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Implications of Land Use Land Cover Change and Climate Variability on Future Prospects of Beef Cattle Production in the Lake Victoria Basin  [PDF]
Japhet Joel Kashaigili, Emmanuel Zziwa, Siwa Ernest, Emma Laswai, Bernard Musana Segatagara, Denis Mpairwe, Reuben Mpuya Joseph Kadigi, Cyprian Ebong, Samuel Katambi Mugasi, Germana Henry Laswai, Mutimura Mupenzi, Polycarp Jacob Ngowi, Ibrahim Lwaho Kadigi
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2015.45037
Abstract: This paper presents the lessons learnt from a research project titled “Improving Beef Cattle Productivity for Enhanced Food Security and Efficient Utilization of Natural Resources in the Lake Victoria Basin” which includes Tanzania, Uganda and Rwanda. The key focus is on the implications of land use land cover change and climate variability on the future prospects of beef cattle production in this region. The study utilizes information and data from natural resources and climate components to deduce the impact of land use and land cover changes on climate variability. Additional analysis is conducted to summarize the land use and land cover data to carry out analysis on climate data using the Mann-Kendal test, linear regression and moving averages to reveal patterns of change and trends in annual and seasonal rainfall and temperature. The findings reveal that the study areas of Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania in the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) have changed over time following land cover manipulations and land use change, coupled with climate variability. The grazing land has been converted to agriculture and settlements, thereby reducing cattle grazing land which is the cheapest and major feed source for ruminant livestock production. Although the cattle population has been on the increase in the same period, it has been largely attributed to the fact that the carrying capacity of available grazing areas had not been attained. The current stocking rates in the LVB reveal that the rangelands are greatly overstocked and overgrazed with land degradation already evidenced in some areas. Climate variability coupled with a decrease in grazing resources is driving unprecedented forage scarcity which is now a major limiting factor to cattle production. Crop cultivation and settlement expansion are major land use types overtaking grazing lands; therefore the incorporation of crop residues into ruminant feeding systems could be a feasible way to curtail rangeland degradation and increase beef cattle production.
A Glorious Literature on Linear Goal Programming Algorithms  [PDF]
Ukamaka Cynthia Orumie, Daniel Ebong
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2014.42007

In the last several years, there has been a marked improvement in the development of new algorithms for solving Linear Goal programming (LGP). This paper presents a survey of current methods for LGP.

Island dynamics and Minoan expansion in the Aegean: the Kythera Island Project
Cyprian Broodbank
Archaeology International , 1999, DOI: 10.5334/ai.0308
Abstract: In recent years archaeologists have become increasingly interested in the investigation of island societies. At a global level, discoveries in the Pacific, Caribbean, Mediterranean and elsewhere have greatly improved our understanding of the antiquity and dynamics of island life. Now archaeologists at the Institute, together with other colleagues, have embarked on a long-term interdisciplinary study of the island of Kythera in the Aegean.
Response to the Review The French Revolution and the Creation of Benthamism
Cyprian Blamires
Revue d’études Benthamiennes , 2009,
Abstract: I am grateful to Emmanuelle de Champs for her positive and perceptive account of The French Revolution and the Creation of Benthamism, and I am also grateful to her for making it possible for me to offer some observations in response to her review. I have to plead guilty to her complaint that my approach is somewhat ‘provocative’: I am hoping that it will stimulate (or ‘provoke’) important debate about the issues I have raised, leading to a recognition that Bentham is a very much more crucial...
A Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Some Artemisinin Combination Therapies on Plasmodium berghei in Swiss Albino Mice  [PDF]
U. O. Georgewill, O. O. Ebong
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.31016
Abstract: This study evaluated and compared the efficacy of five brands of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs); Dihydroartemisinin plus Piperaquine, Artesunate plus Amodiaquine, Artesunate plus Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamine, Artemether plus lumefantrine and Artesunate plus mefloquine combinations in vivo in P.berghei infected swiss albino mice. The experimental animals were pre-screened to rule out infection. All drugs were administered as clinical doses for the curative test and the Mean Percentage Parasitemia level assessed daily for seven days and on day 60. The results showed that all the drugs were effective with artesunate plus amodiaquine combination being the most efficacious followed by dihydroartemisinin plus piperaquine and artesunate plus sulphadoxine plus pyrimethamine combinations followed by artesunate plus mefloquine combination and artemether plus lumefantrine combination which was the least efficacious. Results on day 60 showed increasing parasitemia levels in mice which received Artemether plus lumefantrine and Artesunate plus mefloquine combinations which is indicative of recrudescence. The results of this study showed that the ACT’s used in the experiment were all efficacious. The possible development of resistance to some of the drugs was shown by the increasing parasitemia levels following treatment with artesunate plus lumefantrine and artesunate plus mefloquine combinations on day 60.
A Review of Activity Time Distributions in Risk Analysis  [PDF]
Enobong Francis Udoumoh, Daniel W. Ebong
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2017.76027
Abstract: Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) alongside recent modifications is a popular and useful tool in project risk analysis. Over the past seven decades, there have been some modifications in PERT owing to the shift from beta distributed activity times to other activity time distributions. This paper presents a review of activity time distributions in risk analysis as found in literature up to date.
Modified Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test  [PDF]
Ikewelugo Cyprian Anaene Oyeka, Godday Uwawunkonye Ebuh
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2012.22019
Abstract: This paper briefly reviews the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test and proposes a modification. Unlike the Wilcoxon method, the proposed approach does not require that the populations being studied be continuous. Also unlike the Wilcoxon signed rank test the proposed method, does not require the absence of zero differences or tied absolute values of differences. Rather the proposed method structurally makes provisions for these possibilities. The proposed test statistic also enables the estimation of the probabilities of positive, zero or tied and negative differences within the data. This was illustrated with an example and the proposed method was generally more efficient and hence more powerful than the Wilcoxon test statistic with the power increasing as the number of tied observations or zero differences increases.
Statistical Comparison of Eight Alternative Methods for the Analysis of Paired Sample Data with Applications  [PDF]
Godday Uwawunkonye Ebuh, Ikewelugo Cyprian Anaene Oyeka
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2012.23041
Abstract: This paper presents and statistically compared eight alternative methods that could possibly be used in the analysis of matched or paired sample data, including situations in which the data being analyzed satisfy the usual assumptions of normality and continuity necessary for the use of parametric tests as well as when the data are numeric and non-numeric measurements on as low as the ordinal scale. It is shown that only the modified sign tests based on only the raw observations or their assigned ranks may be used with non numeric measurement on the ordinal scale. If the ordinary sign test, the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test and the modified sign tests can be equally used in data analysis, then it is shown that the modified sign tests are more efficient and hence more powerful than the ordinary sign tests because the two test statistics are intrinsically and structurally modified for the possible presence of tied observations between the sampled populations for both using raw and simulated data. Of all the non-parametric methods presented, the modified Wilcoxon’s signed rank sum test when applicable is the most efficient and powerful, following in this order by the modified sign test by ranks and the modified sign test based on only raw scores for raw data but simulation, modified sign test by ranks is the most efficient and powerful, following in this order by modified wilcoxon’s signed rank sum test and modified sign test. Each of the non-parametric methods presented can be easily modified and re-specified for use with one sample data by simply re-designating the observations from one of the sampled populations to correspond with a hypothesized value of some measure of central tendency. The methods are illustrated with some raw data as well as simulated data and their relative performances compared.
Adult Learning Development from the Prism of Homestay
Onwubiko Emeka Cyprian
Higher Education Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/hes.v2n3p77
Abstract: This study seeks to understand how adult learning takes place in homestay programme at Kanchong Darat, Banting, and Selangor in Malaysia. The study seeks to provide an overview evaluation and some salient lessons that could be derived in providing quality homestay services to learners. More so, the study succinctly covers socio-cultural issues in the homestay environment, such as the general services, and policy governing the programme. Furthermore, the study looks at the qualification requirements for participation in the homestay programme. It also apprised readers on how adult learning has changed dramatically over the years through self-directed knowledge and skills acquisition in the homestay arrangement. In addition, the study brings to fore some issues and challenges that the operators and learners encounter in homestay programme in Malaysia. The study indicated that adult learners in homestay programme arrangement learn through their experiences, and are mostly self-directed in learning. Questionnaires, interview, and observation were used in the study.
Gender Digital Divide: Comparative Assessment of the Information Communications Technologies and Literacy Levels of Students in Nigeria
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh
Information Technology Journal , 2010,
Abstract: The Information Communications Technologies (ICTs) are driving development. Their adoption and integration has become imperative for national development. This study investigated for comparison the ICTs literacy levels of boy and girl-students of senior secondary Grade III in Nigeria, using Enugu State as the case study. Although, ICTs literacy levels were generally poor, the boy-students were better all-round than the girl-students in ICTs literacy parameters tested, namely, ability to process words, access the web for browsing and managing web contents, thereby establishing existence of gender digital divide in the system. The implications of the poor literacy levels and the observed gender digital divide for development were given and recommendations were proffered for narrowing the divide.
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