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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10032 matches for " Climate Change "
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Climate Change Index: A Proposed Methodology for Assessing Susceptibility to Future Climatic Extremes  [PDF]
Manyu Chang, Claudine Dereczynski, Marcos A. V. Freitas, Sin Chan Chou
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2014.33029
Abstract: A Climate Change Index (CCI) was designed to assess the degree of susceptibility to the climatic extremes projected for the future. Climate projections for the period 2041-2070 are extracted from the numerical integrations of INPE’s Eta-HadCM3 model, using the SRES A1B emissions scenario. Five indicators were chosen to represent the climatic extremes: Total annual precipitation, precipitation on the days of heavy rain, the maximum number of consecutive dry days in the year and the annual mean maximum and mean minimum temperatures. The methodology was applied to the state of Paraná. The results point to a very strong warming in 99% of the municipalities, with temperature increases between 6 and 8 times greater than the variance observed in the present climate. On the other hand, projections of precipitation do not indicate major changes in relation to present behavior.
Global Climate Change  [PDF]
Olufemi Adedeji, Okocha Reuben, Olufemi Olatoye
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2014.22016
Abstract: Climate change is one of the major challenges of our time and adds considerable stress to our societies and to the environment. From shifting weather patterns that threaten food production, to rising sea levels that increase the risk of catastrophic flooding, the impacts of climate change are global in scope and unprecedented in scale. Without drastic action today, adapting to these impacts in the future will be more difficult and costly. This overview deals with the concept of Global Climate Change, the associated terms, causes, consequences, solutions and its potential health impact. It shows the need to act urgently if we are to avoid an irreversible build-up of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and global warming at a potentially huge cost to the economy and society worldwide. Therefore, addressing climate change requires an “unprecedented level of cooperation, not only between countries, but also between different levels of Governments, private sector and individuals.
Does the global warming modify the local Rwandan climate?  [PDF]
Sascha M. Henninger
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.51A019
Abstract:

Analyses of climate measurement series from Rwandan weather stations revealed that the division into the four formerly described Rwandan climate zones is not correct any more. This could be shown in a more detailed analysis based on currently available data. In the course of discussions held with the Service Meteo Rwanda it emerged that the climate charts used in Rwandan atlases and school books are based on data covering the period from 1931 to 1960. Fortunately, since then a mass of new data have been collected, which, however, until now have only been evaluated in isolated instances for a specific local as needed. This led to the initiation of the ReCCiR project. The project’s aim was to conduct a regional climatic analysis covering all of Rwanda and visualizing it on new maps.

Detection of Changes on Temperature and Precipitation Features in Istanbul (Turkey)  [PDF]
Hüseyin Turo?lu
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.44050
Abstract: In this study, the changes in the data of Istanbul’s precipitation and temperature and the features of these changes were analyzed by different methods. In the analyses the daily precipitation and temperature data sets of Florya and Goztepe Meteorological Stations which have similar locational features were used. These sets were recorded between 1960 and 2013 (for 54 years). In order to emphasize the differentiations in the last 15 years the analyses were conducted comparatively both for the 15-year and for the 54-year periods and then the results were evaluated. The changes in the monthly, annual and seasonal quantity, type and frequency of the precipitation in the form of rain and the features of the temperature’s monthly, annual and seasonal changes, the De Martonne aridity index and the Thornthwaite climate classification were carried out. The results showed that during the years from 1999 to 2013 the climate type of Istanbul changed from semi-humid climate to arid and less-humid climate. Most notably the precipitation during the warm periods has decreased, but the frequency of the intense rain has increased and the majority of these episodes of intense rain coincided with the warm periods. Other determinations were the rise in the annual average temperature and the extension of the warm periods in a year. This differentiation of the temperature features can lead to the aggravation of the evaporation and it can be effective for a longer period during the year. Being aware of this differentiation in the features of precipitation and temperature and taking these data into consideration in all sorts of planning and managing strategies have a special importance for the 14 million or more people living in Istanbul.
Past, Present and Future: Urgency of Dealing with Climate Change  [PDF]
Alan D. Hecht
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.45069
Abstract:

This paper gives an historic perspective on 10 critical phases and actions in advancing an understanding of climate change and taking appropriate domestic and international action. Credit goes to atmospheric scientists for their committed efforts to understand, model and measure the impacts of climate change. Today, greenhouse gases are at a record level and little doubt remains that greenhouse gases (GHG) warm the atmosphere and that human-made climate change is real. Recognizing the urgency of responding to climate change, the 2013 US Climate Action Plan aims to cut carbon emissions and prepare to deal effectively with the economic, social, and environmental impacts of climate change. Many US states, Tribes, and local communities have also begun to take action to reduce GHG emissions and adapt to the impact of climate change, especially on disadvantaged communities. While recognition of the urgency of action on climate change is growing in government and in large parts of the business and financial sector, it has taken over 40 years to get to this point. While an understanding of the reality and impact of climate change has grown, significant efforts to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and stabilize global warming have not occurred. The problem that society faces is not the absence of scientific knowledge, but rather the need to reduce GHG emissions and create resilient and adaptive responses to climate change. This paper concludes that future successes will need more effective collaboration between government, business, and society to address climate change and greater public understanding of the impacts of climate change on human health and economic well-being.

Analysis on Long Precipitation Series in Piedmont (North-West Italy)  [PDF]
Fiorella Acquaotta, Simona Fratianni
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2013.21002
Abstract:

This study analyses thirteen daily precipitation series of Piedmont, region of North-West Italy. The meteorological series have been chosen because they were meteorological observatories operating continuously from the beginning of 1900 until 2011. As the first step an historical research over each station has been carried out. In this way, the potential breaks, in the series, either due to changes of locations or instruments, have been determined and the missing values have been recovered. On the precipitation daily series a quality control have been effectuated and by metadata identification it was possible to assess the homogeneity of the meteorological series. In this way we have obtained the complete and correct series on which trends have been computed. In order to better understand the consequences of climate variations on our environment and society, we have calculated the climate indices proposed by “CCL/CLIVAR Working Group on Climate Change Detection” (dry and wet days, rainy days, intensity of precipitation…) over the time. The values of precipitation have also allowed beginning the climatic analysis with the aim at defining the principle local peculiarity in Piedmont.

Climate Change Projections and the Associated Potential Impacts for Somalia  [PDF]
Linda Ajuang Ogallo, Philip Omondi, Gilbert Ouma, Gordon Wayumba
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2018.72011
Abstract: Somalia has faced severe challenges linked to climate variability, which has been exacerbated by conflict and limited governance that persisted for decades. Today climate extremes such as floods, drought, and coastal marine severe systems among others are always associated with the destruction of property and livelihoods; losses of lives lost, migrations, and resource based conflicts among many other miseries. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has shown that climate change is real and requires sound knowledge of local future climate change scenarios. The study attempted to provide projected rainfall and temperature change scenarios over Lower Jubba, Somalia. This was done using the downscaled Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) RCMs data. The simulated temperature and rainfall data derived from the CORDEX RCMs ensemble were compared with the observed data. The study focused on the IPCC projected periods of 2030, 2050 and 2070 benchmarks. Analysis of the projected rainfall indicated a decreasing trend in rainfall leading up to 2030 followed by an increase in rainfall with the 2050 and 2070 scenarios. In the case of temperature, the projections from all the models showed increase in minimum and maximum temperatures in all seasons and sub periods, like being observed by temperature projection over other parts of the world. The 2030, 2050 and 2070 projected rainfall and temperature change scenarios show that Somalia future development and livelihoods will in future face increased threats of climate extremes unless effective climate smart adaptation systems form integral components of national development strategies.
The ‘Greening’ of Natural Stone Buildings:Quartz Sandstone Performance as a Secondary Indicator of Climate Change in the British Isles?  [PDF]
Stephen McCabe, Bernard Smith, Catherine Adamson, Donal Mullan, Daniel McAllister
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2011.14018
Abstract: A number of recent studies have explored the impact of climate change on natural building stones. Because of its sensitivity to change, sandstone can be seen as having a predictable, recognisable and sustained response to changes in system inputs that control performance – most crucially for the UK and Ireland, how it responds to an increased moisture input. There has been a widespread biological “greening” of sandstone buildings in response to these periods of wetness during autumn, winter and spring months. Furthermore, there is a wealth of literature detailing the response of sandstone in a variety of environments where sand-stone response is representative of the environment in which it has been placed. This letter suggests that the response of sandstone to trends towards wetter winter conditions is predictable to the extent that it may have potential to be a secondary indicator of climatic change – that is, a system that alters in response to fluctuations in environmental conditions in a sustained way. It is hoped that the letter may stimulate discussion as to what other possible indicators of climatic change remain unacknowledged.
Communicating the Probabilities of Extreme Surface Temperature Outcomes  [PDF]
Nathan Rive, Gunnar Myhre
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2012.24049
Abstract: The magnitude of the future global warming is uncertain, but the possible dramatic changes associated with high temperatures have seen rising attention in the literature. Projections of temperature change in the literature are often presented in probabilistic terms and typically highlight the most likely ranges of future temperature under assumed emission scenarios. However, focusing on these high probability outcomes of global warming omits important information related to the threats of low-probability but high-impact outcomes under more extreme change. As such, we argue that the literature should place more emphasis on communicating the probabilities of extreme temperature change, in a way that is accessible to policymakers and the general public. The damage associated with climate change is likely to be non-linear with temperature, and thus extreme temperature changes may pose a larger risk than the most likely outcomes. We use a simple climate model to explore the probabilities of high surface temperature under business as usual emissions scenarios, given current knowledge of the climate system. In a business as usual scenario (A1FI) we find the probability of “likely” warming (central 66%) to be approximately 4.4°C-6.9°C in 2100 (above 1900 levels). However, we find extreme (>7°C) warming to embody a notable portion of damage risk compared to this likely range.
Assessing the Sensitivity of Climate Change Targets to Policies of Land Use, Energy Demand, Low Carbon Energy and Population Growth  [PDF]
Douglas Crawford-Brown
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.312178
Abstract: A reduced scale model of the coupled carbon cycle, population dynamics, energy system and land use characteristics is used to assess the sensitivity of atmospheric carbon to a variety of policies. Policies simulated include reduction of the rate of growth of the population; reduction of the rate of conversion of forested land to cropland; reduction in per capita energy demand in developed nations; reduction in per capita energy demand in developing nations; reduction in the carbon intensity of energy production in developed nations; and reduction in the carbon intensity of energy production in developing nations. For each policy, both the time to onset of the policy and the fractional annual rate of change in the associated model variable are established. Using as a measure of sensitivity the extension in years required for atmospheric carbon to reach the policy ceiling of 1160 BMT, achieved at a policy that introduces a rate of change in each affected model variable of 0.05 per year (a 5% change per year), then the policies in decreasing order of sensitivity are: Developing nations per capita growth (17 years), Developing nations carbon intensity (17 years), Population control (11 years), Developed nations carbon intensity (2.9 years), Developed nations per capita growth (2.8 years) and Land use (1.3 years). These values are all approximately doubled when population is stabilised first. An analysis of the model results also shows a convergence of the developed and developing nations per capita carbon emissions by 2100 when a portfolio of policies is selected to prevent a doubling of the pre-industrial revolution level of atmospheric carbon at any point in the future, consistent with a principle of “contract and converge”.
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