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The ability of a population to adapt to a changing environment depends on
its genetic variation. Thus, the study of genetic diversity within and among
species or populations is especially important on conservation biology scopes.
One way to assess the genetic diversity is through the use of microsatellite
molecular markers. Microsatellites have been widely used to answer population
genetics issues as gene flow, parentage, and population structure, mostly
resulting in data on the distribution of genetic
variability within and among natural populations, which are essential for ex situ and in situ conservation procedures. As the Psittacidae family comprehends one of the birds
group with the largest number of endangered species, studies that aim to investigate
the genetic diversity of these animals may support their conservation. This
article is a review of genetic data on parrots, through the use of
microsatellite markers, that have been published since 2004.