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Domestic Violence: The Challenge For Nursing
Draucker, Claire Burke
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2002,
Abstract: Domestic violence is a serious public health and human rights concern and an on-going challenge for nursing. This article provides an overview of the three major types of domestic violence: intimate partner abuse, child abuse, elder abuse. The scope, history, and health consequences of each type of violence are addressed. Despite advances in research, public awareness, legislative initiatives, and public policy, these types of interpersonal violence continue to affect millions worldwide.
Growth of brightest cluster galaxies via mergers since z = 1
Claire Burke,Chris A. Collins
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1192
Abstract: Hierarchical assembly within clusters of galaxies is tied directly to the evolution of the Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs), which dominate the stellar light in the centres of rich clusters. In this paper we investigate the number of mergers onto BCGs in 14 X-ray selected clusters over the redshift range 0.8 < z < 1.4 using HST imaging data. We find significant differences in the numbers of companion galaxies to BCGs between the clusters in our sample indicating that BCGs in similar mass clusters can have very different merging histories. Within a 50 kpc radius around the BCGs we find an average of 6.45 \pm 1.15 companion galaxies with mass ratios (companion:BCG) between 1:1 and 1:20. The infalling companions show a 50/50 split between major (1:1 - 1:2) and minor (1:3 - 1:20) mergers. When compared to similar work using lower redshift clusters, these results demonstrate that both major and minor merging was more common in the past. Since the dynamical timescales for merging onto the BCG are relatively short compared with the look-back time to z ~ 1 our results suggest that the BCG stellar mass may increase by as much as 1.8 times since z = 1. However the growth rate of BCGs will be substantially less if stripped material from nearby companions ends up in the diffuse intracluster light.
Co-evolution of BCGs and ICL using CLASH
Claire Burke,Matt Hilton,Chris Collins
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We examine the stellar mass assembly in galaxy cluster cores using data from the Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). We measure the growth of brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) stellar mass, the fraction of the total cluster light which is in the intracluster light (ICL) and the numbers of mergers that occur in the BCG over the redshift range of the sample, 0.18
Measurement of the intracluster light at z ~ 1
Claire Burke,Chris A. Collins,John P. Stott,Matt Hilton
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21555.x
Abstract: A significant fraction of the total photospheric light in nearby galaxy clusters is thought to be contained within the diffuse intracluster light (ICL), which extends 100s of kpc from cluster cores. The study of the ICL can reveal details of the evolutionary histories and processes occurring within galaxy clusters, however since it has a very low surface brightness it is often difficult to detect. We present here the first measurements of the ICL as a fraction of total cluster light at z \sim 1 using deep J-band (1.2 {\mu}m) imaging from HAWK-I on the VLT. We investigate the ICL in 6 X-ray selected galaxy clusters at 0.8< z <1.2 and find that the ICL below isophotes {\mu}(J) = 22 mag/arcsec2 constitutes 1-4% of the total cluster light within a radius R500. This is broadly consistent with simulations of the ICL at a similar redshift and when compared to nearby observations suggests that the fraction of the total cluster light that is in the ICL has increased by a factor 2 - 4 since z\sim1. We also find the fraction of the total cluster light contained within the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) to be 2.0-6.3% at these redshifts, which in 5 out of 6 cases is larger than the fraction of the ICL component, in contrast to results from nearby clusters. This suggests that the evolution in cluster cores involves substantial stripping activity at late times, in addition to the early build up of the BCG stellar mass through merging. The presence of significant amounts of stellar light at large radii from these BCGs may help towards solving the recent disagreement between the semi-analytic model predictions of BCG mass growth (e.g. De Lucia & Blaziot, 2007) and the observed large masses and scale sizes reported for BCGs at high redshift.
Evolution in cluster cores since z~1
Claire Burke,Chris Collins,John Stott,Matt Hilton
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921313004602
Abstract: A large fraction of the stellar mass in galaxy clusters is thought to be contained in the diffuse low surface brightness intracluster light (ICL). Being bound to the gravitational potential of the cluster rather than any individual galaxy, the ICL contains much information about the evolution of its host cluster and the interactions between the galaxies within. However due its low surface brightness it is notoriously difficult to study. We present the first detection and measurement of the flux contained in the ICL at z~1. We find that the fraction of the total cluster light contained in the ICL may have increased by factors of 2-4 since z~1, in contrast to recent findings for the lack of mass and scale size evolution found for brightest cluster galaxies. Our results suggest that late time buildup in cluster cores may occur more through stripping than merging and we discuss the implications of our results for hierarchical simulations.
Why do we yawn?  [PDF]
William Burke
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.510213

The biomedical hypothesis proposed here is that the immediate trigger for a yawn is a restricted collapse of a few alveoli in the lungs. The extent of this alveolar collapse may be too small for it to be detected by current X-ray technology, but this technology is continually improving and may soon be good enough to test the hypothesis. In support of the hypothesis, it is shown that yawning can be inhibited by deep breaths of air, nitrogen or carbogen, thus showing that yawning is not triggered by lack of oxygen or by excess carbon dioxide, leaving alveolar collapse as the most likely possibility. A more extensive form of alveolar collapse is termed atelectasis and this involves a serious state of hypoxia which, if deepened or prolonged, can be fatal. Therefore, if the hypothesis is correct, yawning may prevent the development of atelectasis and save lives. This paper is not concerned with other indirect ways in which yawning may be induced, nor with the mechanism and neural circuitry of the yawn, nor with social aspects of yawning, only with the immediate trigger. My aim is to get better evidence for the hypothesis put forward here and also to study the behaviour of the pulmonary alveoli in normal respiration.

Quantum-Optical Foundations of Massive and Massless Particles  [PDF]
Burke Ritchie
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.59091

A source of the divergences in QED is proposed, and a theory in which the Lamb shift and electron’s anomalous magnetic moment are calculated free of divergences is reviewed. It is shown that Dirac’s equation for a relativistic electron can be inferred from a Lorentz invariant having the form of the Lorentz gauge equation, \"\", on identifying a carrier-wave energy \"\" with the electron’s rest mass energy

Use of Quantum Trajectories in Computational Molecular Bioscience  [PDF]
Burke Ritchie
Computational Molecular Bioscience (CMB) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cmb.2014.41002
A spin-dependent quantum trajectory methodology is outlined which achieves electron exchangecorrelation on an ab initio basis. The methodology is intended to give workers in electronic structure the same computational capability which has been available for decades in classical dynamics.
The Ionic Composition of Nasal Fluid and Its Function  [PDF]
William Burke
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.68093
Abstract: The aim of the experiments reported here is to increase our understanding of the function of the nasal fluid. It is generally accepted that the nasal fluid assists in the humidification of the inspired air. It also assists in the capture of inspired particles such as pollen, preventing them getting lodged in the lungs. It is also known to contain antibacterial substances which keep the nose, nasopharynx and respiratory passages relatively free of infection. There are other features of the nasal fluid that are not understood. In cold weather, is it the fluid that collects in the nostrils pure water or nasal fluid? Why does nasal fluid have an exceptionally high potassium concentration? Does nasal fluid secreted during the common cold have the same composition as at other times? My objectives are to try to answer these questions. My method is to collect my nasal fluid in several different ways and have the ionic composition of each determined accurately. My findings are that nasal fluid is similar in composition however it is secreted. In cold weather, if expiration is via the nose, the nasal fluid is diluted by condensed water. The high concentration of potassium in the nasal fluid is not a way of controlling the level of potassium in the body but I suggest that it may assist in maintaining the antibacterial property of the nasal fluid.
Compatibility of Quantum Entanglement with the Special Theory of Relativity  [PDF]
Burke Ritchie
Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2014.42009

The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox is resolved dynamically by using spin-dependent quantum trajectories inferred from Dirac’s equation for a relativistic electron. The theory provides a practical computational methodology for studying entanglement versus disentanglement for realistic Hamiltonians.

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