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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 227878 matches for " Cynthia R. Howard "
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Maternal and infant vitamin D status during lactation: Is latitude important?  [PDF]
Carol L. Wagner, Cynthia R. Howard, Thomas C. Hulsey, Ruth A. Lawrence, Myla Ebeling, Judy Shary, Pamela G. Smith, Kristen Morella, Sarah N. Taylor, Bruce W. Hollis
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512271

Background: The effect of latitude on maternal and infant vitamin D status during lactation is presumed to be strongly associated with higher rates of deficiency in those living at higher latitudes, yet with lifestyle changes, this conclusion may no longer be correct. Objective: To ascertain if higher latitude adversely affects the vitamin D status of lactating women and their fully breastfeeding infants. Study Design/Methods: Fully breastfeeding women and their infants were eligible for participation in this study as part of a larger prospective vitamin D supplementation trial. Women were recruited from two sites of differing latitude: Charleston, SC at 32°N and Rochester, NY at latitude 43°N. Maternal and infant baseline vitamin D status, intact parathyroid hormone (IPTH), serum calcium and phosphorus as a function of site/latitude were measured. The primary outcome was maternal and infant total circulating 25(OH)D at baseline by center/latitude, and the secondary outcome was the percent of women and infants who had achieved a baseline concentration of at least 20 ng/mL, meeting the Institute of Medicine’s definition of sufficiency at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS version 9.3. Results: Higher latitude adversely affected vitamin D status only in lactating Caucasian women. African American and Hispanic women and infants living in Rochester compared to Charleston had improved vitamin D status, an effect that was no longer significant when controlling for socioeconomic factors and season. Overall, there was a significant vitamin D deficiency at baseline in lactating mothers, and a far greater deficiency in their infants. Maternal baseline 25(OH)D concentration remained positively associated with being Caucasian, BMI and summer months. Breastfeeding infant vitamin D status mirrored maternal status and remained positively associated with being Caucasian and summer months. Those infants who had been on a vitamin D supplement at the time of enrollment in the study had markedly

Determining the Authenticity of Artifacts by Oxygen Isotope Analysis  [PDF]
Joel Kronfeld, Amnon Rosenfeld, Howard R. Feldman
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2013.34036

A technique used to determine the authenticity of artifacts that compares the oxygen isotopic composition of speleothems to the carbonate included within the patina of unprovenanced artifacts is of questionable value. The unprovenanced Jehoash Inscription Tablet and James Ossuary are of potentially immense historical and cultural importance. Nevertheless, they both were rejected by workers based on the oxygen isotope technique which provided the major foundational evidence of forgery in the longest running archaeological trial in Israel. Nevertheless, both these artifacts were determined not to be forged. The initial incongruence between the oxygen isotopes of the speleothems of the Soreq cave (Israel) purported to represent the unique composition of Jerusalem rainfall, and the patina on the artifacts, can be readily explained by the accretion of materials and geo-biochemical processes expected in normal patina formation in the Jerusalem region. The patina formation involves sporadic events in disequilibrium kinetic processes that are opposed to the equilibrium formation of speleothems in a sealed cave. Moreover, 23 of 56 patina samples (41%) on well-documented ancient artifacts from Israel yielded oxygen isotope values greater or lower than the expected speleothem values of -4 δ18O ‰ [PDB] to -6 δ18O ‰ [PDB]. Thus, the speleothem-patina correlation is invalid and the applied oxygen isotopes technique for determining the authenticity of patinas on artifacts is not a useful tool in the authentication of artifacts.

A Continuous Health Monitoring System for Photovoltaic Array Using Arduino Microcontroller  [PDF]
P. Pounraj, D. Prince Winston, S. Cynthia Christabel, R. Ramaraj
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.711297
Abstract: In this paper new technique is developed to monitor the health status of the PV panels in the array. For finding the health status short circuit current is measured continuously over a fixed time period. This technique can classify the health status into four categories such as Healthy, Low Fault, Medium Fault and High Fault. By this classification faulty operation can be rectified and power generation may be improved. In case of high faults, PV panels can be protected. The cost requirement for the implementation is very low. The proposed technique is implemented in MATLAB Simulation and hardware. The array considered in this paper is 2?× 2 Series Parallel.
A Unique Predatory Association Between Carabid Beetles of the Genus Helluomorphoides and Colonies of the Army Ant Neivamyrmex Nigrescens
Howard R. Topoff
Psyche , 1969, DOI: 10.1155/1969/51538
Growing up in New York City: A Generational Memoir (1941–1960)
Howard R. Wolf
American Studies Journal , 2010,
Abstract: If historians tend to proceed from external data to hidden motivation of key players, the personal essayist typically moves from the intimate level to the plane of sociology, politics, and history. He becomes, therefore, a generational memoirist. In this autobiographical essay, Howard R. Wolf seeks to become a generational memoirist of New York City.
Inverse methods in hydrologic optics
Howard R. Gordon
Oceanologia , 2002,
Abstract: Methods for solving the hydrologic-optics inverse problem, i.e., estimating the inherent optical properties of a water body based solely on measurements of the apparent optical properties, are reviewed in detail. A new method is developed for the inverse problem in water bodies in which fluorescence is important. It is shown that in principle, given profiles of the spectra of up- and downwelling irradiance, estimation of the coefficient of inelastic scattering from any wave band to any other wave band can be effected.
Recruitment and Resilience of a Harvested Caribbean Octocoral
Howard R. Lasker
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074587
Abstract: Disturbance events are an important component of the ecology of coral reefs and increasingly frequent disturbances coupled with a lack of population resilience may contribute to changes in the structure of coral reef communities. The harvest of the Caribbean octocoral Antillogorgia elisabethae provides an opportunity to explore the relationship between adult abundance and recruitment and the manner in which recruitment contributes to the resilience of local populations. Recruitment of A. elisabethae was monitored in 20, 1-m2 quadrats at 8 sites along the southern edge of the Little Bahama Bank from 2004 through 2007. A. elisabethae has been harvested in The Bahamas for over fifteen years and all of the sites had been harvested three times, including a harvest during the course of the study. Abundances of adult colonies at those sites as well as a location that had not been harvested were also determined. Recruitment was highly variable, differing between sites, transects within sites, and, depending on the site, between years. Recruitment was best correlated with adult abundance averaged across the surrounding site. Regression analyses suggest abundance on smaller scales had only small effects on recruitment. The effects of the harvesting were site specific ranging from a 38 to 67% reduction in the density of mature colonies. The sites with the most abundant A. elisabethae continued to have the highest abundances after harvesting and there was no significant difference in recruitment before and after harvesting. Population size-structure at 6 of 8 sites that have been harvested multiple times exhibited an overall depletion in small colonies suggesting long term suppression of recruitment and declining populations. Severe depression of adult abundances coupled with local recruitment can create a negative feedback and lead to the decline of local populations. Populations that are dependent on self-recruitment are not resilient to large disturbance events.
Comparison and Rigidity Theorems in Semi-Riemannian Geometry
L. Andersson,R. Howard
Mathematics , 1997,
Abstract: The comparison theory for the Riccati equation satisfied by the shape operator of parallel hypersurfaces is generalized to semi-Riemannian manifolds of arbitrary index, using one-sided bounds on the Riemann tensor which in the Riemannian case correspond to one-sided bounds on the sectional curvatures. Starting from 2-dimensional rigidity results and using an inductive technique, a new class of gap-type rigidity theorems is proved for semi-Riemannian manifolds of arbitrary index, generalizing those first given by Gromov and Greene-Wu. As applications we prove rigidity results for semi-Riemannian manifolds with simply connected ends of constant curvature.
The Authenticity of the James Ossuary  [PDF]
Amnon Rosenfeld, Howard R. Feldman, Wolfgang E. Krumbein
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2014.43007
Abstract: An archaeometric analysis of the James Ossuary inscription “James Son of Joseph Brother of Jesus” strengthens the contention that the ossuary and its engravings are authentic. The beige patina can be observed on the surface of the ossuary, continuing gradationally into the engraved inscription. Fine long striations made by the friction of falling roof rocks continuously crosscut the letters. Many dissolution pits are superimposed on several of the letters of the inscription. In addition to calcite and quartz, the patina contains the following minerals: apatite, whewellite and weddelite (calcium oxalate). These minerals result from the biogenic activity of microorganisms that require a long period of time to form a bio-patina. Moreover, the heterogeneous existence of wind-blown microfossils (nannofossils and foraminifers) and quartz within the patina of the ossuary, including the lettering zone, reinforces the authenticity of the inscription.
Elecciones en anticoncepción quirúrgica: una mirada sobre la relación entre la técnica y la persona
del Río Fortuna,Cynthia;
Runa , 2009,
Abstract: contraceptive practices can be anthropologically approached as technical activities taking place in people's everyday life. to study their choice we must consider the wider social and symbolic context, involving "non-technical" aspects. based on an ethnographic study carried out in an obstetrician public service in buenos aires, this article addresses the relationship between technique and person-building in the case of female surgical contraception from the perspective of health professionals. we examine the practices and representations by which these professionals regulate the access to that practice, which allows us to identify ways of biomedic definition and intervention of female bodies.
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