Abstract:
This note derives the analogue of the Mukhanov-Sasaki variables both for scalar and tensor perturbations in the 1+3 covariant formalism. The possibility of generalizing them to non-flat Friedmann-Lemaitre universes is discussed.

Abstract:
This article describes the theory of cosmological perturbations around a homogeneous and anisotropic universe of the Bianchi I type. Starting from a general parameterisation of the perturbed spacetime a la Bardeen, a complete set of gauge invariant variables is constructed. Three physical degrees of freedom are identified and it is shown that, in the case where matter is described by a scalar field, they generalize the Mukhanov-Sasaki variables. In order to show that they are canonical variables, the action for the cosmological perturbations at second order is derived. Two major physical imprints of the primordial anisotropy are identified: (1) a scalar-tensor ``see-saw'' mechanism arising from the fact that scalar, vector and tensor modes do not decouple and (2) an explicit dependence of the statistical properties of the density perturbations and gravity waves on the wave-vector instead of its norm. This analysis extends, but also sheds some light on, the quantization procedure that was developed under the assumption of a Friedmann-Lemaitre background spacetime, and allows to investigate the robustness of the predictions of the standard inflationary scenario with respect to the hypothesis on the symmetries of the background spacetime. These effects of a primordial anisotropy may be related to some anomalies of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies on large angular scales.

Abstract:
The non-linear evolution of the energy density of the radiation is shown to induce spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background both at recombination and during the reionization era. This distortion has the same spectral signature as the one produced by the re-scattering of photons by non-relativistic hot electrons, the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, whose amplitude is quantified by a Compton y parameter. A diffuse y-sky is then expected to emerge from mode couplings in the non-linear evolution of the cosmological perturbations and to superimpose to the point source contributions of galaxy clusters. The equations describing the evolution of the y field and a hierarchy governing its angular multipoles are derived from the second order Boltzmann equation. These equations are then integrated numerically to obtain the first predicted power spectrum of the diffuse y-sky. It is found to be a remarkable tracer of the reionization history of the Universe.

Abstract:
This article provides a general study of the Hamiltonian stability and the hyperbolicity of vector field models involving both a general function of the Faraday tensor and its dual, $f(F^2,F\tilde F)$, as well as a Proca potential for the vector field, $V(A^2)$. In particular it is demonstrated that theories involving only $f(F^2)$ do not satisfy the hyperbolicity conditions. It is then shown that in this class of models, the cosmological dynamics always dilutes the vector field. In the case of a nonminimal coupling to gravity, it is established that theories involving $R f(A^2)$ or $Rf(F^2)$ are generically pathologic. To finish, we exhibit a model where the vector field is not diluted during the cosmological evolution, because of a nonminimal vector field-curvature coupling which maintains second-order field equations. The relevance of such models for cosmology is discussed.

Abstract:
This article presents the first computation of the complete bispectrum of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies arising from the evolution of all cosmic fluids up to second order, including neutrinos. Gravitational couplings, electron density fluctuations and the second order Boltzmann equation are fully taken into account. Comparison to limiting cases that appeared previously in the literature are provided. These are regimes for which analytical insights can be given. The final results are expressed in terms of equivalent fNL for different configurations. It is found that for moments up to lmax=2000, the signal generated by non-linear effects is equivalent to fNL~5 for both local-type and equilateral-type primordial non-Gaussianity.

Abstract:
This article investigates the predictions of an inflationary phase starting from a homogeneous and anisotropic universe of the Bianchi I type. After discussing the evolution of the background spacetime, focusing on the number of e-folds and the isotropization, we solve the perturbation equations and predict the power spectra of the curvature perturbations and gravity waves at the end of inflation. The main features of the early anisotropic phase is (1) a dependence of the spectra on the direction of the modes, (2) a coupling between curvature perturbations and gravity waves, and (3) the fact that the two gravity waves polarisations do not share the same spectrum on large scales. All these effects are significant only on large scales and die out on small scales where isotropy is recovered. They depend on a characteristic scale that can, but a priori must not, be tuned to some observable scale. To fix the initial conditions, we propose a procedure that generalises the one standardly used in inflation but that takes into account the fact that the WKB regime is violated at early times when the shear dominates. We stress that there exist modes that do not satisfy the WKB condition during the shear-dominated regime and for which the amplitude at the end of inflation depends on unknown initial conditions. On such scales, inflation loses its predictability. This study paves the way to the determination of the cosmological signature of a primordial shear, whatever the Bianchi I spacetime. It thus stresses the importance of the WKB regime to draw inflationary predictions and demonstrates that when the number of e-folds is large enough, the predictions converge toward those of inflation in a Friedmann-Lemaitre spacetime but that they are less robust in the case of an inflationary era with a small number of e-folds.

Abstract:
This article investigates the stability of a generic Kasner spacetime to linear perturbations, both at late and early times. It demonstrates that the perturbation of the Weyl tensor diverges at late time in all cases but in the particular one in which the Kasner spacetime is the product of a two-dimensional Milne spacetime and a two-dimensional Euclidean space. At early times, the perturbation of the Weyl tensor also diverges unless one imposes a condition on the perturbations so as to avoid the most divergent modes to be excited.

Abstract:
This article derives a multipolar hierarchy for the propagation of the weak-lensing shear and convergence in a general spacetime. The origin of B-modes, in particular on large angular scales, is related to the local isotropy of space. Known results assuming a Friedmann-Lema\^itre background are naturally recovered. The example of a Bianchi I spacetime illustrates our formalism and its implications for future observations are stressed.

Abstract:
This article constructs flat-sky approximations in a controlled way in the context of the cosmic microwave background observations for the computation of both spectra and bispectra. For angular spectra, it is explicitly shown that there exists a whole family of flat-sky approximations of similar accuracy for which the expression and amplitude of next to leading order terms can be explicitly computed. It is noted that in this context two limiting cases can be encountered for which the expressions can be further simplified. They correspond to cases where either the sources are localized in a narrow region (thin-shell approximation) or are slowly varying over a large distance (which leads to the so-called Limber approximation). Applying this to the calculation of the spectra it is shown that, as long as the late integrated Sachs-Wolfe contribution is neglected, the flat-sky approximation at leading order is accurate at 1% level for any multipole. Generalization of this construction scheme to the bispectra led to the introduction of an alternative description of the bispectra for which the flat-sky approximation is well controlled. This is not the case for the usual description of the bispectrum in terms of reduced bispectrum for which a flat-sky approximation is proposed but the next-to-leading order terms of which remain obscure.

Abstract:
This paper proposes a necessary clarification about
the problematic of super-quantum correlations, whose mainstream debate relies
on an incorrect, statistical interpretation of the no-signaling condition. The
no-signaling condition is an informational constraint that limits the strength
of non-local correlations to the Tsirelson bound.