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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1404 matches for " Corn "
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Pasting Properties of White Corn Flours of Anoman 1 and Pulut Harapan Varieties as Affected by Fementation Process  [PDF]
Rahmawati Farasara, Purwiyatno Hariyadi, Dedi Fardiaz, Ratih Dewanti-Hariyadi
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.521215
Abstract: This research was aimed to evaluate the pasting properties of white corn flour made from Anoman 1 and Pulut Harapan varieties as affected by the fermentation process of the corn grits. The fermentation process studied were 1) spontaneous fermentation (SF); 2) fermentation with the addition of a complete starter culture at 0 hour (CC fermentation) and 3) fermentation of (CC) with additional inoculation of starter culture containing amylolytic microorganisms at 16 hours (AC fermentation). The evaluation of pasting properties was done on the flour made from corn grits fermented for 0, 36, 48, and 72 hours. Our results showed that pasting properties of corn flour of Anoman 1 and Pulut Harapan varieties were affected by fermentation process. Addition of starter culture in the fermentation showed more complex effect on the pasting properties and was a function of the fermentation time. Fermentation process of corn grits affected the pasting properties of the resulted flour, both for Anoman I and Pulut Harapan corn varieties. The differences in the effect of fermentation process on the pasting properties were due to the different amylose/amylopectin content. AC fermentation of corn grits could increase the stability of paste for flour containing higher amylose content but decrease the stability of paste for flour containing high amylopectin. Specifically, CC fermentation caused significant increase in the peak viscosity value especially for corn flour of Pulut Harapan. Fermentation for up to 48 h had resulted in corn flour of Pulut Harapan variety having a higher PV value, but it did not affect the tendency to retrograde.
Corn and Soybean Responses to Two Tillage Systems in a Cool Growing Season  [PDF]
Jesper K. V. Nielsen, Howard J. Woodard
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2015.58016
Abstract: A field study in 2014 documented corn and soybean biomass and nutrient responses between conventional-till and no-till tillage systems at Beresford, SD during cooler than normal weather conditions with adequate soil moisture. The overall study was established in 1992. Each treatment plot was monitored weekly from June to August for soil moisture, temperature, and plant growth stages. Biomass was harvested during and at the end of the growing season for yield and nutrient content. Soil moisture measured throughout the early and middle part of the growing season was determined to be sufficient for crop growth, since precipitation was much greater than normal in June (33.2 cm). However, air temperature was below normal early in the growing season and lowered Growing Degree Days (939°C) compared to the 30-year average (139°C). Soil temperatures (5 cm depth) were not significant between tillage treatments in the corn plots during the growing season for 12 observation dates (range 16.3°C - 28.0°C). Plant growth was not significantly different between tillage treatments, reflecting the lack of soil temperature differences (5 cm depth) between tillage treatments. The mid-season plant tissue and crop residue at harvest nutrient content (P, K, and Zn) were not significant between tillage treatments. Corn grain yields were 10.3 T·ha-1 and 10.1 T·ha-1 for conventional tillage and no-till, respectively. Soybean grain yields were 3.9 T·ha-1?and 3.3 T·ha-1 for conventional tillage and no-till, respectively. These results would more than likely have been
The effects of different autumn-seeded cover crops on subsequent irrigated corn response to nitrogen fertilizer  [PDF]
Gholam Reza Mohammadi, Mohammad Eghbal Ghobadi
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/as.2010.13018
Abstract: A common crop rotation in the west Iran is wheat-fallow-corn. The fallow period after wheat harvest (during fall and winter) can lead to soil erosion, nutrient losses (e.g. nitrate leaching) and offsite movement of pesticides. This period is an ideal time to establish a cover crop. In order to investigate the effects of different autumn-seeded cover crops on subsequent irrigated corn response to nitrogen fertilizer, field studies were carried out during the 2007-2008 growing season at the Agricultural Research Farm, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. The experiment was conducted in a split plot arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plots consisted of four cover crops including alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.), common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) and winter rye (Secale cereale L.) and a control (no cover crop). The sub plots consisted of two fertilizer N rates (0 and 250 kg ha-1). Cover crops were grown for nearly 5 months and then were incorporated into the soil as green manures. The results indicated that corn plant traits including seed yield, the number of seeds per ear and leaf chlorophyll content were significantly influenced by cover crops. Whereas, the cover crops had no signif-icant effects on the number of ears per plant, 100-seed weight and harvest index of corn. Among the cover crop species, common vetch produced higher dry weight and showed the highest positive effects on the corn plant traits. Dry weight produced by this cover crop was 56.41, 120.16 and 124.19% higher than those of winter rye, berseem clover and alfalfa, respectively. Common vetch enhanced seed yield, the number of seeds per ear and leaf chlorophyll content of corn by 46.30, 21.95 and 8.52%, respectively, compared to control. All of the corn traits under study, except the number of ears per plant and harvest index were significantly improved by nitrogen fertilizer. In general, this study revealed that the autumn-seeded cover crops, especially common vetch can be used to improve corn yield. However, the cover crops should be supplemented with nitrogen fertilizer to obtain optimal results.
Physicochemical and Organoleptic Characteristics of Manufactured Buffalo Milk Yoghurt Incorporated Soy and Corn Milks  [PDF]
Fawzy S. Ibrahim, Ateteallah H. Ateteallah, Hussein A. Abd El-aal, Osama S. F. Khalil
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2019.101003
Abstract: Soy-corn-yoghurt is a fermented product that obtained from inoculation of yoghurt starter to soy corn milk. The present study was conducted to study the use of different ratios of soy corn milk and corn milk only with buffalo milk in the manufacture of yoghurt. Two experiments were carried out , the first experiment was 100 ml buffalo milk :soy corn milk ratios 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 (w/w), the second was buffalo milk with Corn milk 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 and 40:60 respectively and 100% buffalo milk as control. Treatments were coded B1, C1, D1, E1 and F1 in the first experiment, while B2, C2, D2, E2, F2 and G2 for the second respectively. All treatments subjected to chemical and organoleptic assessment. It was found those pH, total protein, fat content were decreased with increasing the ratio of soy corn milk in the product. Also, increasing the ratio of corn milk led to decrease all the previously mentioned characteristics. Curd firmness values for yoghurt made from (70:30) coded D2 and (60:40) coded E1 were higher than that of other treatments. Results indicated that mixes of (50:50) coded F1, (60:40) coded E1 and mixes (90:10) coded B2, (80:20) coded C2 and (70:30) coded D2 had the highest sensory scores and chemical quality.
Fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn-based products commercialized in the state of Santa Catarina - Southern Brazil
Scaff, Rejane Maria Cirra;Scussel, Vildes Maria;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132004000600011
Abstract: corn flour, "canjica" (corn grits), corn flakes and popcorn for human consumption, commercialized in santa catarina (n=82), were analyzed in order to detect the presence of fumonisins b1 (fb1) and b2 (fb2). from the samples, 92.68% showed detectable levels of fumonisins (fbs). corn flour showed the highest level of contamination (91.5%) with average levels of 3.811 and 5.737 mg/g for the home-processed and industrialized products, respectively. the next most contaminated product was popcorn with a average of 2.872 mg/g and an occurrence in 91.6% of the samples. all samples of corn flakes were contaminated with an average of 1.307 mg/g. the product with the lowest levels of fbs was "canjica" with a average contamination of 0.732 mg/g. these results indicated the need of monitoring corn-based products in this state.
MONITORAMENTO DE FUNGOS EM MILHO EM GR?O, GRITS E FUBá
MáRCIA, B.A.;LáZZARI, F.A.;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20611998000400001
Abstract: the knowledgment about the impact of the sanitary quality of raw materials on their subproducts is very important for the industry and for the consumer. in order to determine the level of mold infection, 81 samples of corn, 81 of grits and 81 of corn meal were analysed weekly before and after processing, during 4 months. kernels and grits from the corn samples were surface washed with a 2% solution of sodium hypochlorite, and plated on two kinds of media: potato dextrose agar and tomate juice agar. for corn meal samples, the surface washed step was skipped. after incubation at 25° c for 4-7 days fungi growing from the kernels, grits and corn meal were identified and counted. the fungi infecting corn kernels and grits belonged to the following genera: aspergillus, fusarium, penicillium, mucor and rhizopus. the corn meal samples present the highest percentage of mold infection, probably coming from the corn kernels and/or from the processing and storage conditions. the fungi isolated and identified from the samples of corn, grits and corn meal are normally found in storage products. some of their species are toxigenics and might cause diseases in humans.
?Es ventajosa para México la tecnología actual de maíz trangénico?
Turrent Fernández, Antonio;Cortés Flores, José Isabel;Espinosa Calderón, Alejandro;Mejía Andrade, Hugo;Serratos Hernández, José Antonio;
Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas , 2010,
Abstract: in 2009, the mexican government granted to several multinational enterprises (mne) 24 permits to experiment with transgenic corn (mt) in 24 towns of the states of sinaloa, sonora, chihuahua and tamaulipas, with biosafety protocols against gene flow via pollen and via seed-pollen; there are 14 new applications in consideration. the fraction of corn agroecosystem of mexico (amm) sampled for these permits has 754 000 ha of irrigation, in a region cohabited by 5 ethnic groups and 29 native races of corn (rnm). to analyze the consequences for amm of a hypothetical release of mt at commercial scale, it is analyzed: 1) mega-diversity of amm; 2) available non-transgenic technology; and 3) risks in which the rnm incurs. the biosafety protocol of the experimental phase won't be applicable at commercial scale, and inevitably it will be replaced by something that it will ignore the gene flow via seed-pollen. this path is part of practices of the autochthonous genetic improvement, root of generation and advance of the rnm in the origin and diversification center, making unavoidable the genetic interaction mt*rnm. the 59 rnm are sown by 75 percent of amm and they are key for the food safety and cultural uses of the corn as food; they are also part of non-transgenic technology that it would allow alimentary sufficiency by itself. it is concluded that the mega experiment of cmn in the amm is unfavourable for mexico, it is not required and must be prohibited.
Potential legacy effects of biofuel cropping systems on soil microbial communities in southern Wisconsin, USA  [PDF]
Chao Liang, Gregg R. Sanford, Randall D. Jackson, Teri C. Balser
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.22019
Abstract: Soil microbial community structure is clearly linked to current plant species composition, but less is known about the legacy effects of plant species and agricultural management practices on soil microbial communities. Using microbial lipid biomarkers, we assessed patterns of com-munity-level diversity and abundance at depths of 0-10 and 10-25 cm from three hay (al-falfa/orchardgrass) and two corn plots in south ern Wisconsin. Principal components analysis of the lipid biomarkers revealed differential composition of the soil microbial communities at the two depths. Despite similar abundance of fungi, bacteria, actinomycete, protozoa, and total microbial lipids in the hay and corn at 0-10 cm, community structure differed with a sig-nificantly higher absolute abundance of arbus-cular mycorrhizal fungi and gram-negative bacteria in the hay plots. No significant micro-bial lipid mass differences were detected be-tween the two management regimes at 10-25 cm, but the proportional dominance of bacterial gram type differed with depth. These results indicate the potential for legacy effects of an-nual and perennial cropping systems manage-ment on microbial community composition and suggests the importance of considering past land-use when initiating long-term agroecolo- gical trials.
Effect of Organic and Inorganic Amendments on the Phytoavailability of Phosphorus to Corn (Zea mays)  [PDF]
Mejbah Uddin, Abul Kashem, Khan Towhid Osman
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2012.21008
Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of cow manure, city waste, chicken manure and TSP on the growth of corn (Zea mays) and phytoavailability of phosphorous (P) in soil. An air dried sandy loam soil was mixed with different amendments at rates equivalent to 0, 200, 400 and 800 mg P kg–1 soil based on total P. The plant height and leaf number increased in the plants grown in amended pots compared to control pot. The dry weight of shoots and roots in the control pot were 14.3 and 2.8 g, respectively. The shoot dry weights of corn increased from 43.8 to 76.6 g with the cow manure, 27.8 to 38.7 g with the city waste, 48.4 to 68.2 g with the chicken manure and 30.2 to 32.2 g with the TSP amendments when the P addition rates increased from 200 to 800 mg P kg–1 soil. Similar effects of these amendments and their rates were also found in the case of roots dry weights production. Phosphorus concentration in the plant parts increased with the P application from different amendments but the increase was higher with the TSP fertilizer and lower with the city waste amendments. Olsen P (measured after the plant harvest) increased with P application rates. The extractability of Olsen P from different amendments increased in this order: city waste < chicken manure < cow manure < TSP. Olsen P was strongly related with both shoot and root P concentration of corn (r = 0.910, p = 0.000), indicate suitability of Olsen P to predict plant available P. These results imply that cow manure and chicken manure could be recommended to use in the agricultural field for producing optimum yield.
Phosphate Biofertilizer, Row Spacing and Plant Density Effects on Corn (Zea mays L.) Yield and Weed Growth  [PDF]
Gholam Reza Mohammadi, Mohammad Eghbal Ghobadi, Saeed Sheikheh-Poor
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.34051
Abstract: A field study was conducted at the Agricultural Research Farm of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran to investigate the effects of phosphate biofertilizer, row spacing and plant density on corn yield and weed growth. The experiment was a factorial with three factors arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The first factor was phosphate biofertilizer (inoculation and non-inoculation), the second was row spacing (conventional (75 cm) and reduced (50 cm)) and the third was plant density (66,666 plants·ha–1 (conventional plant density) 83,333 and 99,999 plants·ha–1 (1.25 and 1.5 times the conventional plant density, respectively)). Results indicated that corn yield and weed growth were significantly influenced by row spacing and plant density. So that, corn yield improved and weed biomass diminished in response to increasing plant density and decreasing row spacing. However, phosphate biofertilizer had no significant effect on corn yield, whereas, weed biomass was notably increased when phosphate biofertilizer was applied. Overall, this study revealed that both yield and weed control in corn field can be improved by alteration of the planting arrangement.
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