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Caenorhabditis elegans BAH-1 Is a DUF23 Protein Expressed in Seam Cells and Required for Microbial Biofilm Binding to the Cuticle
Kevin Drace, Stephanie McLaughlin, Creg Darby
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006741
Abstract: The cuticle of Caenorhabditis elegans, a complex, multi-layered extracellular matrix, is a major interface between the animal and its environment. Biofilms produced by the bacterial genus Yersinia attach to the cuticle of the worm, providing an assay for surface characteristics. A C. elegans gene required for biofilm attachment, bah-1, encodes a protein containing the domain of unknown function DUF23. The DUF23 domain is found in 61 predicted proteins in C. elegans, which can be divided into three distinct phylogenetic clades. bah-1 is expressed in seam cells, which are among the hypodermal cells that synthesize the cuticle, and is regulated by a TGF-β signaling pathway.
Differential Control of Yersinia pestis Biofilm Formation In Vitro and in the Flea Vector by Two c-di-GMP Diguanylate Cyclases
Yi-Cheng Sun,Alexandra Koumoutsi,Clayton Jarrett,Kevin Lawrence,Frank C. Gherardini,Creg Darby,B. Joseph Hinnebusch
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019267
Abstract: Yersinia pestis forms a biofilm in the foregut of its flea vector that promotes transmission by flea bite. As in many bacteria, biofilm formation in Y. pestis is controlled by intracellular levels of the bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP. Two Y. pestis diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes, encoded by hmsT and y3730, and one phosphodiesterase (PDE), encoded by hmsP, have been shown to control biofilm production in vitro via their opposing c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation activities, respectively. In this study, we provide further evidence that hmsT, hmsP, and y3730 are the only three genes involved in c-di-GMP metabolism in Y. pestis and evaluated the two DGCs for their comparative roles in biofilm formation in vitro and in the flea vector. As with HmsT, the DGC activity of Y3730 depended on a catalytic GGDEF domain, but the relative contribution of the two enzymes to the biofilm phenotype was influenced strongly by the environmental niche. Deletion of y3730 had a very minor effect on in vitro biofilm formation, but resulted in greatly reduced biofilm formation in the flea. In contrast, the predominant effect of hmsT was on in vitro biofilm formation. DGC activity was also required for the Hms-independent autoaggregation phenotype of Y. pestis, but was not required for virulence in a mouse model of bubonic plague. Our results confirm that only one PDE (HmsP) and two DGCs (HmsT and Y3730) control c-di-GMP levels in Y. pestis, indicate that hmsT and y3730 are regulated post-transcriptionally to differentially control biofilm formation in vitro and in the flea vector, and identify a second c-di-GMP-regulated phenotype in Y. pestis.
Optical mapping as a routine tool for bacterial genome sequence finishing
Phil Latreille, Stacie Norton, Barry S Goldman, John Henkhaus, Nancy Miller, Brad Barbazuk, Helge B Bode, Creg Darby, Zijin Du, Steve Forst, Sophie Gaudriault, Brad Goodner, Heidi Goodrich-Blair, Steven Slater
BMC Genomics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-8-321
Abstract: Whole genome restriction maps of the sequenced strains were produced through optical mapping technology. These maps allowed rapid resolution of sequence assembly problems, permitted closing of the genome, and allowed correction of a large inversion in a genome assembly that we had considered finished.Our experience suggests that routine use of optical mapping in bacterial genome sequence finishing is warranted. When combined with data produced through 454 sequencing, an optical map can rapidly and inexpensively generate an ordered and oriented set of contigs to produce a nearly complete genome sequence assembly.Xenorhabdus species are symbiotic bacteria associated with insectivorous nematodes of the genus Steinernema (for review see [1]) They reside in a specialized segment of the nematode gut [2,3], and provide insecticidal proteins [4,5] and small molecules [6-10] that help to kill the insect larvae that are the prey of the nematode. Both organisms reproduce in the dead larvae, the Xenorhabdus colonize the young nematodes, and the cycle repeats [11]. Xenorhabdus are closely related to the enteric gamma proteobacteria such as Escherichia coli [12], and are an emerging model for both mutualism and pathogenicity in invertebrate hosts. To better understand the genetic basis of these relationships, we are sequencing the genomes of two Xenorhabdus species: X. nematophila ATCC 19061 and an X. bovienii strain from Monsanto's collection.In the course of this work, we found that the X. nematophila genome contained large numbers of highly repetitive DNA regions, and efforts to finish the genome stalled. We sought a means to produce whole-genome maps for comparison with the genomic DNA sequence, and identified optical mapping as a useful means to align and orient the genome sections in silico. In addition, we produced an optical map of a second genome that we had considered finished, and identified a large sequence inversion that would have otherwise been unnoticed.Eight-fold
Effects of time of day on power output and thermoregulation responses during cycling over a simulated hilly course in the heat (35oc)
Biology of Exercise , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of the present investigation was to compare responses to sustained exercise in the morning and evening in the heat (35oC) over a hilly prolonged simulated course. The thermoregulatory response examined was core temperature (Tc). In addition power output, and time were examined. Eight active males (25-40years) were instructed to work as hard as possible over the entire exercise period, with variation of pedal frequency permitted at any time. Two prolonged sessions were performed at 08:00 and 17:00h, and counterbalanced with at least 5 days recovery between tests. The examined variables showed no significant main effect for time of day. Mean power output in the evening was greater by 9 Watts (W) in comparison to the morning exercise. Furthermore, time increased by 2.8% in the evening compared to the morning. Future studies should include the examination of circadian rhythms and performance during undulating courses using each gradient period.
Professioner i offentlig f rvaltning
Anna Creg?rd
Offentlig F?rvaltning. Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration , 2012,
Abstract: Torgny Klasson (redakt r) Professioner i offentlig f rvaltning Studentlitteratur, 2010. 186 sidor, h ftad. ISBN: 9789144060828.
Migra??o para Portugal de jogadores de futebol africanos: recurso colonial e neocolonial
Análise Social , 2006,
Abstract: this article provides an overview of the football migration patterns between africa and portugal. it assesses the extent to which portuguese football has exploited the football resources of its former african colonies and examines the impact that this trend has had on african football at both the local and national level. the article draws on economic models of globalisation to inform the empirical evidence presented.
Scientific Advice, Traditional Practices and the Politics of Health-Care : The Australian Debate over Public Funding of Non-Therapeutic Circumcision, 1985
Robert Darby
Hygiea Internationalis : an Interdisciplinary Journal for the History of Public Health , 2011,
Abstract: In 1985 the Australian Government sought to delete circumcision of infants from the benefits payable under its newly established universal health scheme, Medicare. Although the decision had been recommended by the government’s health advisers and was welcomed by medical authorities, it was soon reversed after protests from Jewish community leaders. I present a detailed narrative of this affair and explain why a decision based on sound medical knowledge advice was rescinded after quite mild objections. The answer is found to lie partly in contingent factors, such as the details of the policy change, the personalities of the government figures involved, and problems with implementation and communication; and partly in the sensibilities of the ethnic/religious communities most directly affected. I dispel the misconception that the original decision aroused widespread opposition and show, on the contrary, that it was based on good advice, represented sound public policy, and was widely supported. I conclude that the episode may have useful lessons for other governments seeking to implement or resist policy changes that affect the sensitivities of cultural minorities.
Using Google Calendar to Manage Library Website Hours
Andrew Darby
Code4Lib Journal , 2008,
Abstract: The management and display of hours of operation on a library website can be needlessly complicated. One relatively simple solution is to manage the library hours in Google Calendar, and then use the Google API to extract this data for use on the public website. This article outlines how the Ithaca College Library used Google Calendar, PHP and MySQL to manage and report against our library's operational hours. Example code is included.
Editorial Introduction — Openness
Andrew Darby
Code4Lib Journal , 2009,
Abstract: On openness and the Code4Lib Journal.
Editorial Introduction: A Peer Network
Andrew Darby
Code4Lib Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Code4Lib, and the Code4Lib Journal, considered as a peer network.
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