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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19250 matches for " Cristina Gravalos "
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Approach to early-onset colorectal cancer: Clinicopathological, familial, molecular and immunohistochemical characteristics
Jose Perea, Edurne Alvaro, Yolanda Rodríguez, Cristina Gravalos, Eva Sánchez-Tomé, Barbara Rivera, Francisco Colina, Pablo Carbonell, Rogelio González-Sarmiento, Manuel Hidalgo, Miguel Urioste
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2010,
Abstract: AIM: To characterize clinicopathological and familial features of early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) and compare features of tumors with and without microsatellite instability (MSI).METHODS: Forty-five patients with CRC aged 45 or younger were included in the study. Clinical information, a three-generation family history, and tumor samples were obtained. MSI status was analyzed and mismatch repair genes were examined in the MSI families. Tumors were included in a tissue microarray and an immunohistochemical study was carried out with a panel of selected antibodies.RESULTS: Early onset CRC is characterized by advanced stage at diagnosis, right colon location, low-grade of differentiation, mucin production, and presence of polyps. Hereditary forms represent at least 21% of cases. Eighty-one percent of patients who died during follow-up showed a lack of expression of cyclin E, which could be a marker of poor prognosis. β-catenin expression was normal in a high percentage of tumors.CONCLUSION: Early-onset CRC has an important familial component, with a high proportion of tumors showing microsatellite stable. Cyclin E might be a poor prognosis factor.
Fault Detection of Fuel Injectors Based on One-Class Classifiers  [PDF]
Dimitrios Moshou, Athanasios Natsis, Dimitrios Kateris, Xanthoula-Eirini Pantazi, Ioannis Kalimanis, Ioannis Gravalos
Modern Mechanical Engineering (MME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/mme.2014.41003

Fuel injectors are considered as an important component of combustion engines. Operational weakness can possibly lead to the complete machine malfunction, decreasing reliability and leading to loss of production. To overcome these circumstances, various condition monitoring techniques can be applied. The application of acoustic signals is common in the field of fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Advanced signal processing is utilized for the construction of features that are specialized in detecting fuel injector faults. A performance comparison between novelty detection algorithms in the form of one-class classifiers is presented. The one-class classifiers that were tested included One-Class Support Vector Machine (OCSVM) and One-Class Self Organizing Map (OCSOM). The acoustic signals of fuel injectors in different operational conditions were processed for feature extraction. Features from all the signals were used as input to the one-class classifiers. The one-class classifiers were trained only with healthy fuel injector conditions and compared with new experimental data which belonged to different operational conditions that were not included in the training set so as to contribute to generalization. The results present the effectiveness of one-class classifiers for detecting faults in fuel injectors.

An Experimental Determination of Gross Calorific Value of Different Agroforestry Species and Bio-Based Industry Residues  [PDF]
Ioannis Gravalos, Panagiotis Xyradakis, Dimitrios Kateris, Theodoros Gialamas, Dimitrios Bartzialis, Kyriakos Giannoulis
Natural Resources (NR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2016.71006
Abstract: Solid biomass fuels are useful and cost effective renewable energy source. The energy content of biomass is determined by its calorific value. The objective of this study was to determine experimentally the gross calorific value (GCV) of different agroforestry species and bio-based industry residues that could be used by: a) companies specialized in processing raw biomass solid biofuel production, b) small-scale consumers (households, medium-sized residential buildings, etc.). The fuel samples used were from agricultural residues and wastes (rice husks, apricot kernels, olive pits, sunflower husks, cotton stems, etc.), energy crops and wetland herbs (cardoon, switchgrass, common reed, narrow-leaf cattail), and forest residues (populus, fagus, pinus). The GCV of the bio-mass samples was experimentally determined based on CEN/TS 14918:2005, and an oxygen bomb calorimeter was used (Model C5000 Adiabatic Calorimeter, IKA?-Werke, Staufen, Germany). The GCV of different agroforestry species and residues ranges from 14.3 - 25.4 MJ?kg1. The highest GCV was obtained by seeds and kernels due to higher unit mass and higher lipid content. Pinus sylvestris with moisture content 24.59% obtained the lowest GCV (13.973 MJ?kg1).
Synthesis and Electrophilic Substitution of Pyrido[2,3,4-kl]-acridines
Avi Koller,Amira Rudi,Marta Garcia Gravalos,Yoel Kashman
Molecules , 2001, DOI: 10.3390/60400300
Abstract: Several new pyrido[2,3,4-kl]acridines were synthesized by reacting naphthoquinone, juglone or cyclohexan-1,3-dione with β,β’-diaminoketones in a biomimetic reaction. The structure of all new compounds was elucidated by NMR and MS spectroscopy. Electrophilic substitution, mainly nitration, of the various compounds was undertaken and the substitution positions determined. A series of derivatives was prepared and their cytotoxicity towards P-388 mouse lymphoma cells analysed. The most cytotoxic derivatives were found to have IC50’s of 0.05 and 0.1 ug/ml.
Efeito da usinagem na estrutura e propriedades mecanicas do a?o superaustenítico ASTM A351 CN3MN
Gravalos, Márcio Tadeu;Martins, Marcelo;Diniz, Anselmo Eduardo;Mei, Paulo Roberto;
Rem: Revista Escola de Minas , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0370-44672007000100013
Abstract: super austenitic stainless steels are denominated as such because they present good resistance to pitting corrosion and, also, offer excellent mechanical properties, which makes them one of the options for the production of components used by the petroleum industry. however, the superficial foundry hardening during the machining processes can change these properties. this paper aimed at investigating the effects of the machining operation on the surface of the super austenitic steel astm a351 cn3mn. samples of the casted steel suffered wear due to cylindrical machining, with different cutting speeds, using indexable carbide inserts of varied geometries. the analysis of the microstructure on the casting surface was accomplished by optical microscopy and the foundry hardened surface was determined by micro-hardness. the mechanical properties of the steel were determined by traction assay. the wear in the cutting inserts was accomplished in a mev.
Influência da rugosidade na resistência à corros?o por pite em pe?as torneadas de a?o inoxidável superaustenítico
Gravalos, Márcio Tadeu;Martins, Marcelo;Diniz, Anselmo Eduardo;Mei, Paulo Roberto;
Rem: Revista Escola de Minas , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0370-44672010000100013
Abstract: pitting corrosion resistance has been correlated to the morphological conditions of the surface: a smooth surface finishing decreases the potential for pitting. this study aimed at investigating the relationship between pitting corrosion resistance and surface roughness in the machined surfaces of superaustenitic stainless steel astm a744 grade cn3mn. the samples of the casting steel were cylindrically turned sunder different combinations of cutting conditions, producing different surface roughness patterns. the surfaces of the samples, as machined, were characterized by roughness and hardness. after the application of an accelerated immersion corrosion test, these surfaces were examined in a stereoscope and the weight loss by corrosion was also determined. it was revealed that the samples exhibited different corrosion resistance behaviors, according to the machining conditions applied. a correlation between pitting resistance corrosion and machined surface roughness was evident, and also, the weight loss due to the formation of pits. this study has identified that corrosion can be controlled through the selection of appropriate machining parameters.
Family, Poverty and Inequalities in Latin America and the Caribbean  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.31005

This article adopts the concept of development as freedom and the relationship between income and capabilities to analyze and compare macroeconomic, demographic and poverty trends and inequalities in Latin American and the Caribbean countries, and the responses from governments to promote the inclusion of the poorest and marginalized population groups in development and policies. Differences in population structures indicate that poverty and gender, generational and race inequalities fragment societies. Policies oriented to reduce poverty have been implemented with a set of combined programs such as cash transfers articulated with actions in nutrition, health, education, day-care programs for poor children, civil registration and other programs to promote poverty reduction and the conciliation of domestic and work life for poor women and social protection. Some good practices are discussed, particularly in Brazil and Mexico. During the last 15 years, the Conditioned Cash Transfers programs raised public support and political consensus, guaranteeing continuity in their implementation, development and integration with other social protection programs. Currently there are 18 countries implementing such programs, covering approximately 25 million households and over 133 million people, representing 19% of the Latin American and Caribbean. Policies to reduce poverty, in combination with income distribution and social protection in nutrition, health, education, civil registration and day-care for children, have contributed to human development, and also promoted internal market of consumers, even in rural areas, mobilizing local economies and promoting the return of investments to development. Despite the economic crisis in 2008-2009, Latin America had a relatively good performance in the world economy, demonstrating that social and economic

Family and women decide child nutrition—The role of human development, capabilities and lifestyles  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.57153

In this article, capacities and freedom approach, as well as lifestyles are explored taking into account child nutrition, and other relevant dimensions of human life more than just economic and other elementary resources, and also social, cultural, psychological, values and freedom dimensions. Nourishment, health and survival are considered some of the elementary capabilities, and the concept of malnutrition, including under and over-nutrition, is discussed, based upon the comparison of data on food production and distribution from the macro level context, as well as from the family and individual levels included anthropometrical measurements. The advantages and limits of different kinds of measurements are discussed, suggesting more complex approaches, based also upon family and gender equality. The double burden of malnutrition, under and over-nourishment of children is highlighted as a public health issue to be resolved by adequate policies and considering the role of female empowerment, nutrition-knowledge and education as relevant keys to achieve equality in family food and resource distribution, healthy lifestyles and human development.

Education, Work and Reproductive Health among Adolescents in Latin America and the Caribbean  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.32019

Investments in education, work, and the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents and youth contribute to their human development and autonomy, and guarantee that they will have their own resources and pensions for old age. In Latin America and the Caribbean 100 million adolescents aged 10 to 19 years demand schools and teachers in secondary education, employment and health services. This work describes and analyses the situation of adolescents and youths in these three areas of interest, as a basis for defining priorities and the integration of policies oriented to take advantage of the demographic bonus and to enhance the sustainability of future dignified ageing for youth generations. Since Latin America and the Caribbean is the region with the highest inequality rates in the world, investing in demographic dividend can also contribute to decreasing inequalities in the long term. Secondary data from censuses, surveys and international organizations are analysed to relate to the three relevant issues of interest. Most than half of teens in Central America, and between 20% and 40% of adolescents in South America leave school before completing secondary level education and most of them receive poor quality education, 20% of them do not study or work and some are trapped in a triad of problems: the secondary school dropout, unemployment, informal and unprotected work and adolescent pregnancy. Despite the decline in adolescent fertility rates, they continue to be up to seven times higher among the less educated. Unemployment rates are three times higher for young people than for adults, half of them work in informal and low skilled jobs. The relationship between health, education, employment, poverty and inequalities demonstrates the need to strengthen and integrate policies of inclusion at school and at work, as well as special protection and social security for adolescents and youth.

From Prototype and Skopos Theories to Corpus-Based and Audiovisual Approaches in Children’s Literature Translation  [PDF]
Cristina Chifane
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.38011
Abstract: For a long time an unexploited field of scientific research, Children’s Literature Translation Studies deserve a thorough examination primarily due to the current world-wide publishing boom of children’s texts. The dominance of the literary productions of the Anglo-American environment determines the overwhelming number of translations in different cultures and languages. Most translation theories which have been traditionally analyzed and applied to what is generally assumed to be adult literature should be revisited and reconsidered in the case of children’s books with the aim of helping translators and ensuring the efficiency of the translation process. From this perspective, the present article focuses upon the influence of the prototype theory upon children’s literature translation strategies, the importance of the double addressee in the skopos theory, the advantages of the corpus-based approach and the adaptation to the changing landscapes of children’s texts intermediated by the audiovisual approach. Since contemporary translators of children’s literary texts are facing the imperative of tight deadlines, they need to be clearly aware of their translation commission trying to fulfill the expectations of the potential target readers. The aforementioned theories and approaches pave the way to new discoveries with respect to the challenge of translating children’s texts which share both similarities and differences with adult literature.
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