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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 984 matches for " Crowding-Out "
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Research on China’s Regional Differences of Crowding-In or Crowding-Out Effect of FDI on Domestic Investment  [PDF]
Yang Xu, Xiaoling Yuan
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.37111
Abstract: Since the reform and opening up, FDI has made a significant contribution to China’s economic development; however, the crowding-out phenomenon appears inevitably in some districts and industries where FDI enters intensively. Confronted with the new environment of foreign capital use after the international financial crisis, our country has begun to adjust investment attraction work from the policy level and needs to specify the work the next step according to every region’s situation. Based on this background, this paper examined how foreign investment impact domestic investment over the 30 years, especially contrasted regional differences of crowding-in or crowding-out effect of FDI on domestic investment in eastern, central and western China, then made further analysis of the causes, in order to supply the policy makers and investors with effective references.
Rationality, Norms and Institutions: In Search of a Realistic Utopia
Bart Engelen
Human Affairs , 2007, DOI: 10.2478/v10023-007-0004-y
Abstract: The main goal of political philosophers is to search for a realistic utopia by taking individuals as they are and institutions, rules and laws as they might be. Instead of trying to change either individuals or institutions in order to improve society, this article argues that both strategies should be combined, since there are causal connections running both ways. Because individuals ultimately devise and uphold institutions, one should be optimistic about the possibilities of deliberately improving society through institutional reforms. However, one should adequately model the influences that these reforms have on individuals, their identities and their motivations. From the fact that individuals can actually turn into egoists if they are treated as such, this article stresses the need to detect and maintain non-egoistic motivations. Since informal norms, for example, motivate individuals to socially desirable action, it is important to devise formal institutions that support rather than erode norm-guided behavior.
Crowding-Out Effect of Exports on Domestic Consumption: An Analysis Based on Panel Data of Several Industries in China  [PDF]
Jingjing Li
Modern Economy (ME) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/me.2017.82011
Abstract: This paper tries to use the data of 1998-2014 about nine departments (department of food, beverage and tobacco, department of fabric and clothing, department of car and motorcar and relative spare and accessory parts, department of medicine and the medical machine, department of culture, sports and relative equipment, minerals, building materials and chemical products division, house appliances division, computer auxiliary equipment division and else departments) to make the regression by Eviews 8.0. We find that department of food, beverage and tobacco and department of car and motorcar and relative spare and accessory parts, department of medicine and the medical machine, department of culture, sports and relative equipment do have crowding-out effect of exports on domestic consumption. Finally, in response to the policy of expanding the demand by analyzing the empirical result, we provide some recommendations from the perspective of export trade.
Konstanze Albrecht,Johannes Abeler,Bernd Weber,Armin Falk
Frontiers in Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2014.00303
Abstract: Apart from everyday duties, such as doing the laundry or cleaning the house, there are tasks we do for pleasure and enjoyment. We do such tasks, like solving crossword puzzles or reading novels, without any external pressure or force; instead, we are intrinsically motivated: We do the tasks because we enjoy doing them. Previous studies suggest that external rewards, i.e., rewards from the outside, affect the intrinsic motivation to engage in a task: While performance-based monetary rewards are perceived as controlling and induce a business-contract framing, verbal rewards praising one’s competence can enhance the perceived self-determination. Accordingly, the former have been shown to decrease intrinsic motivation, whereas the latter have been shown to increase intrinsic motivation. The present study investigated the neural processes underlying the effects of monetary and verbal rewards on intrinsic motivation in a group of 64 subjects applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that, when participants received positive performance feedback, activation in the anterior striatum and midbrain was affected by the nature of the reward; compared to a non-rewarded control group, activation was higher while monetary rewards were administered. However, we did not find a decrease in activation after reward withdrawal. In contrast, we found an increase in activation for verbal rewards: After verbal rewards had been withdrawn, participants showed a higher activation in the aforementioned brain areas when they received success compared to failure feedback. We further found that, while participants worked on the task, activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex was enhanced after the verbal rewards were administered and withdrawn.
Crowding-Out Effects of Government Guided Venture Philanthropy  [PDF]
Shuxuan Li
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2018.83028
Abstract: Venture Philanthropy means providing the social organizations with monetary support and instruction of skills and management to build up their own capacity. But the Venture Philanthropy guided by the Government adds too much external interference to the VP projects selection and evaluation. Through reviews and observations with participants of Z City Venture Philanthropy Competitions, I found that social organizations had to adjust themselves to the rules in order to obtain the approval of rules. And this caused the “crowding out” of voluntary and individuality of the social organizations.
中央财经大学学报 , 2015,
Abstract: 摘要 随着国际金融危机发生,大量调控政策的出台,人们越来越关注宏观经济政策在微观层面的传导机制,并期望基于此判断政策的实施效果。基于企业融资约束的变化,有利于理解积极财政政策的实施效果。积极的财政政策分别通过挤入效应与挤出效应两个渠道影响了企业的融资约束。其中,挤入效应通过直接渠道与间接渠道影响企业的融资约束。挤出效应通过利率传导机制和信贷配给机制影响企业的融资约束。实证研究发现:在积极财政政策背景下,国有企业受益于挤入效应,融资约束程度下降。然而,民营企业在受益于挤入效应的同时受制于挤出效应,融资约束却无显著改善。因此,基于积极财政政策的双重效应,对于政策制定者而言,国家实施积极的财政政策不仅要注重总量控制,更要注重结构化调整。对于企业而言,要采取差异化的措施来灵活应对国家的宏观调控政策。
Self-adaptive Epidemic Routing Algorithm

SUN Jian-zhi,ZHANG Ying-xin,CHEN Dan,HAN Zhong-ming,

计算机科学 , 2012,
Abstract: In some scenarios, Epidemic algorithm has high delivery ratio, small delivery delay, but the adaptability of the algorithm is poor. However, the performance of the algorithm will be significantly reduced in other scenarios. On the basis of an analysis of the factors affecting the algorithm performance,Crowding-Out effect is considered as the main reason leading to decreased performance. Self-adaptive mechanism was put forward so that the nodes can adjust the number of packets joining the network, according to the buffer of the nodes nearby, and inhibit the Crowding-Out effect actively and then the performance of epidemic algorithm can be improved. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has greatly improved the delivery ratio and has considerably dropped the routing overhead under various scenarios.
N. O?uzhan Altay,Onur Alt?n
Ege Academic Review , 2008,
Abstract: With the models established based on the two-sector production function, the impacts of aggregate public expenditures on economic growth and on aggregate investments are investigated for Turkey. The impacts of public expenditures on aggregate investments are in order to expose crowding-out effect. Public expenditures, in respect of economic classification criterion, are taken into consideration as current, transfer and investment expentidures. As a result of the study it is reached that an increase in public expenditures affects the economic growth negatively and in the period 1980-2005, the factor productivity of private sector is more than of public sector. In addition, it is found that an increase in public expenditures, in the short term, affects aggregate investments positive because of positive externalities; however, in the long term, creates crowding-out effect because of augmentation occured in government size.
Does FDI Crowd in or out Domestic Investment? New Evidence from Emerging Economies  [PDF]
Ahmed Kamaly
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.54038
Abstract: Foreign direct investment (FDI) has been for a while now an acronym associated with improvement in competitiveness and economic growth. To assess the expediency of FDI, it is imperative to answer the following question: what is the dynamic effect of FDI on total investment? In other words, what is the effect of FDI on domestic investment (DI); does it crowd in or out domestic investment? Research addressing this question is relatively recent and its empirical findings are ambiguous. This paper attempts to dodge the pitfalls in the theoretical and especially the empirical literature in assessing the link between FDI and domestic investment. The paper develops a simple theoretical model which is commonly used in the literature to come up with a reduced-form equation. Using data on 16 emerging countries over a 30-year period, the empirical model is estimated as a system of equations where each equation represents a country. Grouping all individual country regression in one system of equations aims to take into account the common contemporaneous errors associated with global shocks affecting FDI flows. This system of equations is estimated using 3SLS to account for both the existence of contemporaneous errors among individual country equations as well as the endogeneity of FDI. Results show that in general the effect of FDI on DI is country specific; however, in most countries, on impact, FDI has a positive and significant effect on DI. In subsequent periods, FDI may crowd out DI. In most countries included in the sample, FDI has a neutral long-term effect on DI. Crowding in or crowding out effect of FDI on DI is only found in few countries. This indicates that the rule is the neutrality of FDI on DI and the exception is otherwise (whether crowding in or out).
Cooperar por principio
Sánchez-Cuenca, Ignacio
Revista Internacional de Sociologia , 2007,
Abstract: This article analyzes the potential role of moral motivation in collective action. It is suggested that moral motivation works very differently from the social norms of reciprocity that have been studied in behavioral economics. A new utility function, combining the traditional arguments of the literature on collective action and a moral factor, is presented. In moral terms, the agent increases or decreases its utility depending on how much it deviates from the social average level of cooperation. Moral utility may transform the Prisoner’s Dilemma into a game more favourable to cooperation. Finally, some implications from the model are drawn with regard to the crowding out effect and the concept of personal sacrifice. En este trabajo se analiza el papel potencial de las motivaciones morales en la acción colectiva. En concreto, se sugiere que la motivación moral puede funcionar de manera distinta a las normas sociales de reciprocidad que se han estudiado en la economía del comportamiento. Se presenta una nueva función de utilidad que integra los componentes clásicos de la literatura de acción colectiva y en la que se a ade un componente moral. Según este componente moral, el agente aumenta o disminuye su utilidad en función de cuánto se desvíe con respecto a la media social de cooperación. Se muestra cómo la utilidad moral puede modificar un Dilema del Prisionero en otros juegos más favorables para la cooperación. Finalmente, se presentan algunas implicaciones del modelo con respecto al efecto crowding out y al concepto de sacrificio personal.
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