endurance compared to the three other postures (F = 5.344; p < 0.01); pairwise comparisons confirmed these differences (p < 0.05). Trends further suggested that hyper-lordosis was detrimental in lateral chain torso endurance while a hyper-kyphotic spine was more resilient in anterior chain torso endurance. Understanding the relationship between posture and endurance may be beneficial in clinical, as well as coaching/teaching settings.

Effect of High Peroxide Value Fats on Performance of Broilers in an Immune Challenged State
J. McGill,E. McGill,A. Kamyab,J.D. Firman
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2011,
Abstract: A floor pen trial was conducted to determine the effect of high peroxide value fats on the performance of broilers in an immune challenged state. Ross 708 broilers were randomly assigned to 48 floor pens with each pen containing 30 birds. Dietary treatments were developed as a 3 x 2 factorial using three levels of fat rancidity, with Peroxide Values (PV) of 0, 75 and 150. One half of each peroxide value diet also received an antioxidant at 125 ppm. Six dietary treatments with eight replicates were fed to broilers from hatch to day 49. Diets were formulated based on standard industry diets with the exception of fat being forced into the diet at 3% for the starter ration (0-3 wks), 6% in the grower ration (3-5 wks) and 6% in the finisher ration (5-7 wks). At 4 weeks of age the broilers underwent a coccidial challenge. The trial measured the performance of the immune challenged broilers based on the parameters of Feed Intake (FI), Body Weight Gain (BWG) and feed conversion (F:G). An initial pen weight was taken on day 0 for each of the 48 pens. Birds were weighed at 3, 5 and 7 weeks of age to calculate F:G. At week 7, four birds per pen (32 birds/treatment) were sacrificed and processed in order to obtain a fat pad weight, carcass weight, percent meat yield and cecal scoring. The results indicated that birds consuming diets with a peroxide value of 75 or greater exhibited poorer feed conversion than the treatment with an acceptable peroxide value. Furthermore, diets with the added antioxidant demonstrated no statistical difference in feed conversion due to peroxide value. There were also no significant effects of the immune challenge in combination with peroxide levels on bird performance.
Effect of High Peroxide Value Fats on Performance of Broilers in a Normal Immune State
J. McGill,E. McGill,A. Kamyab,J.D. Firman
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2011,
Abstract: A floor pen trial was conducted to determine the effect of high peroxide value fats on performance of broilers in a normal immune state. Ross 708 Broilers were randomly assigned to 48 floor pens with each pen contained 30 birds. Dietary treatments were developed in a 3 x 2 factorial using three levels of fat rancidity, Peroxide Value (PV) of 0, 75 and 150. One half of each peroxide value diet also received an antioxidant at 125 ppm. Six dietary treatments with eight replicates were fed to broilers from hatch to day 49. Diets were formulated based on standard industry diets with the exception of fat being forced into the diet at 3% for the starter ration (0-3 wks), 6% in the grower ration (3-5 wks) and 6% in the finisher ration (5-7 wks). The trial measured the performance of the broilers based on the parameters of Feed Intake (FI), Weight Gain (WG) and feed conversion (F:G). An initial pen weight was taken on day 0 for each of the 48 pens and birds were weighed at 3, 5 and 7 weeks of age to calculate FE. At week 7, four birds per pen (32 birds/treatment) were sacrificed and processed in order to obtain a fat pad weight, carcass weight and percent meat yield. The results indicated that diets with a peroxide value of 75 or greater result in poorer feed conversion than the treatment with a peroxide value of 0. Furthermore, the addition of an antioxidant to the diets with a peroxide value of 75 or greater yielded a numerically improved feed conversion over the diets with the same peroxide value but no antioxidant.
Acute normovolaemic haemodilution (ANH) is safe in patients with known coronary artery disease
NA McGill, D O'Shaughnessy, MJ Herbertson, R Gill
Critical Care , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/cc706
Abstract: To investigate the safety of ANH using continuous Holter electrocardiography monitoring, serial analysis of daily postoperative electrocardiography, and by the use of troponin I levels.Patients presenting for elective coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized into a control or an ANH group. All patients had a four-lead Holter electrocardiography monitor attached 1 h before surgery. After a standard anaesthetic induction, patients in the ANH group had 10 ml/kg blood removed while being maintained within 20% of their baseline blood pressure. This blood was rein-fused after cardiopulmonary bypass. Troponin I levels were taken preoperatively, prebypass and at 24 h. All patients had daily postoperative electrocardiography analysis.The results are shown in Table 1.ANH is safe. There is no evidence of an additional ischaemic burden after haemodilution.
A randomized, controlled trial of blood conservation technologies in elective coronary artery bypass surgery
NA McGill, D O'Shaughnessy, MJ Herbertson, RS Gill
Critical Care , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/cc1036
Abstract: The reduction of allogenic blood transfusion is a national priority. Acute Normovolaemic Haemodilution (ANH) and Intraoperative Cell Salvage (ICS) are two mechanical strategies used to achieve this. A recent meta-analysis of effectiveness of ICS [1] found no trials in cardiac surgery that employed these devices intraoperatively. ANH trials in cardiac surgery have been equivocal as to their benefit [2].After local ethical approval and informed consent, 252 patients for routine CAB surgery were randomised into either a control group (who received a standard cardiac anaesthetic and operation), or an ICS group (where an ICS device was used during the operation and the residual circuit volume washed), or an ANH group (where 10 ml/kg of blood was extracted post induction and replaced with colloid, in addition to the use of an ICS device used as above). Outcome measures were proportions of patients exposed to allogenic blood or blood products and total units used. Standard transfusion thresholds were employed. Data was analysed using a non-parametric ANOVA.There were no significant differences between the three groups with respect to age, weight, Parsonnet score, bypass and cross-clamp times. Hospital length of stay, and median and total mediastinal drainage were similar across groups. Outcome measures (exposures, units of blood and P values) are shown in Table 1.In elective CAB surgery, ICS significantly reduces the risk of exposure to allogenic blood and blood products. ANH does not confer any additional benefit.
Extinction coefficients retrieved in deep tropical ice clouds from lidar observations using a CALIPSO-like algorithm compared to in-situ measurements from the cloud integrating nephelometer during CRYSTAL-FACE
V. Noel, D. M. Winker, T. J. Garrett,M. McGill
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2007,
Abstract: This paper presents a comparison of lidar ratios and volume extinction coefficients in tropical ice clouds, retrieved using observations from two instruments: the 532-nm Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL), and the in-situ Cloud Integrating Nephelometer (CIN) probe. Both instruments were mounted on airborne platforms during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign and took measurements up to 17 km. Coincident observations from two cases of ice clouds located on top of deep convective systems are compared. First, lidar ratios are retrieved from CPL observations of attenuated backscatter, using a retrieval algorithm for opaque cloud similar to one used in the recently launched CALIPSO mission, and compared to results from the regular CPL algorithm. These lidar ratios are used to retrieve extinction coefficient profiles, which are compared to actual observations from the CIN in-situ probe, putting the emphasis on their vertical variability. When observations coincide, retrievals from both instruments are very similar, in the limits of colocation. Differences are generally variations around the average profiles, and general trends on larger spatial scales are well reproduced. The two instruments agree well, with an average difference of less than 11% on optical depth retrievals. Results suggest the CALIPSO Deep Convection algorithm can be trusted to deliver realistic estimates of the lidar ratio, leading to good retrievals of extinction coefficients.
Low Crude Protein Corn and Soybean Meal Diets with Amino Acid Supplementation for Broilers in the Starter Period. 2. Effects of Feeding 13% Crude Protein
E. McGill,A. Kamyab,J.D. Firman
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2012,
Abstract: Two experiments were conducted with the objective of testing the effects of feeding 13% CP diets with crystalline amino acid supplementation and various protein equivalents on the performance of broilers in the starter growth period. In each experiment, commercial broilers were fed a diet formulated to meet NRC requirements for the first seven days. The diet contained 23% CP and 3200 kcal/kg ME and also served as the Positive Control Diet (PC). On day 7, birds were sorted by weight into battery pens with 5 birds per pen. In the first experiment, six dietary treatments were utilized with eight replicates per treatment for a total of 48 pens. For the remaining dietary treatments, 13% CP diets were formulated and various levels of crystalline amino acids were added back to meet either digestible amino acid levels from a 22% CP diet from previous experiments from our lab at the University of Missouri (Guaiume, 2007) or digestible amino acid requirements set by Baker and coworkers (1993) using the ideal protein concept. One treatment using the University of Missouri values contained no glutamic acid and a low protein equivalent of 15.5% (MLPE), while others contained varying levels of glutamic acid to achieve a high protein equivalent of 20% (MHPE) or a mid-level protein equivalent of 18% (MMPE). Similarly, two treatments were developed using Baker et al. (1993) amino acid values and glutamic acid to achieve a 20% high protein equivalent (BHPE) or an 18% mid-level equivalent (BMPE). In Experiment 2, four dietary treatments with 12 replicates were utilized for a total of 48 pens. The same 23% CP diet used as the PC in Experiment 1 was utilized in Experiment 2. The remaining treatments in Experiment 2 consisted of 13% crude protein diets with crystalline amino acids added back to meet control levels and either no glutamic acid to yield a protein equivalent of 17.5% (PE-17.5), or glutamic acid added to meet an 18.75% (PE-18.75) or 20% (PE-20) protein equivalent. All diets were formulated on a digestible basis and were designed to be isocaloric. Birds received feed and water ad libitum. At the conclusion of each experiment, Body Weight Gain (BWG), Feed Intake (FI) and Feed:Gain (F:G) were measured. In Experiment 1, birds consuming the PC treatment achieved significantly greater (p<0.05) BWG than birds in any other treatment. A significant difference (p<0.05) in intake was seen between the BMPE treatment and all others. A significantly improved F:G (p<0.05) was observed in the PC treatment. Additionally, the BMPE treatment resulted in impaired F:G (p<0.05) when c
Low Crude Protein Corn and Soybean Meal Diets with Amino Acid Supplementation for Broilers in the Starter Period 1. Effects of Feeding 15% Crude Protein
E. McGill,A. Kamyab,J.D. Firman
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2012,
Abstract: Two experiments were conducted with the objective of testing the effects of feeding a 15% CP diet with crystalline amino acid supplementation on the performance of broilers from 0-3 weeks of age. In both experiments, commercial broilers were fed a diet formulated to meet NRC requirements for the first seven days. The diet contained 23% CP and 3200 kcal/kg ME and also served as the Positive Control diet (PC). On day 7, birds were sorted by weight into battery pens with 5 birds per pen. Both experiments utilized the same six dietary treatments with eight replicates per treatment for a total of 48 pens. The remaining treatments consisted of: a 15% CP negative control diet with crystalline amino acids added back to meet required levels (NC), a NC diet + 0.1% cystine (NC + C), a NC diet + 0.1% threonine (NC + T), a NC diet + 0.1% glycine (NC + G) and a NC diet + 0.1% cystine, threonine and glycine (NC + C,T,G). Glutamic acid was added to all diets to maintain a 20% protein equivalent. All diets were formulated on a digestible basis and were designed to be isocaloric. At the conclusion of the experiments, Body Weight Gain (BWG), Feed Intake (FI) and Feed:Gain (F:G) were measured. In Experiment 1, significant differences (p<0.05) were found in BWG between the PC treatment and PC + C,T,G, although no significant differences in FI or F:G were observed. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in BWG, FI, or F:G among any of the other treatments. In Experiment 2, treatments had no effect (p>0.05) on performance. Overall, these results suggest that feeding a 15% CP diet + crystalline amino acids to broilers in the starter period can yield similar performance to a 23% CP diet.
Bulk Inversion Asymmetry effects on the band structure of zincblende heterostructures in an 8-band Effective Mass Approximation model
X. Cartoixa,D. Z. -Y. Ting,T. C. McGill
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: We have developed an 8-band Effective Mass Approximation model that describes the zero field spin splitting in the band structure of zincblende heterostructures due to bulk inversion asymmetry (BIA). We have verified that our finite difference Hamiltonian transforms in almost all situations according to the true $D_{2d}$ or $C_{2v}$ symmetry of [001] heterostructures. This makes it a computationally efficient tool for the accurate description of the band structure of heterostructures for spintronics. We first compute the band structure for an AlSb/GaSb/AlSb quantum well (QW), which presents only BIA, and delineate its effects. We then use our model to find the band structure of an AlSb/InAs/GaSb/AlSb QW and the relative contribution of structural and bulk inversion asymmetry to the spin splitting. We clarify statements about the importance of these contributions and conclude that, even for our small gap QW, BIA needs to be taken into account for the proper description of the band structure.
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