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Background: The effect of latitude on maternal and infant vitamin D status during lactation is presumed to be strongly associated with higher rates of deficiency in those living at higher latitudes, yet with lifestyle changes, this conclusion may no longer be correct. Objective: To ascertain if higher latitude adversely affects the vitamin D status of lactating women and their fully breastfeeding infants. Study Design/Methods: Fully breastfeeding women and their infants were eligible for participation in this study as part of a larger prospective vitamin D supplementation trial. Women were recruited from two sites of differing latitude: Charleston, SC at 32°N and Rochester, NY at latitude 43°N. Maternal and infant baseline vitamin D status, intact parathyroid hormone (IPTH), serum calcium and phosphorus as a function of site/latitude were measured. The primary outcome was maternal and infant total circulating 25(OH)D at baseline by center/latitude, and the secondary outcome was the percent of women and infants who had achieved a baseline concentration of at least 20 ng/mL, meeting the Institute of Medicine’s definition of sufficiency at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS version 9.3. Results: Higher latitude adversely affected vitamin D status only in lactating Caucasian women. African American and Hispanic women and infants living in Rochester compared to Charleston had improved vitamin D status, an effect that was no longer significant when controlling for socioeconomic factors and season. Overall, there was a significant vitamin D deficiency at baseline in lactating mothers, and a far greater deficiency in their infants. Maternal baseline 25(OH)D concentration remained positively associated with being Caucasian, BMI and summer months. Breastfeeding infant vitamin D status mirrored maternal status and remained positively associated with being Caucasian and summer months. Those infants who had been on a vitamin D supplement at the time of enrollment in the study had markedly
used to determine the authenticity of artifacts that compares the oxygen
isotopic composition of speleothems to the carbonate included within the patina
of unprovenanced artifacts is of questionable value. The unprovenanced Jehoash
Inscription Tablet and James Ossuary are of potentially immense historical and
cultural importance. Nevertheless, they
both were rejected by workers based on the oxygen isotope technique which provided the major foundational
evidence of forgery in the longest running archaeological trial in Israel.
Nevertheless, both these artifacts were determined not to be forged. The initial incongruence between the oxygen
isotopes of the speleothems of the Soreq cave (Israel) purported to represent
the unique composition of Jerusalem rainfall, and the patina on the artifacts,
can be readily explained by the accretion of materials and geo-biochemical
processes expected in normal patina formation in the Jerusalem region. The
patina formation involves sporadic events in disequilibrium kinetic processes
that are opposed to the equilibrium formation of
speleothems in a sealed cave. Moreover, 23 of 56 patina samples (41%) on well-documented
ancient artifacts from Israel yielded oxygen isotope values greater or lower
than the expected speleothem values of -4 δ18O ‰ [PDB] to -6 δ18O ‰ [PDB].
Thus, the speleothem-patina correlation is invalid and the applied oxygen
isotopes technique for determining the authenticity of patinas on artifacts is
not a useful tool in the authentication of artifacts.