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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 402840 matches for " Cynthia M. Smas "
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Expression and regulation of transcript for the novel transmembrane protein Tmem182 in the adipocyte and muscle lineage
Yu Wu, Cynthia M Smas
BMC Research Notes , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-1-85
Abstract: We previously observed a 45-fold upregulation for a transcript encoding a novel predicted transmembrane protein, Tmem182, upon brown preadipocyte to adipocyte conversion. Here we use real-time PCR analysis to further characterize Tmem182 transcript expression in the adipocyte lineage. Analysis across a panel of 10 murine tissues revealed highest Tmem182 transcript expression in white adipose tissues (WAT), with 10-fold to 20-fold higher levels than in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Tmem182 transcript expression is ~3-fold upregulated in BAT of genetically obese (ob/ob) mice vs. wild type C57BL/6. Analysis of three in vitro models of white adipogenesis indicates markedly enriched expression of Tmem182 transcript in adipocytes vs. preadipocytes. Compared to 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, a 157-fold higher level of Tmem182 transcript is detected at 3 day post-induction of adipogenesis and an ~2500-fold higher level in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. TNFα treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in a ~90% decrease in Tmem182 transcript level. As skeletal muscle and heart were also found to express Tmem182 transcript, we assessed expression in C2C12 myogenesis and observed a ~770-fold upregulation upon conversion of myoblasts to myocytes.WAT is the most prominent site of Tmem182 transcript expression and levels of transcript for Tmem182 are altered in adipose tissues of ob/ob mice and upon exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα. The dramatic upregulation of Tmem182 transcript during in vitro adipogenesis and myogenesis suggests Tmem182 may function in intracellular pathways important in these two cell types.White adipose tissue (WAT) is the major site for storage of excess energy and these triglyceride stores are mobilized to meet the energy needs of the organism. Adipose tissue is now also recognized as an endocrine organ with synthesis and secretion of a variety of soluble factors such as leptin, resistin, adiponectin, retinol binding protein-4 and TNFα [1-4].
The Immunoglobulin Superfamily Protein Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells 1 (Dies1) Has a Regulatory Role in Preadipocyte to Adipocyte Conversion
Gang Ren, Cameron Beech, Cynthia M. Smas
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065531
Abstract: Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells 1 (Dies1) was recently identified as a novel type I immunoglobulin (IgG) domain-containing plasma membrane protein important for effective differentiation of a murine pluripotent embryonic stem cell line. In this setting, Dies1 enhances bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling. Here we show Dies1 transcript expression is induced ~225-fold during in vitro adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 murine preadipocytes. Immunocytochemical imaging using ectopic expression of Flag-tagged Dies1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes revealed localization to the adipocyte plasma membrane. Modulation of adipocyte phenotype with with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) treatment or by siRNA knockdown of the master pro-adipogenic transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) resulted in a 90% and 60% reduction of Dies1 transcript levels, respectively. Moreover, siRNA-mediated Dies1 knockdown in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes inhibited adipogenic conversion. Such cultures had a 35% decrease in lipid content and a 45%–65% reduction in expression of key adipocyte transcripts, including that for PPARγ. The standard protocol for full in vitro adipogenic conversion of committed preadipocytes, such as 3T3-L1, does not include BMP4 treatment. Thus we posit the positive role of Dies1 in adipogenesis, unlike that for Dies1 in differentiation of embryonic stem cells, does not include its pro-BMP4 effects. In support of this idea, 3T3-L1 adipocytes knocked down for Dies1 did not evidence decreased phospho-Smad1 levels upon BMP4 exposure. qPCR analysis of Dies1 transcript in multiple murine and human tissues reveals high enrichment in white adipose tissue (WAT). Interestingly, we observed a 10-fold induction of Dies1 transcript in WAT of fasted vs. fed mice, suggesting a role for Dies1 in nutritional response of mature fat cells in vivo. Together our data identify Dies1 as a new differentiation-dependent adipocyte plasma membrane protein whose expression is required for effective adipogenesis and that may also play a role in regard to nutritional status in WAT.
Differential screening identifies transcripts with depot-dependent expression in white adipose tissues
Yu Wu, Ji Kim, Shengli Zhou, Cynthia M Smas
BMC Genomics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-397
Abstract: Differential screening and qPCR validation identified 7 transcripts with 2.5-fold or greater enrichment in EP vs. SC adipocytes. Boc, a component of the hedgehog signaling pathway demonstrated highest enrichment (~12-fold) in EP adipocytes. We also identified a dramatic enrichment in SC adipocytes vs. EP adipocytes and in SC WAT vs. EP WAT for transcript(s) for the major urinary proteins (Mups), small secreted proteins with pheromone functions that are members of the lipocalin family. Expression of Boc and Mup transcript was further assessed in murine tissues, adipogenesis models, and obesity. qPCR analysis reveals that EP WAT is a major site of expression of Boc transcript. Furthermore, Boc transcript expression decreased in obese EP WAT with a concomitant upregulation of Boc transcript in the obese SC WAT depot. Assessment of the Boc binding partner Cdon in adipose tissue and cell fractions thereof, revealed transcript expression similar to Boc; suggestive of a role for the Boc-Cdon axis in WAT depot function. Mup transcripts were predominantly expressed in liver and in the SC and RP WAT depots and increased several thousand-fold during differentiation of primary murine preadipocytes to adipocytes. Mup transcripts were also markedly reduced in SC WAT and liver of ob/ob genetically obese mice compared to wild type.Further assessment of WAT depot-enriched transcripts may uncover distinctions in WAT depot gene expression that illuminate the physiological impact of regional adiposity.In addition to its role in energy storage and mobilization, white adipose tissue (WAT) is an important endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes various hormones and adipokines, a number of which impact systemic energy balance [1-4]. Various studies in humans and rodents have illuminated distinctions in the physiology, lipolytic response, gene expression and other aspects of adipocytes present in different WAT depots [5-20]. These observations have led to the suggestion that individua
Delay of Game: A Content Analysis of Coverage of Black Male Athletes by Magazines and News Websites 2002-2012  [PDF]
Cynthia M. Frisby
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2016.44009
Abstract: According to research on sports media, reporters have both gender and racial biases. Women are marginalized in the media (Billings, Halone, & Denham, 2002), and athletes are stereotyped based on race (Banet-Weiser, 1999). These depictions affect the public’s image of athletics and particular athletes. The purpose of this analysis is to determine if White male athletes are offered both more media attention and more salient coverage than Black male athletes (Billings, Halone, & Denham, 2002). Data obtained in the analysis show that, currently, coverage of athletes is not equal quantitatively or qualitatively. Disproportionate coverage involving black male athletes was found in news stories that involved instances of crime, domestic/sexual violence, moral failure, and/or the athlete’s “natural” skills and abilities.
A Content Analysis of Serena Williams and Angelique Kerber’s Racial and Sexist Microagressions  [PDF]
Cynthia M. Frisby
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.55019
Abstract: The primary purpose of this exploratory study was to determine if microaggressions regularly found in sport coverage were present in stories about two elite female tennis players. Microaggressions are subtle statements that unconsciously communicate denigrating messages to female athletes. In recent years, qualitative studies have introduced the types of microaggressions that female athletes experience. In the present study, a content analysis of 643 news stories was conducted in order to provide a quantitative measure of the frequency in which microaggressions appear in news stories about female athletes. Serena Williams, ranked number two in the list of top female tennis players, was selected because several qualitative studies show this female athlete of color is often the victim of racial slurs and epitaphs in news stories, as well as, news reports that feature insults to her physical appearance and body type. Angelique Kerber, the number one ranked female tennis player was selected in order to determine if an athlete of color receives more micro-aggresions than a top-ranked White female athlete. Data show that Serena Williams experienced more microaggresive themes related to gender roles and racial insults than Angelique Kerber (p < 0.0000). It is concluded that future research should explore in greater depth the microagression aimed at Black female athletes in all levels of sports and their participation.
Sacrificing Dignity for Publicity: Content Analysis of Female and Male Athletes on “Sports Illustrated” and “ESPN the Magazine” Covers from 2012-2016  [PDF]
Cynthia M. Frisby
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2017.52007
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to assess changes in how often female athletes were portrayed on the cover when compared to male athletes. A content analysis of the manner by which male and female athletes were depicted on sports magazine covers from 2012-2016 was performed. A total of 245 cover pages taken from two top sports magazines, Sports Illustrated and ESPN: The magazine were used to analyze depictions of individual male and female athletes. Despite females’ increased participation in sport since the enactment of Title IX and calls for greater media coverage of female athletes, women appeared on just 10 percent of the covers compared to male athletes. Data show that the percentage of female athletes on the sports magazines covers did not change significantly over the span of five years and were comparable to levels reported by other researchers. Beyond the limited appearance on sport magazine covers, female athletes were shown in sexually objectifying poses, seductive eye gazes, scantily clad clothing, and sexy/inviting body poses while male athletes are often seen in their team uniforms depicted in active, game playing athletic motions associated or related to his sport. It is concluded that male athletes are still portrayed in ways which support hegemonic ideas of masculinity.
Misrepresentations of Lone Shooters: The Disparate Treatment of Muslim, African American, Hispanic, Asian, and White Perpetrators in the US News Media  [PDF]
Cynthia M. Frisby
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2017.52010
Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to determine how news stories about mass shootings are framed when reporting on a lone shooter. Data obtained revealed specific biases in news stories about mass shootings and perpetrators of color. National print media included in the study were USA Today, the Washington Post, The New York Times, the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, and the Los Angeles Times. Data shows that of the N = 170 stories, 75% of the stories involving a white shooter included the word or references to hero while shootings that involved lone shooters of color using the hero was found in 25% of the stories (P < .001). Results from this research are discussed in terms of their implications and significance for future research.
Self-Esteem’s Moderation of Self-Congruity Effects on Brand Loyalty  [PDF]
Jane Brannen, Cynthia M. Frisby
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.76126
Abstract: This research set out to find how consumer self-esteem moderates the relative importance of actual self-congruity vs. ideal self-congruity on women’s brand loyalty to fitness brands. College-aged women were the primary focus for this research because this demography represents an emerging consumer group and because the literature suggests women score significantly lower than men on self-esteem scales in physical appearance, athletic self, personal self, and self-satisfaction self-esteem. A survey of 151 women of 18 - 24 ages was conducted supporting prior research findings that actual and ideal self-congruity are both positively correlated with brand loyalty.
Start to Finish: The Effect of Sportswriter and Reader Gender on Perception of Female Athletes  [PDF]
Rebecca Dell, Cynthia M. Frisby
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2017.54014
Abstract: Poor portrayal and perception of female athletes has a host of negative outcomes, such as objectification of women (Daniels, 2009; Daniels & Wartena, 2011) and negative reader judgment of female athletes (Knight & Giuliano, 2001). This study examines whether the gender of the sportswriter and reader affect the perception of female athletes (in terms of athleticism, respectability and interest in the sport). No significant interaction was found between sportswriter and reader gender, but a main effect was found for reader gender wherein women tend to think more highly of the athleticism and respectability of female athletes. Women were also more likely to view the sportswriter as credible; and higher credibility was positively correlated with perceptions of the athlete’s athleticism and respectability.
Media Hype and Its Influence on Athletic Performance  [PDF]
Cynthia M. Frisby, Wayne Wanta
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2018.61001
Abstract: A survey of university athletes examined whether uses of four media (newspapers, television, radio or the Internet) for sports information were related to self-perceptions of emotions, motivations and attitudes. The results suggest that newspaper and Internet use reduced feelings of stress among the athletes, perhaps due to athletes’ use of the two media as diversions from the pressures of competitive athletics. Television use was not related to any of the measures of athletes’ self-perceptions.
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