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This study was performed in laboratory scale and consisted of the
using of aqueous Opuntia dillenii solution for the clarification of very turbid surface water (Turbidities
varying between 186 NTU and 418 NTU). This plant from Cactaceae family was used as a natural coagulant for the different
clarification tests. The preliminary phytochemical Screening of the powder of this plant showed that it contains tanins,
saponins and mucilages. Flocculation and coagulation tests showed that Opuntia dillenii can be used in highly
turbid water treatment. The removal efficiency varied from 89% to 93% for the
turbidity and suspended solids, and from 4% to 15% for the obvious color in
water when we used the optimum values of this natural coagulant (1 mL to 10
mL). The successive addition of this natural coagulant and the lime, gave a
better elimination of turbidity and suspended solids, and a good reduction for
the color. The removal efficiency of the turbidity and suspended solids became
more than 95% and the one of the color between 67% and 94%.
Over the past twenty years, the scientific community and politicians in consolidated democracies have been regularly alarmed by political and electoral participation, portrayed as undergoing a brutal and linear decline. Each election is now scrutinized in terms not only of its results but also of its level of electoral turnout. This paper deals with two important issues—the reality of changes in electoral turnout in Europe and the impact of the institutional constraint of compulsory voting in voter turnout levels—through an analysis of 402 elections held in thirty-five States from 1944 until December, the 31st 2009. We do observe a contemporary erosion of voter turnout but at this stage voters are not so impossible to find as some claim they are. Furthermore, the assumption that interest in, and the importance of, compulsory voting as an institutional constraint encouraging voter turnout is confirmed.
This paper shows existence and efficiency of equilibria of a two period production model with uncertainty as a consequence of the catastrophe map being smooth and proper. Its inverse mapping defines a finite covering implying finiteness of equilibria. Beyond the extraction of local equilibrium information of the model, the catastrophe map renders itself well for a global study of the equilibrium set. It is shown that the equilibrium set has the structure of a smooth submanifold of the Euclidean space which is diffeomorphic to the sphere implying connectedness, simple connectedness, and contractibility.