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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4540 matches for " Cortical Spreading Depression "
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A Combination of Tanacetum parthenium, Griffonia simplicifolia and Magnesium (Aurastop) as Symptomatic Acute Treatment for Migraine Aura: A Retrospective Cohort Study  [PDF]
Paola Zavarise, Giorgio Dalla Volta
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103660
Abstract:
Background: effective treatments for migraine aura and related symptoms are not yet well established. In the last years, several herbal and/or nutraceutical preparations have been proposed as potential treatment. We report the results of a retrospective analysis on the synergistic effect of three nutraceutical components (Tanacetum parthenium, Griffonia simpliciofila and Magnesium, Aurastop) as symptomatic treatment of migraine aura and related symptoms. Method: Forty-nine subjects with headache with aura were recruited from the headache Center of the Istituto Clinico Citta’ di Brescia to enter the studied that consist to treat the first 3 aura attacks as usual and the next 3 taking a tablet of Aurastop at the beginning of the aura phenomena. They had to describe aura and headache characteristics of previous three attacks (t1) and the modification of these parameters with the assumption of Aurastop for the following three attacks (t2). Results: A significant reduction (>50%) in aura duration (t1 = 33.6 ± 10.1 minutes vs. t2 = 9.4 ± 6.2 minutes, p < 0.01 FWER corrected) as well as in overall disability (median [interquartile range]) (t1 = 5[4 - 5] vs. t2 = 1[1 - 2], p < 0.01 FWER corrected) was evident. Furthermore, modification of aura type as well as a series of parameters more related to headache (number of headache attacks, duration, intensity, utilization of analgesics and response to symptomatic treatment) was influenced by Aurastop utilization (p < 0.01 FWER corrected). No significant adverse effects were recorded after the assumption of Aurastop. Conclusions: the combined and synergistic effect of Tanacetum parthenium, Griffonia simpliciofila and Magnesium (Aurastop) highlights the idea that symptomatic treatment potentially modulating cortical spreading depression could deserve attention to mitigate aura and related symptoms (migraine as well as long-lasting discomfort). Further blinded, placebo-controlled studies on larger groups are warranted.
CORTICAL SPREADING DEPRESSION ELICITED IN RAT BRAIN AFTER EXPOSURE TO MICROWAVE FROM GSM MOBILE PHONE
Samera M. Sallam
International Journal of Biomedical Science , 2006,
Abstract: The aim of the present work is to evaluate possibility of microwave emitted by cellular phone that can elicit cortical spreading depression (CSD) in rat brain and studying the characteristics of the evoked signals. (CSD) was elicited in cerebral cortex of anesthetized rats after exposure to microwave irradiation (935.2-960.2 MHz) from Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) mobile phone. With the microwave output of about 8.5 mW at the antenna - tissue surface (4mm in diameter), CSD was elicited after 50 sec irradiation from the beginning of a received signal to the mobile and after 35 sec irradiation from the beginning of a transmitted signal from the mobile. CSD was elicited in about 90% of experiments after irradiation by both types of signal exposure. The results have shown that slow potential change (SPC) has an amplitude of 4.5 ±0.75 mV, duration of 1.5 ± 0.5 min and propagated speed of 3 mm/min on the average. The amplitude, duration and behaviour of SPC of the evoked spreading depression were found to be affected by irradiation time and the method of exposure.
Synergistic Suppression of Cortical Spreading Depression under NR2A and NR2B Inhibition  [PDF]
Yiman Jia, Jiayi Zhou, Fan Bu, Minyan Wang
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2015.612059
Abstract: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a transient synaptic excitation, followed by depression, which can propagate slowly across cortex, subcortex and retina. CSD is implicated in migraine with aura and may lead to migraine pain. CSD can be suppressed by inhibition of both NR2A and NR2B containing N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors. However, whether there is a synergistic effect of co-inhibition of NR2A and NR2B containing receptors on CSD remains unknown. In this study, an efficient in vitro model of migraine with intrinsic optical imaging approach was applied to address this role of co-activation of both NR2A and NR2B in CSD. The results showed that co-application of NVP-AAM077, a drug selectively targeting for NR2A and Ro 25-6981, a drug selectively targeting for NR2B containing receptors, showed synergistic inhibitory effects on propagation rate and the magnitude of CSD in a concentration dependent manner in chick retina. Inhibition of CSD propagation was also observed by a clinical acceptable drug that antagonizes both NR2A and NR2B containing receptors, memantine, at 10 μM. These data suggest that combinational use of antagonists selectively targeting NR2A and NR2B containing receptors could be a useful strategy for preventative treatment of migraine with improved efficacy with potential alleviated side effects.
Acute tryptophan administration impairs cortical spreading depression propagation in REM sleep deprived and non-deprived adult rats
Trindade-Filho, Euclides Mauricio;Vasconcelos, Carlos Augusto Carvalho de;Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo;
Psychology & Neuroscience , 2009, DOI: 10.3922/j.psns.2009.2.017
Abstract: the enhanced availability of tryptophan in the brain, as a consequence of exogenous tryptophan administration, can increase neuronal serotonin synthesis and this can interfere with brain function. rem sleep deprivation (d) constitutes another external factor that can change brain excitability, facilitating, in some cases, the manifestation of neurological diseases like epilepsy. here we used cortical spreading depression (csd) as a neurophysiological parameter to investigate the effects of a single l-tryptophan intraperitoneal injection combined or not with 72h d-condition (water-tank technique) in rats. a 1h baseline csd-recording was performed under urethane+chloralose (1g/kg + 40mg/kg) anesthesia and revealed increased csd propagation velocities in d rats, as compared with non-deprived (nd), or pseudo-deprived (pseudo) controls. after the baseline csd recording, l-tryptophan was immediately injected (125 mg/kg ip, dissolved in water at ph about 3) and this was followed by a significant decrease of csd propagation velocities, as compared to the baseline values in the same animals of the pseudo, nd and d condition. in an additional control group (nd rats injected with the vehicle), no csd propagation change was seen. our findings indicate an important acute antagonistic influence of tryptophan on csd propagation, which is not affected by rem sleep deprivation. we suggest that this tryptophan effect may be due to a serotonin-mediated action, probably caused by increased serotonin synthesis as a consequence of enhanced tryptophan availability in the brain.
TRYPTOPHAN ADMINISTRATION ACUTELY IMPAIRS CORTICAL SPREADING DEPRESSION PROPAGATION IN REM SLEEP- DEPRIVED AND NON-DEPRIVED ADULT RATS
Euclides Mauricio Trindade-Filho, Carlos Augusto Carvalho de Vasconcelos and Rubem Carlos Arau?jo Guedes
Psychology & Neuroscience , 2009,
Abstract: The enhanced availability of tryptophan in the brain, as a consequence of exogenous tryptophan administration, can increase neuronal serotonin synthesis and this can interfere with brain function. The deprivation of REM-sleep (D) constitutes another external factor that can change brain excitability, facilitating in some cases the manifestation of neurological diseases like epilepsy. Here we used cortical spreading depression (CSD) as a neurophysiological parameter to investigate, in the adult rat brain, the effects of a single L- Tryptophan intraperitoneal injection combined or not with 72h D-condition (water-tank technique). A 1h baseline CSD-recording was performed under urethane+chloralose anesthesia (1g/kg+40mg/kg, respectively) and revealed increased (P<0.05) CSD propagation velocities in D-rats, as compared with non-deprived (ND), or pseudo-deprived (Pseudo) controls, confirming our previous report. After the baseline CSD recording, L-tryptophan was immediately injected (125 mg/kg ip, dissolved in water at pH about 3) and this was followed by a significant decrease (P<0.05) of CSD propagation velocities, as compared to the baseline values in the same animals of the Pseudo, ND- and D-condition. In an additional control group (ND-rats injected with the vehicle), no CSD propagation change was seen. Our findings indicate an important acute antagonistic influence of tryptophan on CSD propagation, which is not affected by REM sleep deprivation. We suggest that this tryptophan-effect may be due to a serotonin-mediated action, probably caused by increased serotonin synthesis, as a consequence of enhanced tryptophan availability in the brain.
Changes in Mice Brain Spontaneous Electrical Activity during Cortical Spreading Depression due to Mobile Phone Radiation
Samera M. Sallam,Ehab I. Mohamed,Abdel-Fattah B. Dawood
International Journal of Biomedical Science , 2008,
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to investigate changes in spontaneous EEG activity during cortical spreading depression (CSD) in mice brain. The cortical region of anaesthetized mice were exposed to the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted from a mobile phone (MP, 935.2 - 960.2 MHz, 41.8 mW/cm2). The effect of EMFs on EEG was investigated before and after exposure to different stimuli (MP, 2% KCl, and MP & 2% KCl). The records of brain spontaneous EEG activity, slow potential changes (SPC), and spindle shaped firings were obtained through an interfaced computer. The results showed increases in the amplitude of evoked spindles by about 87%, 17%, and 226% for MP, 2% KCl, and MP & 2% KCl; respectively, as compared to values for the control group. These results showed that the evoked spindle is a more sensitive indicator of the effect of exposure to EMFs from MP.
Pathophysiological Interference with Neurovascular Coupling – When Imaging Based on Hemoglobin Might Go Blind
Ute Lindauer,Ulrich Dirnagl,Martina Füchtemeier,Caroline B?ttiger,Nikolas Offenhauser,Christoph Leithner,Georg Royl
Frontiers in Neuroenergetics , 2010, DOI: 10.3389/fnene.2010.00025
Abstract: Assessing neuronal activity by non-invasive functional brain imaging techniques which are based on the hemodynamic response depends totally on the physiological cascade of metabolism and blood flow. At present, functional brain imaging with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) or BOLD-fMRI is widely used in cognitive neuroscience in healthy subjects where neurovascular coupling and cerebrovascular reactivity can be assumed to be intact. Local activation studies as well as studies investigating functional connectivity between brain regions of the resting brain provide a rapidly increasing body of knowledge on brain function in humans and animals. Furthermore, functional NIRS and MRI techniques are increasingly being used in patients with severe brain diseases and this use might gain more and more importance for establishing their use in the clinical routine. However, more and more experimental evidence shows that changes in baseline physiological parameters, pharmacological interventions, or disease-related vascular changes may significantly alter the normal response of blood flow and blood oxygenation and thus may lead to misinterpretation of neuronal activity. In this article we present examples of recent experimental findings on pathophysiological changes of neurovascular coupling parameters in animals and discuss their potential implications for functional imaging based on hemodynamic signals such as fNIRS or BOLD-fMRI. To enable correct interpretation of neuronal activity by vascular signals, future research needs to deepen our understanding of the basic mechanisms of neurovascular coupling and the specific characteristics of disturbed neurovascular coupling in the diseased brain.
The Tight Coupling and Non-Linear Relationship between the Macroscopic Electrical and Optical Concomitants of Electrochemical CNS Waves Reflect the Non-Linear Dynamics of Neural Glial Propagation  [PDF]
Vera Maura Fernandes de Lima, José Roberto Castilho Piqueira, Wolfgang Hanke
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2015.51001
Abstract: In isolated chick retina, the visualization of electrochemical self-organized patterns is possible due to the presence of macroscopic intrinsic optical signals (IOSs). Isolated circular waves, standing patterns, and self-sustained sequences of spirals are all easily obtained using an IOS approach. In this paper we present the tight coupling and non-linear relationship between optical and electrical wave concomitants, and potassium-induced whole tissue excitability changes. Elementary statistical methods and time series analyses were applied to two sets of data: 1) solitary circular retinal spreading depression waves, and 2) tissue response to exogenous potassium fast pulses. The results were interpreted from the point of view of non-linear thermodynamical concepts and volume phase transitions in polyanionic gels according to the Tasaki action potential model. From these and previous results, it is clear that the glial network and extracellular matrix contribute to the propagation and emergence of these patterns.
Migraine in children and adolescents
Hadi Kazemi MD,Ali Gorji MD
Iranian Journal of Child Neurology , 2010,
Abstract: ObjectiveHeadache is a frequent symptom in children and adolescents. Migraine is oneof the most common types of primary headache disorders in children that attimes can be extremely disabling. Many clinical features of migraine in childrendiffer from that starting in adulthood. This review discusses the epidemiology,clinical features, management, and prognosis of migraine headache in childrenand adolescents.
Sporadic hemiplegic migraine in children: A report of two new cases
Chakravarty A,Sen A
Neurology India , 2010,
Abstract: Two cases of sporadic hemiplegic migraine, which fulfilled the diagnostic criteria as laid down in International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-2, are reported in children. In the first case, two unusual features were noted, namely, the occurrence of dysphsia in association with a left hemiparesis and the spread of sensory symptoms to the contralateral side during attacks. The second case is perhaps the youngest patient reported with this disorder.
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