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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 191507 matches for " D Ofori-adjei "
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Pharmacogenetics in Ghana: Reviewing the evidence
W Kudzi, GO Adjei, D Ofori-Adjei, ANO Dodoo
Ghana Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Different clinical response of different patients to the same medicine has been recognised and documented since the 1950’s. Variability in response of individuals to standard doses of drug therapy is important in clinical practice and can lead to therapeutic failures or adverse drug reactions. Pharmacogenetics seeks to identify individual genetic differences (polymorphisms) in drug absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion that can affect the activity of a particular drug with the view of improving efficacy and reducing toxicity. Although knowledge of pharmacogenetics is being translated into clinical practice in the developed world, its applicability in the developing countries is low. Several factors account for this including the fact that there is very little pharmacogenetic information available in many indigenous African populations including Ghanaians. A number of genes including Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, MDR1 and TPMT have been genotyped in the Ghanaian population since the completion of the Human genome project. There is however, an urgent need to increase pharmacogenetic research in Ghana to increase availability of data. Introducing Pharmacogenetics into the curriculum of Medical and Pharmacy training institutions will influence translating knowledge of pharmacogenetics into clinical practice. This will also equip health professionals with the skill to integrate genetic information into public health decision making.
Surveillance of viral haemorrhagic fevers in Ghana: entomological assessment of the risk of transmission in the northern regions
M Appawu, S Dadzie, H Abdul, H Asmah, D Boakye, M Wilson, D Ofori-adjei
Ghana Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Objectives: To assess the risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers in northern Ghana. Design: A two-year cross-sectional entomological study was carried out in four communities in the northern part of Ghana. Standard WHO methods were used to collect adult and larvae of Aedes mosquitoes to estimate man-vector contact rates and larval indices. Results: A total of 2804 households were surveyed to estimate larval indices and man-vector contacts of potential vectors of viral haemorrhagic fevers such as Yellow fever and Dengue. Over 56% households in each study site were positive for Aedes larvae. Relatively higher Breteaux index (BI) and Container index (CI) were estimated in Damongo (BI: 180 and CI: 44.8) and Jirapa (BI: 149.7 and CI: 41.5) compared to Tumu (BI: 76.1 and CI: 19.5) and Bolgatanga (BI: 72.4 and CI: 20.6). Man-biting rates of 9.8 and 18.5 bites /man/hour were estimated for Damongo and Jirapa respectively whilst Bolgatanga recorded 10 B/M/H. Generally, man-vector contact rates in all the study sites were higher during the dry season than the wet season. Larval indices showed seasonal variations and the dry season was identified as the high-risk period for transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and possible disease outbreaks. No flavivirus was detected in the 2034 Aedes mosquitoes from the study sites by RTPCR. Conclusions: Aedes mosquito larval densities and adult biting rates, in all the study areas were sufficient to promote outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fevers.
HTLV-1 and other viral sexually transmitted infections in antenatal and gynaecological patients in Ghana
KA Apea-Kubi, S Yamaguchi, B Sakyi, D Ofori-Adjei
West African Journal of Medicine , 2006,
Microfinance: an alternative means of healthcare financing for the poor
A Ofori-Adjei
Ghana Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: No
Mycobacterial species causing pulmonary tuberculosis At the korle bu teaching hospital, Accra,
K.K Addo, K Owusu-darko, D Yeboah-manu, P Caulley, M Minamikawa, F Bonsu, C Leinhardt, P Akpedonu, D Ofori-adjei
Ghana Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Objective: Characterize mycobacterial species causing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana. Design: Sputum smear positive samples, two (2) from 70 patients diagnosed as having tuberculosis, after they had consented, were collected from the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic between January and July 2003. Setting: Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic, Accra. Results: Sixty-four mycobacterial isolates were obtained and confirmed as members of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by colonial morphology and conventional biochemical assays. Fortyseven (73%) were M. tuberculosis, the human strain, 2 (3%) M. bovis, the bovine strain, 13 (20%) M. africanum I (West Africa type), and 2 (3%) M. africanum II (East Africa type). Conclusion: The results indicate that, there are various strains causing PTB at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital and of great concern is M. bovis, which mostly causes extra-PTB in humans but found to cause PTB in this study. This calls for the need to conduct a nationwide survey using both conventional and molecular techniques to characterize various mycobacterial species causing TB in Ghana. This will result in better understanding of the various strains circulating in the country and inform individual TB treatment regimen especially the inclusion or exclusion of pyrazinamide.
Diagnosis of tuberculosis in Ghana: The role of laboratory training
KK Addo, D Yeboah-Manu, M Dan-Dzide, K Owusu-darko, P Caulley, GI Mensah, M Minamikawa, C Lienhardt, FA Bonsu, D Ofori-Adjei
Ghana Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives: The laboratory is considered the cornerstone of tuberculosis (TB) control programme. International review of Ghana’s programme in the late nineties identified the laboratory services as the weakest component. Sputum smear microscopy (SSM) being the main method of diagnosing pulmonary TB in Ghana, the training objectives were to: (i) strengthen the knowledge and skills of laboratory personnel on SSM (ii) impart necessary techniques in biosafety and (iii) introduce a Quality Assurance (QA) system in order to strengthen SSM services. Methods: Personnel were selected for training during a nationwide situation analysis of SSM centres in 2000/2001. Four training sessions on SSM/QA were held between 2001/2004. Results: A total of 80 personnel were trained: 10 regional TB coordinators and 70 laboratory personnel. The participants upon return to their respective regions also organized training within their districts. This approach resulted in another 100 district TB coordinators and 200 laboratory personnel being trained. Improvement in smear preparation, staining and reading ability of the participants were observed during the post-test and subsequent visit to their respective laboratories. The training has led to strengthening of TB laboratory services in the country and has contributed to increase in case detection from 10,745 in 2000 to 11,827 in 2004 and 14,022 in 2008. It was observed during the post-training follow-up and quarterly supervision visits that morale of the personnel was high. Conclusion: Continuous training and re-training of laboratory personnel on SSM and QA at regular intervals do play an important role for effective and efficient TB control programme.
First Nationwide Survey on the Resistance to First Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs in Ghana  [PDF]
Kennedy K. Addo, Richard Owusu, Christian Bonsu, Kwaku Owusu-Darko, Samuel O. Addo, Gloria I. Mensah, Mercy J. Newman, David Ofori-Adjei, Frank A. Bonsu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.61007
Abstract: Background/objective: A nationwide survey on the resistance to first line anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drugs was conducted in Ghana from 2007-2008 by Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research in collaboration with the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. We aimed to characterize mycobacterial species causing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and determine the resistance pattern to first line anti-TB drugs among newly diagnosed and previously treated PTB patients in Ghana. Methods: Two sputum samples from consented new smear positive PTB patients who had never been treated for TB or had been on anti-TB treatment for less than a month and patients who had been treated for TB previously for more than a month in selected diagnostic centres nationwide were collected for culture, identification and drug susceptibility test. Culture positive isolates were tested against streptomycin (S), isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R) and ethambutol (E) using the simplified proportion method and line probe assay (LPA). The LPA was performed in mid-2017. Results: Among 410 samples, 345 positive cultures were obtained and identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Of the 345 isolates, 133 were further differentiated by GenoType MTBC® as M. tuberculosis, 126 (94.7%) and M. africanum 7 (5.3%). The overall drug resistance patterns were as follows: 43/345 (12.5%), 6/345 (1.7%), 9/345 (2.6%) and 71/345 (20.6%) were resistant to H, R, E and S respectively and 5/345 (1.4%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Conclusion: The results indicate high levels of resistance to S and H among new and previously treated TB patients. We recommend adequate surveillance systems including periodic national anti-TB drug resistance surveys.
Have Online International Medical Journals Made Local Journals Obsolete?
David Ofori-Adjei,Gerd Antes,Prathap Tharyan,Elizabeth Slade,Pritpal S Tamber
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030359
Abstract: Background to the Debate All of the major international medical journals are now available both in print and online. Being online increases the potential for these journals to have a more global distribution. With the rise of these online international journals, what functions do local journals serve?.
Pattern of drug utilization for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in urban Ghana following national treatment policy change to artemisinin-combination therapy
Alexander NO Dodoo, Carole Fogg, Alex Asiimwe, Edmund T Nartey, Augustina Kodua, Ofori Tenkorang, David Ofori-Adjei
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-2
Abstract: Patients with diagnosis of uncomplicated malaria were recruited from pharmacies of health facilities throughout Accra in a cohort-event monitoring study. The main drug utilization outcomes were the relation of patient age, gender, type of facility attended, mode of diagnosis and concomitant treatments to the anti-malarial regimen prescribed. Logistic regression was used to predict prescription of nationally recommended first-line therapy and concomitant prescription of antibiotics.The cohort comprised 2,831 patients. Curative regimens containing an artemisinin derivative were given to 90.8% (n = 2,574) of patients, although 33% (n = 936) of patients received an artemisinin-based monotherapy. Predictors of first-line therapy were laboratory-confirmed diagnosis, age >5 years, and attending a government facility. Analgesics and antibiotics were the most commonly prescribed concomitant medications, with a median of two co-prescriptions per patient (range 1–9). Patients above 12 years were significantly less likely to have antibiotics co-prescribed than patients under five years; those prescribed non-artemisinin monotherapies were more likely to receive antibiotics. A dihydroartemisinin-amodiaquine combination was the most used therapy for children under five years of age (29.0%, n = 177).This study shows that though first-line therapy recommendations may change, clinical practice may still be affected by factors other than the decision or ability to diagnose malaria. Age, diagnostic confirmation and suspected concurrent conditions lead to benefit:risk assessments for individual patients by clinicians as to which anti-malarial treatment to prescribe. This has implications for adherence to policy changes aiming to implement effective use of ACT. These results should inform education of health professionals and rational drug use policies to reduce poly-pharmacy, and also suggest a potential positive impact of increased access to testing for malaria both within health facil
European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP): the path towards a true partnership
Mecky I Matee, Christine Manyando, Peter M Ndumbe, Tumani Corrah, Walter G Jaoko, Andrew Y Kitua, Herman PA Ambene, Mathieu Ndounga, Lynn Zijenah, David Ofori-Adjei, Simon Agwale, Steven Shongwe, Thomas Nyirenda, Michael Makanga
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-249
Abstract: EDCTP promotes collaborative research supported by multiple funding agencies and harnesses networking expertise across different African and European countries. EDCTP is different from other similar initiatives. The organisation of EDCTP blends important aspects of partnership that includes ownership, sustainability and responds to demand-driven research. The Developing Countries Coordinating Committee (DCCC); a team of independent scientists and representatives of regional health bodies from sub-Saharan Africa provides advice to the partnership. Thus EDCTP reflects a true partnership and the active involvement and contribution of these African scientists ensures joint ownership of the EDCTP programme with European counterparts.The following have been the major achievements of the EDCTP initiative since its formation in 2003; i) increase in the number of participating African countries from two to 26 in 2008 ii) the cumulative amount of funds spent on EDCTP projects has reached € 150 m, iii) the cumulative number of clinical trials approved has reached 40 and iv) there has been a significant increase number and diversity in capacity building activities.While we recognise that EDCTP faced enormous challenges in its first few years of existence, the strong involvement of African scientists and its new initiatives such as unconditional funding to regional networks of excellence in sub-Saharan Africa is envisaged to lead to a sustainable programme. Current data shows that the number of projects supported by EDCTP is increasing. DCCC proposes that this success story of true partnership should be used as model by partners involved in the fight against other infectious diseases of public health importance in the region.Tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria cross paths in sub-Saharan Africa, the epicentre of the three infections. Although HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria are three treatable and preventable diseases, they are having a devastatin
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