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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 84995 matches for " Clayton W. Commander "
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Mucin Variable Number Tandem Repeat Polymorphisms and Severity of Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease: Significant Association with MUC5AC
XueLiang Guo, Rhonda G. Pace, Jaclyn R. Stonebraker, Clayton W. Commander, Anthony T. Dang, Mitchell L. Drumm, Ann Harris, Fei Zou, Dallas M. Swallow, Fred A. Wright, Wanda K. O'Neal, Michael R. Knowles
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025452
Abstract: Variability in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is partially due to non-CFTR genetic modifiers. Mucin genes are very polymorphic, and mucins play a key role in the pathogenesis of CF lung disease; therefore, mucin genes are strong candidates as genetic modifiers. DNA from CF patients recruited for extremes of lung phenotype was analyzed by Southern blot or PCR to define variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) length polymorphisms for MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC7. VNTR length polymorphisms were tested for association with lung disease severity and for linkage disequilibrium (LD) with flanking single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). No strong associations were found for MUC1, MUC2, or MUC7. A significant association was found between the overall distribution of MUC5AC VNTR length and CF lung disease severity (p = 0.025; n = 468 patients); plus, there was robust association of the specific 6.4 kb HinfI VNTR fragment with severity of lung disease (p = 6.2×10?4 after Bonferroni correction). There was strong LD between MUC5AC VNTR length modes and flanking SNPs. The severity-associated 6.4 kb VNTR allele of MUC5AC was confirmed to be genetically distinct from the 6.3 kb allele, as it showed significantly stronger association with nearby SNPs. These data provide detailed respiratory mucin gene VNTR allele distributions in CF patients. Our data also show a novel link between the MUC5AC 6.4 kb VNTR allele and severity of CF lung disease. The LD pattern with surrounding SNPs suggests that the 6.4 kb allele contains, or is linked to, important functional genetic variation.
Liposomal delivery of p-ialB and p-omp25 DNA vaccines improves immunogenicity but fails to provide full protection against B. melitensis challenge
Commander Nicola J,Brewer James M,Wren Brendan W,Spencer Stephen A
Genetic Vaccines and Therapy , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1479-0556-8-5
Abstract: Background We have previously demonstrated protective efficacy against B. melitensis using formulations of naked DNA vaccines encoding genes ialB and omp25. The present study was undertaken to further understand the immune response generated by the protective vaccination regimens and to evaluate cationic liposome adsorption as a delivery method to improve vaccine utility. Methods The protective efficacy and immunogenicity of vaccines delivered as four doses of naked DNA, a single dose of naked DNA or a single dose of DNA surface adsorbed to cationic liposomes were compared using the BALB/c murine infection model of B. melitensis. Antigen-specific T cells and antibody responses were compared between the various formulations. Results The four dose vaccination strategy was confirmed to be protective against B. melitensis challenge. The immune response elicited by the various vaccines was found to be dependent upon both the antigen and the delivery strategy, with the IalB antigen favouring CD4+ T cell priming and Omp25 antigen favouring CD8+. Delivery of the p-ialB construct as a lipoplex improved antibody generation in comparison to the equivalent quantity of naked DNA. Delivery of p-omp25 as a lipoplex altered the profile of responsive T cells from CD8+ to CD4+ dominated. Under these conditions neither candidate delivered by single dose naked DNA or lipoplex vaccination methods was able to produce a robust protective effect. Conclusions Delivery of the p-omp25 and p-ialB DNA vaccine candidates as a lipoplex was able to enhance antibody production and effect CD4+ T cell priming, but was insufficient to promote protection from a single dose of either vaccine. The enhancement of immunogenicity by lipoplex delivery is a promising step toward improving the practicality of these two candidate vaccines, and suggests that this lipoplex formulation may be of value in situations where improvements to CD4+ responses are required. However, in the case of Brucella vaccine development it is suggested that further modifications to the candidate vaccines and delivery strategies will be required in order to deliver sustained protection.
Pain and Radiographic Outcomes in Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients Using a Scoliosis Activity Suit: An 18-Month Case Controlled Chart Review  [PDF]
Mark W. Morningstar, Aatif Siddiqui, Clayton J. Stitzel, Brian Dovorany
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2015.69080
Abstract: There are few conservative treatment options for patients with adult idiopathic scoliosis. These typically include pharmacologic pain management, epidural injections, and generalized CAM treatments such as massage and chiropractic manipulation. The purpose of this study was to compare the post-treatment results in patients wearing the scoliosis activity suit versus baseline assessments as well as adult scoliosis patients who did not wear the activity suit. The pain and Cobb angle outcomes of 53 consecutive patients with adult idiopathic scoliosis following a trial of a scoliosis activity suit were reviewed. The average scores and measurements at 18 months were statistically significantly improved for both the quadruple numerical pain rating scale as well as Cobb angle. The scoliosis activity suit may be a viable supportive therapy for the treatment of chronic pain associated with adult idiopathic scoliosis. Further prospective studies should evaluate treatment effects of this suit using intent-to-treat methodology.
Radiographic, Pain, and Functional Outcomes in an Adult Post-Fusion Patient Using a Scoliosis Activity Suit: Comparative Results after 8 Months  [PDF]
Mark W. Morningstar, Brian Dovorany, Clayton J. Stitzel, Aatif Siddiqui
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2016.74028
Abstract: There are few conservative treatment options for adult patients with idiopathic scoliosis who are status post-fusion surgery. These typically include pharmacologic pain management, epidural injections, and generalized CAM treatments such as massage and chiropractic manipulation in the non-fused areas of the spine. The purpose of this study was to compare the post-treatment results in an adult post-fusion patient who wore a scoliosis activity suit for 8 months. Pain was evaluated using a quadruple visual analog scale (QVAS), while function was measured using an SRS-22r questionnaire. After 8 months of wearing the scoliosis activity suit, her pain scores improved, here SRS-22r improved, and a significant correction in radiographic Cobb angle was observed. This case report is the first to document a Cobb angle change in an adult patient wearing a scoliosis activity suit who is status post-fusion. Given that pain and dysfunction are primary reasons for scoliosis treatment in the adult population, more studies need to address the disparity between available treatments for adult scoliosis and the incidence of adult scoliosis, especially in the post-meno-pausal population. Future prospective studies should consider evaluating treatment effects of this suit using intent-to-treat methodology.
Chiropractic Rehabilitation of a Scoliosis Family: Results from a 9-Year Follow-Up  [PDF]
Mark W. Morningstar, Aatif Siddiqui, Clayton Stitzel, Brian Dovorany
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2017.51003
Abstract: Scoliosis bracing is typically prescribed when the curvature reaches to between 30° - 50°. Although there has been a vast amount of bracing literature published, the results remain equivocal. Many patients face issues of compliance, comfort, and decreased self-esteem due to social stigmas with bracing. This has caused many patients to seek non-bracing options. Although these treatments are plausible, they lack the research background that bracing has. Therefore, many physicians are reluctant to prescribe exercise-based rehabilitation for their scoliosis patients. This study reports on 3 patients who sought non-bracing, exercise-based chiropractic rehabilitation for their scoliosis. Their results before, after, and at long term follow up are included.
Association between Urinary Neurotransmitter Status and Scoliosis Progression: A Case-Controlled Series  [PDF]
Mark W. Morningstar, Clayton J. Stitzel, Brian Dovorany, Aatif Siddiqui
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2018.83003
Abstract: Previous investigations into the relationship between neurotransmitter abnormalities and idiopathic scoliosis have been mixed. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the differences in a urinary neurotransmitter profile across three different groups. These groups included a progressive scoliosis group, a non-progressive scoliosis group, and a non-scoliotic control group. When evaluating urinary neurotransmitter levels across all groups, statistically significant differences were observed between all three groups for multiple neurotransmitters. The differences seemed to increase as the scoliosis increased in Cobb angle measurement. Further studies should seek to distinguish a potential cause or effect relationship between these neurotransmitter abnormalities and idiopathic scoliosis onset and/or progression.
Institutions and Economic Performance: What Can Be Explained?
Simon Commander,Zlatko Nikoloski
Review of Economics and Institutions , 2011, DOI: 10.5202/rei.v2i2.33
Abstract: Institutions are now widely believed to be important in explaining performance. In this paper, we analyze whether commonly used measures of institutions have any significant, measurable impact on performance, whether of countries or firms. We look at three ‘levels’ of institutions and associated conjectures. The first concerns whether the political system affects performance. The second concerns whether the business and investment environment affects the performance of countries and the third concerns whether perceived business constraints directly affect the performance of firms. In all instances, we find little evidence of a robust link between widely used measures of institutions and our indicators of performance. We consider why this might be the case and argue that mis-measurement, mis-specification, complexity and non-linearity are all relevant factors.
Scale Invariant Spectrum from Variable Speed of Light Metric in a Bimetric Gravity Theory
M. A. Clayton,J. W. Moffat
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2003/07/004
Abstract: An approximately scale invariant spectrum generating the seeds of structure formation is derived from a bimetric gravity theory. By requiring that the amplitude of the CMB fluctuations from the model matches the observed value, we determine the fundamental length scale in the model to be a factor of 10^5 times larger than the Planck length, which results in a scalar mode spectral index: n_s\approx 0.97, and its running: \alpha_s\approx -5\times 10^{-4}. This is accomplished in the variable speed of light (VSL) metric frame, in which the dynamics of perturbations of the bimetric scalar field are determined by a minimally-coupled Klein-Gordon equation, and it is assumed that modes are born in a ground state at a scale given by the fundamental length scale appearing in the bimetric structure. We show that while this is taking place for scales of interest, the background (primordial) radiation energy density is strongly suppressed as a result of the bimetric structure of the model. Nevertheless, the enlarged lightcone of matter fields ensures that the horizon and flatness problems are solved.
Vector field mediated models of dynamical light velocity
M. A. Clayton,J. W. Moffat
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1142/S0218271802001457
Abstract: A vector-tensor theory of gravity that was introduced in an earlier publication is analyzed in detail and its consequences for early universe cosmology are examined. The multiple light cone structure of the theory generates different speeds of gravitational and matter wave fronts, and the contraction of these light cones produces acausal, superluminary inflation that can resolve the initial value problems of cosmology.
Fluctuation Spectrum from a Scalar-Tensor Bimetric Gravity Theory
M. A. Clayton,J. W. Moffat
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1142/S0218271803003098
Abstract: Predictions of the CMB spectrum from a bimetric gravity theory (gr-qc/0101126) are presented. The initial inflationary period in BGT is driven by a vanishingly small speed of gravitational waves v_g in the very early universe. This initial inflationary period is insensitive to the choice of scalar field potential and initial values of the scalar field. After this initial period of inflation, v_g will increase rapidly and the effects of a potential will become important. We show that a quadratic potential introduced into BGT yields an approximately flat spectrum with inflation parameters: n_s=0.98, n_t=-0.027, alpha_s=-3.2e-4 and alpha_t=-5.0e-4, with r >= 0.014.
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