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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 227070 matches for " Cornelia R. White "
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MTHFR C677T and postmenopausal breast cancer risk by intakes of one-carbon metabolism nutrients: a nested case-control study
Sonia S Maruti, Cornelia M Ulrich, Eldon R Jupe, Emily White
Breast Cancer Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2462
Abstract: We studied 318 incident breast cancer cases and 647 age- and race-matched controls participating in a nested case-control study of postmenopausal women within the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort. Genotyping was conducted for MTHFR C677T and dietary and supplemental intakes were ascertained from a validated questionnaire. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression.We observed a 62% increased risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women with the TT genotype (OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.05 to 2.48). Women with a higher number of variant T alleles had higher risk of breast cancer (P for trend = 0.04). Evidence of effect-modification by intakes of some B vitamins was observed. The most pronounced MTHFR-breast cancer risks were observed among women with the lowest intakes of dietary folate (P for interaction = 0.02) and total (diet plus supplemental) vitamin B6 (P for interaction = 0.01), with no significant increased risks among women with higher intakes.This study provides support that the MTHFR 677TT genotype is associated with a moderate increase in risk of postmenopausal breast cancer and that this risk may be attenuated with high intakes of some one-carbon associated nutrients.Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the irreversible reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the primary circulating form of folate and methyl donor in DNA methylation. MTHFR is a critical enzyme in one-carbon metabolism, redirecting the pool of folate from DNA synthesis/repair to methylation. It is of interest because aberrations in DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation, have been implicated with cancer risk. The substitution of cytosine (C) with thymine (T) at nucleotide 677 in the MTHFR gene is a common polymorphism (C677T) and is correlated with increased thermolability and reduced MTHFR activity [1]. Homozygotes (677TT) have approximately 30% and heterozygotes (6
Relationship between Caregiver’s Quality of Life and Childhood Tuberculosis in Bauchi State, Northeastern Nigeria  [PDF]
Haruna Ismaila Adamu, Tolulope Andrea Osoba, Cornelia R. White, Yakubu Gida Abdullahi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104602
Background: In Nigeria, childhood tuberculosis (TB), a debilitating and deadly disease, is highly prevalent and case reporting is poor due to weak health systems. Globally, children account for at least 10 percent of the TB burden, yet they remain neglected in TB prevention and control efforts. Research studies integrating family and community-centered strategies have been recommended by stakeholders to address the paucity of current local prevention and management strategies for childhood TB. Study Design: Observational study. Methods: This quantitative cross-sectional study explored the relationship between caregivers’ quality of life (QOL) and the reporting of TB in their children aged 0 - 14 years. Using the abbreviated version of World Health Organization’s (WHO) QOL tool, the WHOQOL-BREF, data were collected individually in a face-to-face setting from caregivers (n = 47) whose children had been diagnosed with TB in Bauchi State, Northeastern Nigeria, over a 5-year period. Data were collected in the same manner from another set of caregivers of children without TB (n = 47) within the same period and setting. Results: Logistic regression indicated a statistically significant relationship (p < 0.001) between the caregivers’ QOL and the reporting of childhood TB. Conclusion: This finding underscores the need to identify the factors that positively impact the QOL of caregivers of childhood TB cases. It also reflects the importance of integrating QOL interventions as part of TB control programs seeking to improve childhood TB reporting. This can mitigate the disease burden in vulnerable age-groups living in resource limited settings, thereby contributing to positive social change in the society.
Visionaries from the East as Guiding Principles for Western Education  [PDF]
Stephen R. White, John Janowiak
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.31002
Abstract: Our analysis of western education is not a “how to” prescription. It is a meaningful and reflective theoretical position as to “what is” the meaning of education, to us. Thus this work is a unique look at the collaboration as a constructive “process,” theoretically an endeavor of reflection, over that of a detailed pragmatic narration of education. Therefore, we believe, it is in spirit of the act of collaboration as process of knowledge revelation. Given this our analysis does not address each and every question posed, specifically, but is a work that sheds light and illuminates the process of education and in doing so does cast a pragmatic shadow over all the questions of interest for this issue. In short, we believe that this work of ours is visionary in scope and relevance.
Apoptosis and the Airway Epithelium
Steven R. White
Journal of Allergy , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/948406
Abstract: The airway epithelium functions as a barrier and front line of host defense in the lung. Apoptosis or programmed cell death can be elicited in the epithelium as a response to viral infection, exposure to allergen or to environmental toxins, or to drugs. While apoptosis can be induced via activation of death receptors on the cell surface or by disruption of mitochondrial polarity, epithelial cells compared to inflammatory cells are more resistant to apoptotic stimuli. This paper focuses on the response of airway epithelium to apoptosis in the normal state, apoptosis as a potential regulator of the number and types of epithelial cells in the airway, and the contribution of epithelial cell apoptosis in important airways diseases. 1. Introduction The airway epithelium is the first barrier and first line of host defense in the airway. Formerly considered a more inert barrier that “kept the outside out and the inside in,” it is now clear that epithelial cells participate in host defense and inflammation. The networks in which the epithelium participates indeed can orchestrate either or both, depending on whether these networks are activated normally or not. A more classical view of epithelial responses to injury and inflammation emphasized the ability of the epithelium to respond to insults by secretion of water and mucous into the airways and mediator secretion (e.g., cytokines and chemokines) into the local environment and into the circulation. In this view, the epithelial layer responded to physical injury by a process that included, in order, phagocytic clearance of damaged cells and material, proliferation of new epithelial cells from surviving nearby stem cells, differentiation (phenotype shifting may be preferred) to new, required cell subtypes such as ciliated and mucous (goblet) cells, and restoration of barrier function [1]. Over the past two decades, it has become clear that proper protection and repair of the airway mucosa against sustained damage may also depend on the processes that control programmed cell death, that is, apoptosis. Apoptosis is a tightly regulated process of nonnecrotic cell death that is critical for normal tissue and organ homeostasis. Cells undergo apoptosis through the activation of carefully regulated pathways that lead to their orderly shutdown and removal. In this paper, I examine the occurrence and function of apoptosis both in the normal airway epithelium and in the epithelium in several airways diseases. In the context of these diseases, epithelial cell apoptosis may be either a compensatory response, a pathogenetic
A Higgs-Like Scalar With Mixed-Parity and Standard-Model-Like Couplings Could be Further Evidence for Underlying Massless SU(5) Unification
White, Alan R.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2013,
Abstract: The bound-state S-Matrix of QUD (SU(5) gauge theory with massless left-handed 5 + 15 + 40 + 45* fermions) might underly the success of the Standard Model. The dynamical role of the QUD top quark leads to two Higgs-like scalar resonances, the eta_6 - which reproduces Standard Model top events, and the eta_3 - which could have a mass ~ 125 GeV. The participation of the weak interaction in the dynamics implies the resonances are not parity eigenstates and so should have pseudoscalar and scalar electroweak couplings. Also, a tree-unitarity condition could hold - in part because of the closeness of the electroweak physical amplitudes to perturbation theory, and - in part because of the intimate relation with regge behavior. This would imply that the combined physical couplings of the two resonances are comparable to those of the Standard Model Higgs boson. Unlike the isolated Standard Model, the underlying unification of QUD implies there will be no LHC "nightmare scenario" and that, instead, a broad, extensive, experimental program should, eventually, be implemented.
The LHC Pomeron and Unification of the Standard Model - a Bound-State S-Matrix Within a Fixed-Point Field Theory ?
White, Alan R.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007,
Abstract: The Critical Pomeron solution of high-energy unitarity leads to a unique underlying massless field theory that might be the origin of the Standard Model. A color sextet quark sector - producing both electroweak symmetry breaking and dark matter - is added to QCD to saturate asymptotic freedom. The sextet sector is then embedded uniquely in ``QUD'' - an anomaly free, just asymptotically free, massless SU(5) theory with elementary lepton and triplet quark sectors very close to the Standard Model. A multi-regge bound-state S-Matrix is constructed using infra-red divergent scaling reggeon interactions that couple via massless fermion chiral anomalies. Within the QCD sub-sector there is an ``anomalous wee gluon'' critical phenomenon that produces a spectrum with confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. The exponentiation of left-handed gauge boson divergences implies that the full set of composite interactions and the low-mass spectrum of QUD could be just those of the Standard Model. All particles, including neutrinos, appear as massive, Goldstone boson related, bound-states and there is no Higgs field. The different coupling strengths, multiple mass scales, and multigenerational structure should also appear. The Critical Pomeron may be the S-Matrix manifestation of the underlying fixed-point field theory. If QUD underlies the Standard Model as described, the sextet sector should produce new, unmistakeable, large cross-sections at the LHC, for which the pomeron could be the main diagnostic!
When Institutions Collide: The Competing Forces of Hospitals Sponsored by the Roman Catholic Church
Kenneth R. White
Religions , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/rel4010014
Abstract: For centuries, the Catholic Church has been a major social actor in the provision of health services, particularly health care delivered in hospitals. Through a confluence of powerful environmental forces at the beginning of the twenty-first century, the future of Catholic health care is threatened. Although United States Catholic hospitals are a separate case of private, nonprofit hospitals, they have experienced environmental pressures to compete with other hospital ownership types and, on some dimensions, Catholic hospitals are indistinguishable from other hospitals. This article conceptualizes United States Catholic hospitals as having competing institutional forces that are not always compatible. To keep pace with the changing demands of religion and the social role of the hospital, Catholic hospitals continue to redefine themselves. An adaptive framework is used to explain choices Catholic hospitals may need to make to justify their existence.
Buchmüller Scaling, the QCD Pomeron, and Tevatron Diffractive Hard Scattering
Alan R. White
Physics , 1995,
Abstract: We discuss the observed scaling of the small-x diffractive and total deep-inelastic structure functions at HERA. We argue that the parton interpretation of Buchm\"uller and Hebecker can be understood within QCD as the appearance of the Pomeron in a Super-Critical phase. In diffractive hard scattering, the Pomeron appears as reggeized gluon exchange in a color-compensating background field. The formalism can also be applied to diffractive $W$ production at the Tevatron. If the scaling is a true asymptotic property then it should anticipate the appearance of a further massive sector of QCD and associated asymptotic Critical Pomeron behaviour.
Minimally entangled typical quantum states at finite temperature
Steven R. White
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.190601
Abstract: We introduce a class of states, called minimally entangled typical thermal states (METTS), designed to resemble a typical state of a quantum system at finite temperature with a bias towards classical (minimally entangled) properties. These states reveal in an intuitive way properties such as short-range order which may be hidden in correlation functions. An algorithm is presented which, when used with the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG), is faster by a factor of $10^3 - 10^{10}$ than previous heat-bath approaches for thermally averaged quantities.
The VIIth Blois Workshop: Theory Summary and Factorization Issues
Alan R. White
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: Workshop presentations on elastic and diffractive scattering and other recent advances in hadron physics are summarized. The role of ``factorization'' in determining parton properties of the pomeron is particularly discussed.
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