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Penetrating Abdominal Trauma: Experience in A Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Southern Nigeria  [PDF]
Maurice Asuquo, Mark Umoh, Victor Nwagbara, Gabriel Ugare, Cyril Agbor, Emmanuel Japhet
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.35079
Abstract: Background: Penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT) typically involves the violation of the abdominal cavity by a gun-shot wound (GSW) or stab wound Recently several studies have favored a more conservative approach as opposed to mandatory exploratory laparotomy. Methods: Patients admitted in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar, with PAT from January 2008 to December 2010 were prospectively studied based on a questionnaire. The total number of patients with PAT was compared with total number of emergencies, traumatic injuries and abdominal trauma seen during the same period. Results: A total of 48 patients presented with abdominal trauma: PAT 29 (60%) and blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) 19 (40%). The ages of the patients (28 male, 1 female) ranged from 3 - 62 years (mean 28.1 years). Gunshot wound (GSW) 11 (38%) patients, stab wound 8 (27.6%) patients and machete cut 4 (13.8%) patients ranked first, second and third respectively as causes of PAT. The commonest organ injury was perforation of the small intestine. Four (13.8%) patients were managed conservatively while 25 (86.2%) patients had laparotomy. The duration of admission ranged from 2 - 19 days (mean 10.5 days). Morbidity [surgical site infection (SSI)] and mortality were recorded in 2 (6.9%) and 3 (10.3%) patients respectively. Conclusion: Key areas that require attention have been highlighted. Revamping the ailing economy and gainful employment for youths are paramount areas that require prompt, dedicated and sustained intervention for reduction in violent crimes.
Blunt Abdominal Trauma in a Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria  [PDF]
Maurice Asuquo, Victor Nwagbara, Mark Umoh, Gabriel Ugare, Cyril Agbor, Emmanuel Japhet, Anthonia Ikpeme
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.37124

Background: Road traffic injury remains a major source of blunt abdominal trauma (BAT). Road traffic injury and other forms of trauma have become a major health problem throughout the world especially in low and middle-income countries. In a previous study (2005-2007), abdominal trauma constituted 79 (4.8%) of trauma cases; BAT, 40 (53%) and penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT), 39 (47%). Effective policies on road safety should be developed based on local research and not on adapted models. We present this study to highlight the possible effect of legislation on the ban of the use of motorcycles on blunt abdominal trauma. Methods: Patients that presented to the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar with BAT from 2008-2010 were prospectively studied based on a questionnaire following the legislation prohibiting the use of motorcycles. Results: A total of 12,083 patients presented during the study period, trauma patients totaled 4942 (41%), of this, 48 (1%) suffered abdominal trauma: BAT 19 (40%), penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT) 29 (60%). The age range of the patients was from 5 to 48 years (mean 26.6 years) with a M:F = 5.3:1. Road traffic accident (RTA) 17 (90%) [Motorvehicle 7 (37%), motorcycles 10 (53%)] was the commonest cause of trauma. The spleen was the commonest injured organ 14 (74%). Conclusion: Road traffic injury constitutes a public health challenge and the hallmark is prevention. Legislation prohibiting the use of motorcycles may have been responsible for the reduction in BAT.

Boundedness and Compactness of Toeplitz operators with L^1 symbols on the Bergman space
Dieudonne Agbor
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: We characterise the boundedness of a Toeplitz operator on the Bergman space with an L^1 symbol.We also prove that the compactness of a Toeplitz operator on the Bergman space with an L^1 symbol is completely determined by the boundary behaviour of itss Berezin transform. This result extends known results in the cases when the symbol is either a positive L^1 function, an L^\infty function or a general BMO^1 function.
Boundedness and Compactness of products of Toeplitz operators on the Bergman Space
Dieudonne Agbor
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: In a celebrated conjecture D.Sarason stated a necessary and sufficient condition on the symbols f, g in the Bergman space, L^2_a(\Delta) of the unit disk, \Delta, for the products T_{f}T_{\bar g} of associated Toeplitz operators to be bounded (respectively compact) on L^2_a(\Delta) . K. Stroethoff and D. Zheng proved that these conditions are necessary. We prove the sufficiency of these conditions, thus solvind Sarason's conjecture.
Shallow Marine Cretaceous Sequences and Petroleum Geology of the Onshore Portion Rio del Rey Basin, Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea  [PDF]
Olivier Anoh Njoh, Agbor Junior Taku
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2016.62014
Abstract: Extensive thickly folded sedimentary sequences are exposed onshore of theRio del ReyBasin contrary to previous reports of their rarity. Shales predominate, frequently intercalated by marlstones, sandstones, mudstones, limestones and marls and have been intruded in places by volcanic rocks of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL). An integration of lithostratigraphic, paleontologic, granulometric and petrographic data generated from field and laboratory studies, permitted the identification of eleven (11) lithofacies which were subsequently grouped into three facies associations to facilitate the reconstruction of the paleo-depositional environment. Graphic logs constructed from the different outcrops studied revealed general coarsening upward sequences. Mega body fossils recovered from these sediments include severely altered, ferruginized fish and turtle-like heads, bivalve shells and moulds. Two bivalve taxa were identified:Exogyra ponderosa(Roemer) and members of theVenericardiinaesub-family. Textural and mineralogical details were obtained from granulometric and thin sections (microscopy). Interpretation of these data inferred an open relatively deeper marine, probably middle neritic to near shore transitionalintertidal environments into which these sediments previously dated as Lower to Upper Cretaceouswere deposited. Elements of a possible petroleum system: source and reservoir rocks, migratory pathways and
Evaluation of the Anti-Poaching Programme of the Cross River National Park Okwango Division, Nigeria 2002 to 2013  [PDF]
Augustine Ugar Ogogo, Sijah Agbor Asuk, Rebecca Victor Ikpeme
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2014.45054
Abstract: Poaching of wildlife has continued to be the major problem confronting national parks managers in Nigeria in spite of effort being made to curb the ugly trend. This paper examined the anti-poaching programme of the Cross River National Park Okwango Division Nigeria from 2002 to 2013, with a view to making recommendations for the improvement of the programme. Focused group discussions, personal interviews, review of official records and structured questionnaires were used to collect data. Analysis of variance using randomized complete block design and student’s t-test were used to analyse data. Result showed that 1 - 5 arrests of poachers per month per patrol station was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than 6 arrests and above. On the other hand, the number of hunters’ sheds and traps destroyed had 21 and above being significantly (P < 0.05) higher than 20 and below. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the number of poachers arrested and fined between 2002 to 2006 and 2007 to 2011. The low performance of the anti-poaching programme was attributed to poorly equipped rangers’ posts as well as well the absence of alternative livelihood options in the enclave and surrounding communities. It was recommended that more rangers should be employed, and the rangers should be adequately kitted, well equipped patrol stations be constructed and the enclave and surrounding communities be involved in the management of the National Park in addition to providing them with alternative livelihood options.
Evaluation of the Effect of Gurusa, a Ugandan Cereal-Based Fermented Food on Serum Lipid Profile and Body Weight of Wistar Albino Rats  [PDF]
Atamgba Agbor Asuk, Abbas Kisambira, Muhammad Lubowa, Denis Ssenabulya
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.74030
Abstract: The effect of Gurusa, a fermented traditional food on lipid profile and body weight was investigated. Thirty male albino rats weighing between 75 - 115 g assigned into five study groups designated A to E (n = 6) were fed 20 g of prepared pellets and tap water given ad libitum. The animals were served graded doses of Gurusa. Group A was served 100% rat chow pellets (made of maize bran); groups B, C and D were given pellets of 75% rat chow and 25% Gurusa, 50% rat chow and 50% Gurusa, 25% rat chow and 75% Gurusa respectively while group E was served 100% Gurusa. The lipid profile showed a dose dependent effect of Gurusa administration as one moves down the groups. Group D had a reverse action of group B and showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in TC, TG and HDL compared to groups A and B but a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in LDL compared to group B. Weight changes in group B produced a significant (P < 0.05) increase in MWI and GR compared to the other groups. There was no significant (P ≥ 0.05) difference in MWI and GR of group D when compared with group A. However group C showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in MWI and GR when compared with group A. Gurusa consumption alters both lipid profile and body weight and its combination with maize bran or other foods rich in dietary fibre, have potential to serve therapeutic purposes in the prevention of atherosclerosis and obesity depending on the intended objective.
Knowledge and practice of traditional healers in oral health in the Bui Division, Cameroon
Ashu M Agbor, Sudeshni Naidoo
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-7-6
Abstract: The present study was cross sectional and utilized semi-structured questionnaires to collect data.The sample consisted of 21 TH and 52 clients of TH. Sixty two percent of the TH's were above 40 years and 90% male. The mean age was 46 years (range 20-77 years). Twenty four percent of the TH practiced as herbalists and the remainder both divination and herbalism. Sixty seven percent of people in the Bui Division, who patronize TH for their oral health needs, fall within the 20-40 year age group. There is little collaboration between the oral health workers and TH and only 6% of all patients seen by TH are referred to the dentist. Socio-cultural and economic factors affect the oral health care seeking behavior of patients in this area and only 6.5% of patients visit dental clinics. Reasons for not attending dental clinics included high cost, poor accessibility, superstition and fear. TH's are not experienced in the treatment of pulpitis - the majority of patients who presented with toothache had temporary or no relief, but despite this 67% reported being satisfied with their treatment. Sixty nine percent of the patients visited TH because of low cost - the average cost of treatment with TH (approximately $5) is very low, as compared to conventional treatment ($50).Traditional healers are willing to co-operate with oral health workers in improving oral health. Since they have a vital role to play in health care seeking attitudes in this community and barriers affecting the oral health seeking behaviours should be removed. Mutual cooperation, collaboration and by integrating TH into primary oral health care services needs to be increased.A traditional healer is a person who has no formal medical training, but is recognized by the community in which he/she lives as being competent to provide health care by using plant, animal and mineral substances and certain other methods based on social, cultural and religious background as well as the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs
Information Communications Technology (ICT) Effect on Sustainable Development in Cameroon’s Fragile Economy
Johnnes Arreymbi,Esther A. Agbor
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v1n1p75
Abstract: This paper looks at how sustainable development is effected and affected by Information Communication Technology (ICT) in Cameroon – West Africa. It highlights some of the socio-economic, political and environmental issues involved in the adoption and use of ICT by Small to Medium size Enterprises (SMEs) and Government Institutions (GI), and the effect on sustainable development. It will attempt to bring some understanding of the peculiarities and challenges faced by SMEs, together with the opportunities to influence societal changes and integration into the digital world.
Potassium and Manganese Fertilization and the Effects on Millet Seed Yield, Seed Quality, and Forage Potential of Residual Stalks  [PDF]
Maru Kipleting Kering, Cyril Broderick
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/as.2018.97061
Abstract: Millets are important natural grain source for wild and game birds and the domesticated varieties are good sources of grain for human and livestock nutrition as well as summer forage. Unlike sorghum, millet seed has less anti-nutrient factors and is a better choice for animal feed formulations. Pearl millet is an example of such millets and has both forage- and grain-type varieties. However, opportunities exist for dual use of millet for grain and residue for forage. In this study two millets: Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. (Pearl millet var. TifGrain 102) and Panicum ramosum (L.) (Browntop millet) were evaluated for their response to potassium (K) and manganese (Mn) fertilizer. The experiment was a randomized complete block with treatments in a split-split arrangement. Potassium and Mn were supplied as K fertilizer (0-0-60) and manganese sulfate (MnSO4·2H2O), respectively. Potassium and Mn fertilizer rates and their interaction with each other and variety had no effect on determined parameters. TifGrain 102 grain yield averaged at 5900 kg·ha-1 was significantly greater than 4680 kg·ha-1 obtained for Browntop millet. While grain oil contents were similar, Browntop grain had greater contents of crude proteins. And except for K, Browntop seed had greater contents of all determined macro-and micronutrients. Residual stalks of Browntop had greater forage crude protein, total digestible nutrient (TDN) and lower acid detergent fiber (ADF). Browntop residual material had greater quantities of estimated net energy for growth (NEG), lactation (NEL), maintenance (NME). While TifGrain 102 residual stalks had greater contents of P and K, it had significantly lower contents of Ca, Mg and S compared to Browntop. Overall, while these two millets have shown good potential for dual use, Browntop may offer a better choice for high quality seed and residual stalks for forage.
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