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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 191713 matches for " D Yeboah-Manu "
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Microbiological quality of “Khebab” consumed in the Accra metropolis
D Agbodaze, PNA Nmai, FC Robertson, D Yeboah-Manu, K Owusu-Darko, KK Addo
Ghana Medical Journal , 2005,
Abstract: The study was carried out in 2003 to evaluate the microbial load in “khebab”, meat products from pork, and beef, which are vended in most of the streets and some public drinking places, either with alcoholic or non-alcoholic drinks. Osu (Alata), Nima-Kotobabi and Central Accra (Adabraka – very close to the main lorry station), all in the Accra Metropolis, were selected for the investigation. The main reason for the selection of these sites was based on the population density as well as patronage for the khebab. Our main interest for this investigation was to assess the microbial load in khebab as far as enteric pathogen and other pathogenic micro-organisms reported earlier in the raw meat are concerned. Thirty samples of khebab were bought from these sampling points. Results obtained from samples at Osu recorded mean total plate count (TPC) of 5.02, Accra Central samples had TPC of 4.08 and those from Nima had TPC of 4.80 log10 colony-forming units (cfu) per gram of khebab. Samples from Accra Central recorded the highest mean coliform count (5.12) whist samples bought from Osu and Nima recorded 4.41 and 3.70 log10 cfu/g respectively. Accra Central samples again recorded the highest faecal coliforms (4.4 log10 cfu/g) as compared to 3.98 and 3.80 log10 cfu/g for samples bought from Osu and Nima respectively. Salmonella ssp were not isolated from the samples bought at the three sampling sites. Khebab samples from sites were contaminated with E. coli, other gram-negative bacteria and Staphylococcus species, whose virulence factor(s) are yet to be determined. The faecal coliforms enumerated could originate from either humans or the animals slaughtered for the khebab. Staphylococcus species could originate from the vendors. Vendors have to be educated on hygienic practices which could help reduce risks of food-borne infection. Skin disinfection can be done by a thorough wash. Vendors could also be educated to stop selling their products to customers once they have bouts of diarrhoea, vomiting and “fever”. Washing of their hands with soap and water before serving their customers could also help reduce the risk of food-borne infection from eating their products.
Mycobacterial species causing pulmonary tuberculosis At the korle bu teaching hospital, Accra,
K.K Addo, K Owusu-darko, D Yeboah-manu, P Caulley, M Minamikawa, F Bonsu, C Leinhardt, P Akpedonu, D Ofori-adjei
Ghana Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Objective: Characterize mycobacterial species causing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana. Design: Sputum smear positive samples, two (2) from 70 patients diagnosed as having tuberculosis, after they had consented, were collected from the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic between January and July 2003. Setting: Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic, Accra. Results: Sixty-four mycobacterial isolates were obtained and confirmed as members of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by colonial morphology and conventional biochemical assays. Fortyseven (73%) were M. tuberculosis, the human strain, 2 (3%) M. bovis, the bovine strain, 13 (20%) M. africanum I (West Africa type), and 2 (3%) M. africanum II (East Africa type). Conclusion: The results indicate that, there are various strains causing PTB at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital and of great concern is M. bovis, which mostly causes extra-PTB in humans but found to cause PTB in this study. This calls for the need to conduct a nationwide survey using both conventional and molecular techniques to characterize various mycobacterial species causing TB in Ghana. This will result in better understanding of the various strains circulating in the country and inform individual TB treatment regimen especially the inclusion or exclusion of pyrazinamide.
Diagnosis of tuberculosis in Ghana: The role of laboratory training
KK Addo, D Yeboah-Manu, M Dan-Dzide, K Owusu-darko, P Caulley, GI Mensah, M Minamikawa, C Lienhardt, FA Bonsu, D Ofori-Adjei
Ghana Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives: The laboratory is considered the cornerstone of tuberculosis (TB) control programme. International review of Ghana’s programme in the late nineties identified the laboratory services as the weakest component. Sputum smear microscopy (SSM) being the main method of diagnosing pulmonary TB in Ghana, the training objectives were to: (i) strengthen the knowledge and skills of laboratory personnel on SSM (ii) impart necessary techniques in biosafety and (iii) introduce a Quality Assurance (QA) system in order to strengthen SSM services. Methods: Personnel were selected for training during a nationwide situation analysis of SSM centres in 2000/2001. Four training sessions on SSM/QA were held between 2001/2004. Results: A total of 80 personnel were trained: 10 regional TB coordinators and 70 laboratory personnel. The participants upon return to their respective regions also organized training within their districts. This approach resulted in another 100 district TB coordinators and 200 laboratory personnel being trained. Improvement in smear preparation, staining and reading ability of the participants were observed during the post-test and subsequent visit to their respective laboratories. The training has led to strengthening of TB laboratory services in the country and has contributed to increase in case detection from 10,745 in 2000 to 11,827 in 2004 and 14,022 in 2008. It was observed during the post-training follow-up and quarterly supervision visits that morale of the personnel was high. Conclusion: Continuous training and re-training of laboratory personnel on SSM and QA at regular intervals do play an important role for effective and efficient TB control programme.
On the origin of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer
Kenneth D Doig, Kathryn E Holt, Janet AM Fyfe, Caroline J Lavender, Miriam Eddyani, Francoise Portaels, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu, Gerd Pluschke, Torsten Seemann, Timothy P Stinear
BMC Genomics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-13-258
Abstract: A high-resolution phylogeny based on genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showed that M. ulcerans and all other MPM represent a single clonal group that evolved from a common M. marinum progenitor. The emergence of the MPM was driven by the acquisition of the pMUM plasmid encoding genes for the biosynthesis of mycolactones. This change was accompanied by the loss of at least 185 genes, with a significant overrepresentation of genes associated with cell wall functions. Cell wall associated genes also showed evidence of substantial adaptive selection, suggesting cell wall remodeling has been critical for the survival of MPM. Fine-grain analysis of the MPM complex revealed at least three distinct lineages, one of which comprised a highly clonal group, responsible for Buruli ulcer in Africa and Australia. This indicates relatively recent transfer of M. ulcerans between these continents, which represent the vast majority of the global Buruli ulcer burden. Our data provide SNPs and gene sequences that can differentiate M. ulcerans lineages, suitable for use in the diagnosis and surveillance of Buruli ulcer.M. ulcerans and all mycolactone-producing mycobacteria are specialized variants of a common Mycobacterium marinum progenitor that have adapted to live in restricted environments. Examination of genes lost or retained and now under selective pressure suggests these environments might be aerobic, and extracellular, where slow growth, production of an immune suppressor, cell wall remodeling, loss or modification of cell wall antigens, and biofilm-forming ability provide a survival advantage. These insights will guide our efforts to find the elusive reservoir(s) of M. ulcerans and to understand transmission of Buruli ulcer.
Social and Economic Factors Influencing Buruli Ulcer Health Seeking Decision Making in the Ga West and South Municipalities  [PDF]
Collins K. Ahorlu, Eric Koka, Seth Kumordzi, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu, Edwin Ampadu
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.34025
Abstract:

Background:Buruli ulcer infection is generally referred to as a re-emerging disease with the highest burden in West Africa. In Ghana, about 1000 cases are reported annually. The former Ga district (now the Ga West and Ga South municipalities) continues to report the highest proportion of the worst ulcerated wounds in Ghana, despite various interventions implemented. The aim of this study was to determine factors affecting treatment-related decision making in BU affected families. Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire interview was conducted with 33 patients (≥15 years) and seven caretakers of children aged below 15 years to determine the social and economic factors influencing BU-related health seeking decision making and types of treatment choices that are made. Results: Respondents were afflicted with varied categories of the disease (category one (30%), category two (35%) and category three (35%)). Decisions to seek health care from biomedical facilities are influenced by factors such as advice from health workers (45.0%) and advice from family members (42.5%). Only a quarter (25%) of respondents actually mentioned “financial considerations” as one of the factors that influence their decision to seek for biomedical care. Whereas there was no significant relationship between family involvement in treatment decision making and category one (p = 0.5351) lesion, there was a significant relationship between family involvement in treatment decision making and categories two (p = 0.0434) and three (p = 0.0089) lesions. Conclusion: It appears from this study that financial consideration, which has been widely cited as a cause of treatment delay may be losing its influence to social factors. With the advent of free antibiotics treatment more studies are needed to identify social factors affecting BU treatment decision making so as to redesign health promotion messages appropriately, especially those aimed at getting patients into early treatment.

Development of a Temperature-Switch PCR-Based SNP Typing Method for Mycobacterium ulcerans
Katharina R?ltgen,Kobina Assan-Ampah,Emelia Danso,Dorothy Yeboah-Manu,Gerd Pluschke
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001904
Abstract: Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans), the causative agent of the devastating skin disease Buruli ulcer (BU), is characterized by an extremely low level of genetic diversity. Recently, we have reported the first discrimination of closely related M. ulcerans variants in the BU endemic Densu River Valley of Ghana. In the study real-time PCR-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing at 89 predefined loci revealed the presence of ten M. ulcerans haplotypes circulating in the BU endemic region. Here we describe the development of temperature-switch PCR (TSP) assays that allow distinguishing these haplotypes by conventional agarose gel-based analysis of the PCR products. After validation of the accuracy of typing results, the TSP assays were successfully established in a reference laboratory in Ghana. Development of the cost-effective and rapid TSP-based genetic fingerprinting method will thus allow investigating the spread of M. ulcerans clones by regular genetic monitoring in BU endemic countries.
Genomic Diversity and Evolution of Mycobacterium ulcerans Revealed by Next-Generation Sequencing
Weihong Qi,Michael K?ser,Katharina R?ltgen,Dorothy Yeboah-Manu,Gerd Pluschke
PLOS Pathogens , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000580
Abstract: Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, the third most common mycobacterial disease after tuberculosis and leprosy. It is an emerging infectious disease that afflicts mainly children and youths in West Africa. Little is known about the evolution and transmission mode of M. ulcerans, partially due to the lack of known genetic polymorphisms among isolates, limiting the application of genetic epidemiology. To systematically profile single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we sequenced the genomes of three M. ulcerans strains using 454 and Solexa technologies. Comparison with the reference genome of the Ghanaian classical lineage isolate Agy99 revealed 26,564 SNPs in a Japanese strain representing the ancestral lineage. Only 173 SNPs were found when comparing Agy99 with two other Ghanaian isolates, which belong to the two other types previously distinguished in Ghana by variable number tandem repeat typing. We further analyzed a collection of Ghanaian strains using the SNPs discovered. With 68 SNP loci, we were able to differentiate 54 strains into 13 distinct SNP haplotypes. The average SNP nucleotide diversity was low (average 0.06–0.09 across 68 SNP loci), and 96% of the SNP locus pairs were in complete linkage disequilibrium. We estimated that the divergence of the M. ulcerans Ghanaian clade from the Japanese strain occurred 394 to 529 thousand years ago. The Ghanaian subtypes diverged about 1000 to 3000 years ago, or even much more recently, because we found evidence that they evolved significantly faster than average. Our results offer significant insight into the evolution of M. ulcerans and provide a comprehensive report on genetic diversity within a highly clonal M. ulcerans population from a Buruli ulcer endemic region, which can facilitate further epidemiological studies of this pathogen through the development of high-resolution tools.
Enhancing Buruli ulcer control in Ghana through social interventions: a case study from the Obom sub-district
Collins K Ahorlu, Eric Koka, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu, Isaac Lamptey, Edwin Ampadu
BMC Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-59
Abstract: This was a qualitative study using in-depth interviews to generate information to ascertain the benefit or otherwise of the intervention implemented. Clinical records of patients to generate data to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of social interventions in the fight against Buruli ulcer was examined. In all, 56 in-depth interviews (28 at baseline and 28 at evaluation) were conducted for this report.At full implementation, treatment default and dropout reduced significantly from 58.8% and 52.9% at baseline to 1.5% and 1.5% respectively. The number of early case detection went up significantly. Affected families were happy with social interventions such as provision of transportation and breakfast to patients on daily basis. Families were happy with the outpatient services provided under the intervention where no patient was admitted into the hospital.The study showed that with a little more investment in early case detection, diagnosis and treatment, coupled with free transportation and breakfast for patients, most of the cases could be treated effectively with the available antibiotics to avoid disability and complications from the disease.Buruli ulcer (BU) was identified about a century ago, and it is generally referred to as a re-emerging disease particularly in West Africa, including Ghana where the prevalence in some villages is higher than tuberculosis [1]. The worst affected age group in this endemic region is mainly children aged 15 years and below. The disease begins typically as a painless nodule under the skin at the site of a trauma. In some geographical areas the first manifestation is a papule rather than the firm, painless nodule. If not treated early, the nodule gradually enlarges and erodes through the skin surface, leaving a well-demarcated ulcer with a necrotic slough in the base and widely undermined edges, the hallmark of the disease. Prolong delay, might lead to bone involvement, functional disabilities such as amputation of limbs a
Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?
Mensah,Patience; Yeboah-Manu,Dorothy; Owusu-Darko,Kwaku; Ablordey,Anthony;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862002000700006
Abstract: objective: to investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. methods: structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. findings: most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. diarrhoea was defined as the passage of 33 stools per day) by 110 vendors (94.0%), but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9%) associated diarrhoea with germs. the surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4%) were classified as very dirty. the cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%): 28 contained bacillus cereus (5.5%), 163 contained staphylococcus aureus (31.9%) and 172 contained enterobacteriaceae (33.7%). the microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and salmonella arizonae from light soup. conclusion: street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene.
Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?
Mensah Patience,Yeboah-Manu Dorothy,Owusu-Darko Kwaku,Ablordey Anthony
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. FINDINGS: Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined as the passage of > or = 3 stools per day) by 110 vendors (94.0%), but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9%) associated diarrhoea with germs. The surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4%) were classified as very dirty. The cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. Examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. Mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%): 28 contained Bacillus cereus (5.5%), 163 contained Staphylococcus aureus (31.9%) and 172 contained Enterobacteriaceae (33.7%). The microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. Shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and Salmonella arizonae from light soup. CONCLUSION: Street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. Vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. Special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene.
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