Abstract:
The subjectivity and objectivity of science are strongly associated to the nature of science, which is part of science education curricula worldwide. The issue under research is how an epistemological issue, like objectivity and subjectivity in science, could be introduced in science classes, so as to reflect the most realistic image of science. Following this line in the present study, concepts were related to what students and teachers should know, science education research and policy documents were explored, and current views within the philosophy of science were briefly summarized. We propose a distinction between the partially subjective scientific process and the rather objective end result of scientific inquiry as a schema promoting better understanding in science education. Intersubjectivity and critical transformation are then proposed as concepts which can enhance this schema. The history of science provides a suitable framework for teaching these ideas in science classes.

Abstract:
Substantial research by health professionals, and public health policy advocates have indicated different avenues through which adolescent smoking can be prevented at a population based level, key points which are depicted in the Tobacco Control Funnel in Figure 1.One of the most discussed ways of reducing tobacco use among adolescents is by increasing the price of tobacco products, through a regulated rise in taxation [4]. Adolescents are very price sensitive, with the price of the cigarette pack shown to significantly influence the decision to start and quit smoking [5-8]. As a significant share of pocket money among teen age smokers is allocated towards tobacco products a price increase also reduces also the spending capacity of the adolescent. It must be stated though that price increases can be rather unpredictable as youth smoking behaviors are not as intense or consistent as adult smoking, while social sources are also a common way that adolescents obtain cigarettes.Restricting smoking areas also play a key role in promoting the populations health, not only by reducing the negative ramifications of exposure to second hand smoke but also by reducing cigarette consumption by restricting the smoker's ability to smoke under certain situations. Furthermore, smoke free legislations are also associated with a increased rate of smoking cessation [7]. This environment that prohibits smoking has an important impact on the perception of the acceptance of smoking at a population based level by reducing the visibility of role models who smoke [8]. Smoking bans in other areas, such as the household or schools also have this desired effect on adolescent smoking experimentation, a fact which should be acknowledged [9].Industry advertising and brand imagery are also associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents, with the implementation of advertising bans a core element of comprehensive tobacco control measures and a central part of the Framework Convention on Toba

Abstract:
Microextraction has become a buzz word in the recent years in the scientific area of analytical chemistry. Over the last decade, newer miniaturised approaches to liquid extraction have emerged, resulting in solvent and sample savings and less time consuming analysis. Single-drop microextraction (SDME) has been developed as a viable and easy-to-use method based on the partitioning between sample matrix and organic droplet phase. However, there are numerous examples where analytical derivatizations are required to enhance sensitivity, selectivity, extraction efficiency and overall quality of the data. Improvements resulting from derivatization in instrumental methods are well known. The absence of data in chemical reaction accompanied by mass-transfer in liquid-liquid and gas-liquid microextraction, calls for a meticulous treatment of SDME in-drop derivatization for the purpose of analytical implementation. Leveraging the inherent characteristics of an organic microdrop as a tiny reactor, a threefold aim is set out in order: Ι. to develop a theoretical approximation to the in-drop derivatization SDME using phenolic compounds for liquid-liquid and two aldehydes for gas-liquid, as model compounds, II. to gauge the significance of mass-transfer and chemical reaction in an organic drop viewed as an analytical reactor and III. to underscore the importance of the a priori knowledge of the characteristics of such a system related to its analytical aspects.

Abstract:
Can a complete graph on an even number n (>4) of vertices be properly edge-colored with n-1 colors in such a way that the edges can be partitioned into edge disjoint colorful isomorphic spanning trees? A spanning treee is colorful if all n-1 colors occur among its edges. It is proved that this is possible to accomplish whenever n is a power of two, or five times a power of two.

Abstract:
A mixed-integer programming model (MIP) incorporating prior probabilities for the two-group discriminant problem is presented. Its classificatory performance is compared against that of Fisher's linear discrimininant function (LDF) and Smith's quadradic discriminant function (QDF) for simulated data from normal and nonnormal populations for different settings of the prior probabilities of group membership. The proposed model is shown to outperform both LDF and QDF for most settings of the prior probabilities when the data are generated from nonnormal populations but underperforms the parametric models for data generated from normal populations.

Abstract:
The seismicity, which took place at the Methoni seismogenic area, in the time period of 20/2/2008 - 10/4/2008, is analyzed in terms of its location, time of occurrence and magnitude. Furthermore, it is compared to the tidal (T=14 days, T=1 day) lithospheric oscillation and to the epicentral area suggested by the analysis of the Earth_s electric field registered on 21-22/2/2008 by PYR, ATH and HIO monitoring sites. Moreover, a comparison is made between the actual seismic energy released, during the same time period (20/2/2008 - 10/4/2008) in this specific seismogenic region and the suggested one by the probabilistic single seismic event suggested that could occur in the time period of 28/2_ 1/3/2008. The overall analysis of the Methoni seismic event reveals the validity of the used physical models: of the lithospheric oscillation, of the lithospheric seismic energy release and the one of the homogeneous Earth used for the azimuthal intensity vector analysis of the preseismic electric signals (Thanassoulas, 2007).

Abstract:
It is postulated that the preseismic electric signals (SES) are generated by the piezoelectric mechanism applied on small rock grains - blocks during their stress load until fracturing. Specifically, the square electric train pulses are generated by the combination of a stress increase phase which generates a positive piezostimulated polarized current pulse (PSPC) followed, in a short time, by the stress decrease phase at fracturing level which generates a negative piezostimulated depolarized current pulse (PSDC). Moreover, it is shown that the SES signals are closely related to the tidally triggered lithospheric stress maxima - minima. Examples of SES signals are presented in relation to the tidally triggered lithospheric oscillation (k2, S2, M1) of T = 12hours / 14 days, while some comments are made as far as it concerns their use in short-term earthquake prediction.

Abstract:
Fully microscopic RPA/LDA calculations of the dipole plasmon for very large neutral and charged sodium clusters, Na_N^Z+, in the size range 950 < N < 12050 are presented for the first time. 60 different sizes are considered altogether, which allows for an in-depth investigation of the asymptotic behavior of both the width and the position of the plasmon.

Abstract:
This paper presents hyperbolic rank rigidity results for rank 1, nonpositively curved spaces. Let $M$ be a compact, rank 1 manifold with nonpositive sectional curvature and suppose that along every geodesic in $M$ there is a parallel vector field making curvature $-a^2$ with the geodesic direction. We prove that $M$ has constant curvature equal to $-a^2$ if $M$ is odd dimensional, or if $M$ is even dimensional and has sectional curvature pinched as follows: $-\Lambda^2 < K < -\lambda^2$ where $\lambda/\Lambda > >.93$. When $-a^2$ is the upper curvature bound this gives a shorter proof of the hyperbolic rank rigidity theorem of Hamenst\"{a}dt, subject to the pinching condition in even dimension; in all other cases it is a new result. We also present a rigidity result using only an assumption on maximal Lyapunov exponents in direct analogy with work done by Connell. The proof of the main theorem is simplified considerably by assuming strict negative curvature; in fact, in all dimensions but 7 and 8 it is then an immediate consequence of ergodicity of the $(dim(M)-1)$-frame flow. In these exceptional dimensions, recourse to the dynamics of the 2-frame flow must be made and the scheme of proof developed there can be generalized to deal with rank 1, nonpositively curved spaces.