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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7486 matches for " Claudio Altafini "
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Dynamics of Opinion Forming in Structurally Balanced Social Networks
Claudio Altafini
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038135
Abstract: A structurally balanced social network is a social community that splits into two antagonistic factions (typical example being a two-party political system). The process of opinion forming on such a community is most often highly predictable, with polarized opinions reflecting the bipartition of the network. The aim of this paper is to suggest a class of dynamical systems, called monotone systems, as natural models for the dynamics of opinion forming on structurally balanced social networks. The high predictability of the outcome of a decision process is explained in terms of the order-preserving character of the solutions of this class of dynamical systems. If we represent a social network as a signed graph in which individuals are the nodes and the signs of the edges represent friendly or hostile relationships, then the property of structural balance corresponds to the social community being splittable into two antagonistic factions, each containing only friends.
Tensor of coherences parameterization of multiqubit density operators for entanglement characterization
Claudio Altafini
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.69.012311
Abstract: For multiqubit densities, the tensor of coherences (or Stokes tensor) is a real parameterization obtained by the juxtaposition of the affine Bloch vectors of each qubit. While it maintains the tensorial structure of the underlying space, it highlights the pattern of correlations, both classical and quantum, between the subsystems and, due to the affine parameterization, it contains in its components all reduced densities of all orders. The main purpose of our use of this formalism is to deal with entanglement. For example, the detection of bipartite entanglement is straightforward, as it is the synthesis of densities having positive partial transposes between desired qubits. In addition, finding explicit mixtures for families of separable states becomes a feasible issue for few qubit symmetric densities (we compute it for Werner states) and, more important, it provides some insight on the possible origin of entanglement for such densities.
Characterizing 3-qubit UPB states: violations of LHV models, preparation via nonlocal unitaries and PPT entangled nonlocal orbits
Claudio Altafini
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: For the 3-qubit UPB state, i.e., the bound entangled state constructed from an Unextendable Product Basis of Bennett et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 82:5385, 1999), we provide a set of violations of Local Hidden Variable (LHV) models based on the particular type of reflection symmetry encoded in this state. The explicit nonlocal unitary operation needed to prepare the state from its reflected separable mixture of pure states is given, as well as a nonlocal one-parameter orbit of states with Positive Partial Transpositions (PPT) which swaps the entanglement between a state and its reflection twice during a period.
Parameter differentiation and quantum state decomposition for time varying Schroedinger equations
Claudio Altafini
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1016/S0034-4877(03)80037-X
Abstract: For the unitary operator, solution of the Schroedinger equation corresponding to a time-varying Hamiltonian, the relation between the Magnus and the product of exponentials expansions can be expressed in terms of a system of first order differential equations in the parameters of the two expansions. A method is proposed to compute such differential equations explicitly and in a closed form.
Commuting multiparty quantum observables and local compatibility
Claudio Altafini
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.72.012112
Abstract: A formula for the commutator of tensor product matrices is used to shows that, for qubits, compatibility of quantum multiparty observables almost never implies local compatibility at each site and to predict when this happens/does not happen in a concise manner. In particular, it is shown that two ``fully nontrivial'' $n$-qubit observables are compatible locally and globally if and only if they are equal up to sign. In addition, the formula gives insight into the construction of new paradoxes of the type of the Kochen-Specker Theorem, which can then be easily rephrased into proposals for new no hidden variable experiments of the type of the ``Bell Theorem without inequalities''.
Representing multiqubit unitary evolutions: spin coherences and infinitesimal coherences
Claudio Altafini
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.70.032331
Abstract: For the tensor of coherences parametrization of a multiqubit density operator, we provide an explicit formulation of the corresponding unitary dynamics at infinitesimal level. The main advantage of this formalism (clearly reminiscent of the idea of ``coherences'' and ``coupling Hamiltonians'' of spin systems) is that the pattern of correlation between qubits and the pattern of infinitesimal correlation are highlighted simultaneously and can be used constructively for qubit manipulation. For example, it allows to compute explicitly a Rodrigues' formula for the one-parameter orbits of nonlocal Hamiltonians. The result is easily generalizable to orbits of Cartan subalgebras and allows to write the Cartan decomposition of unitary propagators as a linear action.
Feedback stabilization of quantum ensembles: a global convergence analysis on complex flag manifolds
Claudio Altafini
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: In an N-level quantum mechanical system, the problem of unitary feedback stabilization of mixed density operators to periodic orbits admits a natural Lyapunov-based time-varying feedback design. A global description of the domain of attraction of the closed-loop system can be provided based on a ``root-space''-like structure of the space of density operators. This convex set foliates as a complex flag manifold where each leaf is identified with the coadjoint orbit of the eigenvalues of the density operator. The converging conditions are time-independent but depend from the topology of the flag manifold: it is shown that the closed loop must have a number of equilibria at least equal to the Euler characteristic of the manifold, thus imposing obstructions of topological nature to global stabilizability.
Feedback control of spin systems
Claudio Altafini
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: The feedback stabilization problem for ensembles of coupled spin 1/2 systems is discussed from a control theoretic perspective. The noninvasive nature of the bulk measurement allows for a fully unitary and deterministic closed loop. The Lyapunov-based feedback design presented does not require spins that are selectively addressable. With this method, it is possible to obtain control inputs also for difficult tasks, like suppressing undesired couplings in identical spin systems.
Controllability of quantum mechanical systems by root space decomposition of su(N)
Claudio Altafini
Mathematics , 2001, DOI: 10.1063/1.1467611
Abstract: The controllability property of the unitary propagator of an N-level quantum mechanical system subject to a single control field is described using the structure theory of semisimple Lie algebras. Sufficient conditions are provided for the vector fields in a generic configuration as well as in a few degenerate cases.
Monotonicity, frustration, and ordered response: an analysis of the energy landscape of perturbed large-scale biological networks
Giovanni Iacono, Claudio Altafini
BMC Systems Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1752-0509-4-83
Abstract: In this paper we find that the frustration is systematically lower in transcriptional networks (modeled at functional level) than in signaling and metabolic networks (modeled at stoichiometric level). A possible interpretation of this result is in terms of energetic cost of an interaction: an erroneous or contradictory transcriptional action costs much more than a signaling/metabolic error, and therefore must be avoided as much as possible. Averaging over all possible perturbations, however, we also find that unlike for transcriptional networks, in the signaling/metabolic networks the probability of finding the system in its least frustrated configuration tends to be high also in correspondence of a moderate energetic regime, meaning that, in spite of the higher frustration, these networks can achieve a globally ordered response to perturbations even for moderate values of the strength of the interactions. Furthermore, an analysis of the energy landscape shows that signaling and metabolic networks lack energetic barriers around their global optima, a property also favouring global order.In conclusion, transcriptional and signaling/metabolic networks appear to have systematic differences in both the index of frustration and the transition to global order. These differences are interpretable in terms of the different functions of the various classes of networks.For complex systems such as biological networks, rather than a precise description of the dynamics, which requires a quantity of kinetic details rarely accessible in large scale systems, it is often more reasonable to use a minimal representation, such as a graph of interactions between the molecular variables of interest [1-4] and perhaps a sign describing the mode of the pairwise interaction. Such graphical approaches have been extensively used in recent years to model transcriptional [5,6] and signaling networks [7-10]. Apart from biological systems, signed adjacency graphs have been investigated in several
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