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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 15677 matches for " Cross-culture "
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Obsessive-Compulsive Cognitions, Symptoms and Religiousness in an Iranian Population  [PDF]
Giti Shams, Irena Milosevic
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.411084
Abstract:

Individual differences in obsessive-compulsive (OC) behavior in various cultures appear to be associated with religiosity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of religion in OC symptoms and cognitions in distinctly low and high religious groups from a normal community sample of 119 Iranian Muslims. Specifically, we compared the two groups on OC cognitions and symptoms, and we examined the correlations between the cognitive and symptom measures within each group. There was a trend for the high religious group to produce greater scores than those in the low religious group on the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ) subscale of threat overestimation and responsibility. Furthermore, participants that were more religious achieved significantly higher scores on the Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity and on its Fear of God subscale. Although a number of significant correlations were observed between OBQ and Padua Inventory total and subscale scores, particularly in the low religious group, there was no conclusive relationship between religiosity and OC behavior and obsessional beliefs. Religion appears to be one more arena where OC symptoms expressed, rather than being a determinant of the disorder.

Strategies for Translation of English Commercial Advertisements from the Intercultural Perspective  [PDF]
Hui Fan
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.511004
Abstract:
With the development of economic globalization, advertising industry has been developing at a speed no one could imagine twenty years ago. This paper focuses on the research of advertising translation with the directions of intercultural interaction and western translation theories. What is more, it provides several effective strategies and vivid instances in advertising practice. The research indicates that according to the features of ads, proper methods can be utilized in the process of translation.
Professional Attitudes towards Mental Illness: Testing the Contact Hypothesis among Nurses of Ethnic Anglo and Chinese Australian Backgrounds  [PDF]
Tan Kan Ku, Michael Ha, Uthit Siriwan
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.37022
Abstract:

Background: Professional attitudes towards mental illness may be related to contact level and ethnicity has not been thoroughly examined in health care practices although this has been stated to be the case. The literature indicated contact through a course of study or clinical placement usually improved attitudes of health workers towards mental illness. Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a measure (labelled as Contact with Psychiatric Patient (CPP) Scale to compare attitudes towards mental illness between General and Psychiatric nurses of Anglo and Chinese Australian backgrounds. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was presented to 76 general and 132 psychiatric nurses. Twenty one questions of the nurse-patient contact level were asked. Principal component analyses (with oblique rotation) were used to identify underlying dimensionality in the correlations of items. Subscale score variations were analysed across nurse type and ethnicity to examine the discriminant validity of the subscales. Results: Principal component analysis revealed four dimensions accounting for 67.3 percent of the variation within items. Four “conceptual” factors were derived. These were labelled Contact-Through-Work Situation, Patient Helps Nurse, Relative to Mental Illness and External Socialisation with Patient. Developed as subscales, reliability analysis indicated moderate to high internal consistency with respective alpha coefficients of 0.94, 0.73, 0.55 and 0.81. There was significant variation in scale scores according to nurse type (psychiatric versus general) and ethnicity (Anglo versus Chinese). Psychiatric nurses endorsed a higher level of contact level than general nurses. Conclusion: Psychometric evaluation of the CPP suggests that it is a reliable instrument for measuring four key dimensions of the nurse-patient contact relationship and it enables the study of this relationship cross-culturally in large samples.

Cross-Cultural Contrastive Study of English and Chinese Euphemisms
Xiaoling WANG,Meng ZHANG,Hailin DONG
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.ccc.1923670020120806.1356
Abstract: The use of euphemisms is a common linguistic phenomenon in all languages. By using euphemisms, people can indirectly and politely express their ideas, without making the listeners feel awkward and unpleasant. As a mirror of culture, the generation and development of euphemisms are closely related to culture. Euphemisms in English and Chinese are also abundant, but they have both differences and similarities in expressions and cultural connotations. The cross-cultural contrastive study of English and Chinese euphemisms can help people correctly understand the deep meaning in English and Chinese languages and overcome the obstacles in cross-cultural communications. Key words: Euphemisms; Culture; Cross-culture; Contrastive study
How do we Draw a Picture of the World: Cultural Stereotypes
Ekaterina Tskhakaya,Evgeniya V. Vidishcheva
European Researcher , 2012,
Abstract: “No man is an island” said a famous poet John Donne, implying that it is impossible to live in isolation from the society. This is what makes us, people, similar. But what is that makes us all different? The first answer that may come to our mind is culture. Every culture is unique and divides the individuals that present it into hundreds of groups. In this article a closer examination will be given to the process of communication of these cultures. People all over the world interact daily with each other for personal, academic and business purposes. But is it easy to be done or does it require specific knowledge of one another? Well, certainly it does, that is why we all live in the stereotypes that our ancestors have fostered in us: we think that the British are conservative, the Germans organized and Italians are talkative. On the first case study that was provided for the purpose of the article it will be shown how stereotypes appear on the screens of our TV sets and will reveal the vision of the British people on some other cultures. On the second case study an online conference between Russian and Chinese students will depict of two behavior models and demonstrate how two groups interacted with each other in an academic environment.
Cultura organizacional sob o prisma das teorias de cross-culture: um estudo de caso brasileiro
Lopes,Ana Luiza; Hilal,Adriana;
Economia Global e Gest?o , 2011,
Abstract: the main cross-culture theories have provided important foundations for a better understanding of different national cultures, and have also significantly contributed for the research on organizational culture. this study aims to analyze the influence of national culture in the validation and legitimization of practices and management models. to achieve this purpose, the organizational culture of a multinational financial accounting consulting subsidiary, with operations in brazil was mapped. hofstede’s (1990, 1991, 1994) and trompenaars’s (1994) cultural frameworks were used as theoretical foundation, as well as some brazilian studies that address some peculiarities of brazilian culture and organizational management. the qualitative research method was used, with the holding of in-depth interviews with the employees of the analyzed company. results show which elements present in the organizational dynamics are perceived as more significant by the individuals interviewed. the relationship of management practices and brazilian culture is also analyzed. it follows that the understanding of both the dynamics of organizational culture and its adequacy with the national values can be an important tool for organizational management.
Cultura organizacional sob o prisma das teorias de cross-culture: um estudo de caso brasileiro Organizational culture in view of cross-culture theories: a Brazilian case study
Ana Luiza Lopes,Adriana Hilal
Economia Global e Gest?o , 2011,
Abstract: As principais teorias de cross-culture têm fornecido importantes subsídios para uma melhor compreens o das diferentes culturas nacionais, como também têm contribuído de forma significativa para as pesquisas sobre cultura organizacional. O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar a influência da cultura nacional na valida o e legitima o de práticas e modelos gerenciais. Para tal, foi feito o mapeamento da cultura organizacional de uma filial numa empresa multinacional no ramo de consultoria financeira e contábil, com presen a no Brasil. Como embasamento teórico foram utilizados os arcabou os culturais elaborados por Hofstede (1990, 1991, 1994) e Trompenaars (1994), assim como foram utilizados estudos nacionais na área de gest o que abordam algumas particularidades entre cultura brasileira e gest o organizacional. Utilizou-se o método de pesquisa qualitativa, com a realiza o de entrevistas em profundidade com funcionários da empresa pesquisada. Os resultados mostram quais os elementos presentes na dinamica organizacional que s o percebidos como mais significativos pelos indivíduos entrevistados, assim como é analisado como as práticas gerenciais desta institui o podem estar relacionadas com a cultura brasileira. Conclui-se que a compreens o, tanto da dinamica da cultura organizacional, quanto da adequa o desta aos valores nacionais, pode se tornar uma importante ferramenta para a gest o organizacional. The main cross-culture theories have provided important foundations for a better understanding of different national cultures, and have also significantly contributed for the research on organizational culture. This study aims to analyze the influence of national culture in the validation and legitimization of practices and management models. To achieve this purpose, the organizational culture of a multinational financial accounting consulting subsidiary, with operations in Brazil was mapped. Hofstede’s (1990, 1991, 1994) and Trompenaars’s (1994) cultural frameworks were used as theoretical foundation, as well as some Brazilian studies that address some peculiarities of Brazilian culture and organizational management. The qualitative research method was used, with the holding of in-depth interviews with the employees of the analyzed company. Results show which elements present in the organizational dynamics are perceived as more significant by the individuals interviewed. The relationship of management practices and Brazilian culture is also analyzed. It follows that the understanding of both the dynamics of organizational culture and its adequacy wi
Cultural Changes Through Migrant’s Encounters with Hosts: A Case-study of Jammu City (J&K, India)
Varsha Kapoor
Current Research Journal of Social Science , 2012,
Abstract: Many studies have been done on cross-cultural contacts between people of different countries but a country like India which represents the diversity in its each aspect demands for the study of cultural changes that do occur through internal migration. This paper studies the cross-cultural encounters between the local people of Jammu city (Jammu & Kashmir) and the migrant population from the other parts of the country (Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar etc). In the present research, the migration is inter-state migration within country from rural to urban areas. The present study explore tendencies such as push and pull factors for migration, impact of migration on both hosts and migrants, interrelationships among them, and changes that takes place in one’s life through the process of migration. In the Present era Migration has become a common phenomenon having a great impact on cultural lives of both migrants and hosts. There have been situations either of assimilation, acculturation, or conflicts within multicultural settings. As a result something novel is born and acquired and is carried forward. The study reveals that migration is an important source of cultural changes. It is not only migrants that get affected by this process but hosts are equally affected.
独乐乐或众乐乐?不同文化下的正性情绪取向和调节研究
邓欣媚,王晓钧,肖珊
- , 2016,
Abstract: 摘要: 由于受到相互依存的自我概念文化价值影响,中国人对正性情绪的取向和调节与西方人存在很大差异。中国人的正性情绪更多指向自己的社会关系,体现出对情绪的社会取向。外在的、社会性的因素更能预测个体的正性情绪体验。受到正性情绪的社会取向的影响,中国人对正性情绪持有非享乐主义的情绪调节模式,习惯于根据更长远的、功利性的目标来调整自身的情绪。在日后跨文化研究中,研究者可从本土化视角、内隐测量及社会文化神经研究范式等角度对以往研究进行改进和拓展。
Abstract: The key to our understanding of the meaning of emotions in various culture systems may be the construction of self and the way of self participate in social lives.Many researches demonstrated that the constructions of self can influent the emotional processing directly. People in the literature reach a consensus that in European American cultural contexts there is a strong faith in the independence and autonomy of the self. It means that each individual is seen as an individual who pursues his or her own end. In contrast, in East Asian cultural contexts there is a diametrically opposite view of the self as interdependent.This view assumes that the self is related to one another in a relationship inherently. According to those previous researches, within this rugged individualistic view of the self, positive emotions are also likely to take its specific forms, wherein personal and internal aspects of emotions receive a strong emphasis. Such a Euro-American style of positive emotions can availably be named as individually oriented emotion.Due to the view of emotions asindividually oriented, people are more likely to adopt a short-term hedonic approach to regulate their emotions. They regard positive emotions as good luck and fortune.Therefore, according to a hedonic view, the maximization of pleasant emotions and the absence of unpleasant emotions are core ingredients of emotion regulation strategies. However, within this interdependent model of self, positive emotions are also likely to take one particular form, wherein interpersonal and social aspects of emotions receive a much stronger emphasis. Such an East Asian style of positive emotions can be described as socially oriented emotions. Due to the socially oriented emotions, positive emotion is not just as positive. People may seek to regulate their emotions for reasons other than maximizing pleasure or minimizing pain.Such motivated view of emotions can be named as contra-hedonic emotional regulation. All in all, viewed from the cross-cultural trend, researchers may seek to expand their researches from the following aspects: localization perspective, implicit measurements and socio-cultural paradigm of neural. For example: (1) China is a typical society which holds a great emphasis on collectivistic value. However, there is no research focus on this society in the
中西方自我差异溯源
The Origin of the East-West Differences in Self
 [PDF]

施媛媛
Advances in Psychology (AP) , 2013, DOI: 10.12677/AP.2013.36053
Abstract: 自我的形成受到时代和社会发展的影响和制约,与不同社会文化结构相联系。中西方自我的差异是近年来文化心理学的热点问题。该文从中西方文明发展进程中追溯中西方自我的差异,探讨了东西方不同的自然经济结构、语言文字、神话传说、世界观、人性论与实践论、生理因素等。研究发现,家庭本位的农耕文化使得中国先民“天人合一”的思想有浓厚的伦理蕴意,作为家庭扩展的古代社会以人伦礼教规范人们的言行,强化了关系取向的自我的同时,也禁锢了个性与创造性。西方文明从工商文化中获得了一种独立自主的自我,在自然环境斗争的过程中,“主客二分”的思维方式赋予了先民个性与理性,以此为基础发展了西方社会的科学技术与法律制度。
The formation of self is constrained by the times and social development, and linked to different social and cultural structures. Recently, the difference between Chinese and Western self is a hot issue in cross-cultural psychology. In this article, we tried to illustrate how the East-West differences in the self are originated from the progress of Chinese and Western civilizations, and traced back to two types of philosophical thinking: “unity of heaven and human” and “subject-object dichotomy”. We first discussed factors that could influence people’s self, specifically, the differences in natural economic structure, physiological structure, language and words, myths and legends etc. Then, when it comes to the world view, we discussed different views of human nature and practice. Family-based agricultural culture gives the Chinese people a strong ethical idea, for example, in the ancient China, society, as the extended family, laid a strong foundation for the relationships among people and for the ethics to regulate people’s behaviors. It limited Chinese individuality, personality and creativity. In contrast, Western civilization has gained from the business culture of an autonomous self. They struggled with the natural environment. The way of thinking, “subject-object dichotomy”, nurtures a special personality and intelligence, which is also the basis for the development of science and law system in the West.
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