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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11491 matches for " Claudia Frey "
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Compliance of young children with ITN protection in rural Burkina Faso
Claudia Frey, Corneille Traoré, Manuela De Allegri, Bocar Kouyaté, Olaf Müller
Malaria Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-5-70
Abstract: This descriptive study was nested into a large ITN effectiveness study in rural Burkina Faso. During two cross-sectional surveys in the dry and rainy season of 2003, random samples of young children from nine representative villages (n = 180 per survey) were investigated for compliance with ITN protection and related behaviour. Data were collected through direct observations and through interviews with mothers.ITNs were perceived as very important for protection against mosquitoes and malaria particularly during the rainy season, but there were problems with their use during the dry season. Young children usually slept with their mother under the ITN and self-reported compliance was 66% and 98% during dry and rainy season, respectively (confirmed by direct observation in 34% and 79%, respectively). Important reasons for low compliance during the dry season were high temperatures inside houses and problems related to changing sleeping places during the night.Under programme conditions, compliance with ITN protection in young children is sufficient during the rainy season, but is rather low during the hot and dry season. Greater emphasis needs to be placed on information/education efforts to make people aware of the fact that the risk of contracting malaria may persist throughout the year.Malaria has accompanied humankind for as long as 5,000 years, the first written evidence of the disease dating as far back as 2,700 BC in the Chinese medical classic Nei Chin (the Canon of Medicine) [1]. Protection techniques against insects have also been known for ages and were used long before the malaria transmission process was discovered [2]. Among the oldest approaches to prevent mosquitoes from biting was the use of bed nets and curtains which in the Roman and Greek ancient world simply meant the spreading of gauze and muslin curtains over places to protect. Additionally, the ancient Persians were said to destroy insects by using a powdered dried flower of a Dalmatian pyrethr
Effects of insecticide-treated bednets during early infancy in an African area of intense malaria transmission: a randomized controlled trial
Müller,Olaf; Traoré,Corneille; Kouyaté,Bocar; Yé,Yazoumé; Frey,Claudia; Coulibaly,Boubacar; Becher,Heiko;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862006000200012
Abstract: objective: insecticide-impregnated bednets and curtains have been shown by many studies to be effective against malaria. however, because of possible interactions with immunity development, treated bednets may cause no effect at all or even an increase in malaria morbidity and mortality in areas of high transmission. to clarify this issue, we did a randomized controlled trial to assess the long-term effects of bednet protection during early infancy. methods: a total of 3387 neonates from 41 villages in rural burkina faso were individually randomized to receive either bednet protection from birth (group a) or from age 6 months (group b). primary outcomes were all-cause mortality in all study children and incidence of falciparum malaria in a representative subsample of the study population. findings: after a mean follow-up of 27 months, there were 129 deaths in group a and 128 deaths in group b rate ratio (rr) 1.0 (95% confidence interval (ci): 0.78-1.27)). falciparum malaria incidence was lower in group a than in group b, during early (0-5 months) and late infancy (6-12 months) (rr 3.1, 95% ci: 2.0-4.9; rr 1.3, 95% ci: 1.1-1.6) and rates of moderate to severe anaemia were significantly lower during late infancy (11.5% vs 23.3%, p = 0.008), but there were no differences between groups in these parameters in children older than 12 months. conclusion: the findings from this study provide additional evidence for the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets in young children living in areas of intense malaria transmission.
Towards a Model-Driven IEC 61131-Based Development Process in Industrial Automation  [PDF]
Kleanthis Thramboulidis, Georg Frey
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2011.44024
Abstract: The IEC 61131-3 standard defines a model and a set of programming languages for the development of industrial automation software. It is widely accepted by industry and most of the commercial tool vendors advertise compliance with it. On the other side, Model Driven Development (MDD) has been proved as a quite successful paradigm in general-purpose computing. This was the motivation for exploiting the benefits of MDD in the industrial automation domain. With the emerging IEC 61131 specification that defines an object-oriented (OO) extension to the function block model, there will be a push to the industry to better exploit the benefits of MDD in automation systems development. This work discusses possible alternatives to integrate the current but also the emerging specification of IEC 61131 in the model driven development process of automation systems. IEC 61499, UML and SysML are considered as possible alternatives to allow the developer to work in higher layers of abstraction than the one supported by IEC 61131 and to more effectively move from requirement specifications into the implementation model of the system.
Effect of Elodea nuttallii Roots on Bacterial Communities and MMHg Proportion in a Hg Polluted Sediment
Nicole Regier, Beat Frey, Brandon Converse, Eric Roden, Alexander Grosse-Honebrink, Andrea Garcia Bravo, Claudia Cosio
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045565
Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a rooted macrophyte Elodea nuttallii on rhizosphere bacterial communities in Hg contaminated sediments. Specimens of E. nuttallii were exposed to sediments from the Hg contaminated Babeni reservoir (Olt River, Romania) in our microcosm. Plants were allowed to grow for two months until they occupied the entirety of the sediments. Total Hg and MMHg were analysed in sediments where an increased MMHg percentage of the total Hg in pore water of rhizosphere sediments was found. E. nuttallii roots also significantly changed the bacterial community structure in rhizosphere sediments compared to bulk sediments. Deltaproteobacteria dominated the rhizosphere bacterial community where members of Geobacteraceae within the Desulfuromonadales and Desulfobacteraceae were identified. Two bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) which were phylogenetically related to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) became abundant in the rhizosphere. We suggest that these phylotypes could be potentially methylating bacteria and might be responsible for the higher MMHg percentage of the total Hg in rhizosphere sediments. However, SRB were not significantly favoured in rhizosphere sediments as shown by qPCR. Our findings support the hypothesis that rooted macrophytes created a microenvironment favorable for Hg methylation. The presence of E. nuttallii in Hg contaminated sediments should therefore not be overlooked.
Effects of vegetation differences in relocated Utah prairie dog release sites  [PDF]
Rachel Curtis, Shandra Nicole Frey
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.55A006

Utah prairie dogs have been extirpated in 90% of their historical range. Because most of the population occurs on private land, this threatened species is continually in conflict with land-owners due to burrowing. The Utah Division of Wildlife Resources has been relocating Utah prairie dogs from private to public land since the 1970s, but relocations have been largely unsuccessful due to high mortality. Utah prairie dogs were relocated in 2010 and 2011 from the golf course in Cedar City, Utah to two prepared sites near Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah. Vegetation transects were established at each site to determine if there was a correlation between site vegetation composition and structure, and Utah prairie dog survival at relocation sites. The vegetation at the two sites was significantly different. One site had significantly less grass cover, more invasive plant cover, and rockier soils. The sites also had different soil structures and long-term Utah prairie dog retention rates. Newly established burrows were clustered rather than randomly distributed. Utah prairie dogs appeared to avoid placing burrows in areas with tall vegetation and rocky soils. More research is needed to determine how site selection determines longterm retention and colonization of a relocation site.

A dimens?o político-democrática nas teorias de desenvolvimento sustentável e suas implica??es para a gest?o local
Frey, Klaus;
Ambiente & Sociedade , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1414-753X2001000900007
Abstract: the article analyses several concepts of sustainable development, focusing on the following dimensions: the political-administrative model, the role of the state, and the democratic potential of these approaches. first, the paper analyses those approaches that consider the market as the fundamental regulative force of development (market approach of economic liberalism). second, it tackles approaches that consider the state and its regulatory and planning institutions indispensable instruments to guarantee the prevalence of the common good in developing processes (ecological-technocratic planning approach). finally, it examines conceptions that highlight the necessity of an extended political mobilisation and an enhanced involvement of the population and civil society organisations in the search for a sustainable mode of development (political approach of democratic participation). at the end, the paper discusses the implications of these approaches for local management and suggests some basic elements in the search for a democratic management model of sustainable urban development.
Descentraliza??o: li??es atuais de Tocqueville
Frey, Klaus;
Lua Nova: Revista de Cultura e Política , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-64452000000300007
Abstract: the generic affirmation of a direct nexus between democracy, liberty, and decentralization is not justified, holds the author. the theme is dealt with on two levels: twith regard to problems of democracy in societies like the brazilian one, and through an examination of the contribution that tocqueville's ideas still have to offer on this score, which is seen as considerable.
Crise do estado e estilos de gest?o municipal
Frey, Klaus;
Lua Nova: Revista de Cultura e Política , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-64451996000100007
Abstract: the role of the emotive (as against rational) dimension in the political participation process is discussed with regard to two styles of municipal management (santos and curitiba). it is argued that the cultural dimension is as important as the institutional one in democratic reform processes.
Development, good governance, and local democracy
Brazilian Political Science Review (Online) , 2008,
Abstract: this article analyses the concept of "good governance" as promoted by the international development community, above all by the world bank, within the predominant neoliberal development approach, emphasising the implications for local governance and management in developing countries. highlighting the extent to which it is embedded in the neoliberal development approach, the good governance concept is analysed with regard to its peculiar understanding of participation and democracy. the article discusses the subordination of the world bank's consensus-oriented approach of good governance to economic imperatives, fading out the centrality of its political dimension. in the context of unequal societies, such an apolitical governance concept only contributes to the strengthening of existing power relations. in its conclusions, the article stresses the need to rethink the good governance approach to development and local politics according to chantal mouffe's agonistic view of democracy, which considers political protest, social mobilization and politicization as essential conditions for social transformation and democratic vitality.
Desenvolvimento sustentável local na sociedade em rede: o potencial das novas tecnologias de informa??o e comunica??o
Frey, Klaus;
Revista de Sociologia e Política , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-44782003000200011
Abstract: in light of the growing critiques of the prevailing development models which are oriented toward either market solutions or centralizing state actions, this paper proposes a theoretical inquiry into the possibilities for fomenting more sustainable local development through the strengthening of social networks and their progressive incorporation into local political and administrative processes. starting from a critical interpretation of the notion of social capital, the article shows the importance of strategies of institutional design capable of mobilizing social capital and guaranteeing the access of local communities to political and social power. this is followed by a discussion which, considering the social and political conditions that are specific to brazil, weighs the possibilities and dilemmas surrounding the use of new information and communication technologies within local communities, in terms of reactivating community participation in local public administration. lastly, the new role that local governments demand is discussed, in an attempt to explore the communitarian option for promoting sustainable development in the emerging "network society".
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