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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 215563 matches for " Cláudio Nápolis;Machado "
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Parametros genéticos para as produ??es de leite no dia do controle e da primeira lacta??o de vacas da ra?a Holandesa
Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues de;Packer, Irineu Umberto;Costa, Cláudio Nápolis;Machado, Paulo Fernando;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982005000300011
Abstract: covariance components for test day records and lactation milk yield using 263.390 records of 32.448 first lactation holstein cows, were estimated using animal models by reml. besides the lactation model, two alternative repeatability models (rm) were analyzed. lactation model included fixed effects of herd-year-season and age of cow with linear and quadratic terms, and random effects of animal and error. the first model for test-day yield (rmf) included the same effects, but fixed effect of contemporary group, defined as herd-year-month of test. alternatively another model for test-day yield (rmf) used a logarithmic polynomial sub-model for the shape of the lactation curve. heritability for lactation yield (0.27) was smaller than those estimated by rmf and rms, 0.30 and 0.43, respectively. heritability estimates for univariate (0.22-0.36) and bivariate models (0.23-0.33) for test day milk yields were found to be smallest during early and late lactation. heritability estimate for lactation milk yield when estimated by univariate model (0.27) was smaller than estimates obtained by bivariate models (0.27-0.30). genetic correlations were higher between consecutive test days than between test days in the beginning and end of lactation. larger heritability estimates for test day models and large genetic correlations between test day and lactation yield (0.86-0.99) indicate a potential use of test day records in genetic evaluations.
Efeito da intera o reprodutor x rebanho na acurácia da avalia o genética de reprodutores da ra a Holandesa no Brasil
Araújo Cláudio Vieira de,Torres Robledo de Almeida,Costa Cláudio Nápolis,Pereira Carmen Silva
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2001,
Abstract: Registros de produ o de leite referentes a 37.006 lacta es provenientes de 18.540 vacas, filhas de 98 reprodutores e distribuídas em 455 rebanhos de vacas da ra a Holandesa foram utilizados com o objetivo de verificar qual seria o efeito nas estimativas dos valores genéticos e na acurácia dessas estimativas, incluindo no modelo o termo de intera o reprodutor x rebanho, em compara o com as estimativas de um modelo que n o incluía o termo de intera o reprodutor x rebanho. A produ o de leite foi previamente ajustada para 305 dias de lacta o e idade adulta da vaca. Os componentes de variancia para produ o de leite foram estimados pela máxima verossimilhan a restrita, O teste da raz o de verossimilhan a foi utilizado na verifica o da efetividade da inclus o da intera o no modelo. A média da produ o de leite foi de 6.936,13 ± 1.508,36 kg. As estimativas de componentes de variancia, obtidas pelo modelo que incluía a intera o reprodutor x rebanho, foram ligeiramente menores do que as dos modelos sem intera o, exceto a variancia residual, cujas estimativas, nos dois modelos, foram bastante próximas. As estimativas de herdabilidade foram de 0,247 ± 0,021 e 0,237 ± 0,021, para os modelos com e sem intera o reprodutor x rebanho, respectivamente. A propor o da variancia fenotípica da produ o de leite, devido à variancia da intera o reprodutor x rebanho foi de 0,034±0,005%. O logaritmo natural da fun o de verossimilhan a aumentou significativamente, quando se incluiu a intera o reprodutor x rebanho no modelo. Os valores genéticos preditos dos reprodutores para a produ o de leite ajustada para 305 dias e para idade adulta da vaca foram menores quando o modelo incluiu o termo de intera o, embora o valor para a correla o de Spearman tenha sido próximo da unidade.
Intera o reprodutor x rebanho na produ o de leite da ra a Holandesa no Brasil
Araújo Cláudio Vieira de,Torres Robledo de Almeida,Costa Cláudio Nápolis,Lopes Paulo Sávio
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2001,
Abstract: Registros de produ o de leite de vacas da ra a Holandesa foram utilizados na verifica o da efetividade da inclus o da intera o reprodutor x rebanho no modelo estatístico para estima o de componentes de variancias, como uma forma de ajustamento para heterogeneidade de variancia entre rebanhos. Com base no desvio-padr o fenotípico da produ o de leite, ajustada a 305 dias de lacta o e à idade adulta da vaca, os rebanhos foram estratificados em três classes: alto (>1375 kg), médio (1165 a 1375 kg) e baixo (<1165 kg) desvios-padr o fenotípicos. Componentes de variancia em análise de características múltiplas, em que se considerou a produ o de leite ajustada a 305 dias de lacta o e à idade adulta em cada classe de desvio-padr o fenotípico como característica diferente, foram estimados pela máxima verossimilhan a restrita, utilizando-se dois modelos animais que diferiam apenas na ausência e na presen a da intera o reprodutor x rebanho. O teste da raz o de verossimilhan a foi utilizado na verifica o da efetividade da inclus o da intera o no modelo. As médias e os componentes de variancia para a produ o de leite, de modo geral, aumentaram da classe de baixo para a classe de alto desvio-padr o fenotípico. As estimativas de componentes de variancia, obtidas pelo modelo que incluía a intera o reprodutor x rebanho, foram ligeiramente menores do que as dos modelos sem intera o, exceto na variancia residual, cujas estimativas, nos dois modelos, foram bastante próximas. As estimativas de herdabilidade para a produ o de leite ajustada a 305 dias de lacta o e à idade adulta, obtidas pelos dois modelos para uma mesma classe de desvio-padr o foram próximas, oscilando de 0,251 a 0,362 e de 0,244 a 0,342, para os modelos sem e com a intera o reprodutor x rebanho, respectivamente. As correla es genéticas, para produ o de leite, entre as classes de desvios-padr o fenotípicos foram todas próximas da unidade. As propor es da variancia fenotípica da produ o de leite, devido à variancia da intera o reprodutor x rebanho, oscilaram de 2,2 a 4,4%, e o logaritmo natural da fun o de verossimilhan a aumentou significativamente, quando se incluiu a intera o reprodutor x rebanho no modelo.
Efeito da intera??o reprodutor x rebanho na acurácia da avalia??o genética de reprodutores da ra?a Holandesa no Brasil
Araújo, Cláudio Vieira de;Torres, Robledo de Almeida;Costa, Cláudio Nápolis;Pereira, Carmen Silva;Lopes, Paulo Sávio;Euclydes, Ricardo Frederico;Torres Filho, Rodolpho de Almeida;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982001000400013
Abstract: yield records of holstein cows were used to verify the interaction effect on accuracy of sire breeding values. the records of milk yield were adjusted to 305 days of lactation and age of the cow. variance components for milk yield were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood methodology through two animal models, either not fitting or fitting a sire-by-herd interaction term. likelihood ratio test was used to verify the effectiveness of including a sire-by-herd interaction effect in the model. average milk yield was 6,936.13 ± 1,508.36 kg. the variance components estimates were smaller, when the sire-by-herd interaction was fitted, however, residual variance component, were similar for both models. heritability estimates for milk yield obtained not fitting and fitting the interaction term in the model, were 0.247 ± 0.021 e 0.237 ± 0.021, respectivelly. the proportion of the phenotypic variance due to the sire-by-herd interaction variance, was equal to 0.034±0,005 percent. the logarithm of the likelihood function was highest fitting a sire-by-herd interaction. the breeding values of the sires for 305 day mature milk yield were lower using the model with sire by herd interaction, being of the spearman correlation value close to unity.
Intera??o reprodutor x rebanho na produ??o de leite da ra?a Holandesa no Brasil
Araújo, Cláudio Vieira de;Torres, Robledo de Almeida;Costa, Cláudio Nápolis;Lopes, Paulo Sávio;Pereira, Carmen Silva;Euclydes, Ricardo Frederico;Torres Filho, Rodolpho de Almeida;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982001000400012
Abstract: milk yield adjusted for 305 days and for age of holtein cows were used to verify the effectiveness of including sire-by-herd interaction in the model of analysis as an adjustment factor for heterogeneous variances between herds. the herds were classified in three classes of phenotypic standard deviation: high, medium and low. variance component estimates were obtained by restricted maximum likelihood methodology, for classes of phenotypic standard deviation, considering each one as a different trait, using a multiple trait analysis. two different animal models were used, either fitting or not fitting sire-by-herd interaction effect.the effectiveness of including this interation in the model was tested by likelihood ratio test. averages and variance components for milk yield increased from low to high phenotypic standard deviation classes. variance component estimates were smaller, when sire-by-herd interaction was fitted, however, residual variance components were similar for both models. heritability estimates for milk yield obtained by fitting or not fitting the interaction term in the model, were similar. genetic correlation between classes of phenotypic standard deviation were close to unity. the proportion of the phenotypic variance due to sire-by-herd interaction variance fluctuated from 2.2 to 4.4 percent. the logarithms of the likelihood functions were higher when fitting a sire-by-herd interaction than for the model not including the interaction, for all classes.
Estimativa de parametros genéticos, fenotípicos e ambientes para as produ??es de leite no dia do controle e em 305 dias de lacta??o de vacas da ra?a Gir
Ledic, Ivan Luz;Tonhati, Humberto;Verneque, Rui da Silva;El Faro, Lenira;Martinez, Mário Luiz;Costa, Cláudio Nápolis;Pereira, Jonas Carlos Campos;Fernandes, Leonardo de Oliveira;Albuquerque, Lúcia Galv?o de;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982002000800011
Abstract: data from 32,779 monthly milk production, from 3,605 lactations until 305 days (pl305), from 2,082 gir cows, sired by 281 bulls, calving from 1987 to 1999, in 11 herds, were used to verify the viability of using daily milk production control (pldc) to perform genetic evaluations within gir breed. bivariate analysis on pldc1 to pldc10 and pl305 were performed utilizing the restricted maximum likelihood method within an animal model, which included the three first lactations as replicate measures of the same dams unit. animals were grouped according to the criterion of contemporaneous group of herd-year-season, and according to calving-age and to the interval calving-first control in pldc1. the observed averages (kg) and the respective standard deviations for pldc1 at pldc10 and pl305 were: 11.97±4.64; 11.93±4.68; 10.98±4.40; 10.18±4.12; 9.66±3.88; 9.20±3.69; 8.63±3,51; 8.08±3.33; 7.59±3.27; 7.22±3.15 and 2746.17±1299.90. the average lactation length was 273.72±48.95 days. heritability estimates for pldc based on bivariate analysis ranged from 0.24 to 0.14, decreasing from the first to the tenth control; the heritability estimate for pl305 was 0.19. estimates of the genetic correlations between pldc and pl305 varied from 0.85 to 1.00. the estimates of the genetic correlations between pldc1 to pldc9 with pldc6 to pldc10 were greater than 0.80, except the correlations between pldc9 with pldc1, pldc10 with pldc1, pldc2, pldc3 and pldc6. the estimates of the phenotypic correlations resulting in intermediate value between genetic and environmental correlations (smaller). the results of genetic trend indicate that indirect selection for pldc2 to pldc4 was more efficient than direct selection for pl305.
Avalia??o genética de touros da ra?a Gir para produ??o de leite no dia do controle e em 305 dias de lacta??o
Ledic, Ivan Luz;Verneque, Rui da Silva;El Faro, Lenira;Tonhati, Humberto;Martinez, Mário Luiz;Oliveira, Mauro Dal Secco de;Costa, Cláudio Nápolis;Teodoro, Roberto Luiz;Fernandes, Leonardo de Oliveira;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982002000800012
Abstract: data from 32,779 monthly milk production, from 3,605 lactations until 305 days (pl305), from 2,082 gir breed cows, sired by 281 bulls, calving from 1987 to 1999, in 11 herds, were utilized to verify the viability of using daily milk production control (pldc) in sires genetic evaluation. univariates analysis for pldc1 to pldc10 and pl305 were performed utilizing the restricted maximum likelihood method within an animal model, which included the three first lactations as replicate measures of the same dams unit. animals were grouped according to the criterion of contemporaneous group of herd-year-season, and according to calving-age and to the interval calving-first control in pldc1. the observed averages (kg) and the respective standard deviations for pldc1 to pldc10 and pl305 were: 11.97±4.64; 11.93±4.68; 10.98±4.40; 10.18±4.12; 9.66±3.88; 9.20±3.69; 8.63±3,51; 8.08±3.33; 7.59±3.27; 7.22±3.15 and 2,746.17±1,299.90. heritability estimates for pldc1 to pldc10 were: 0.26; 0.19; 0.18; 0.20; 0.15; 0.13; 0.14; 0.10; 0.11 e 0.10, respectively; for pl305 it was 0.18. spearman correlations between predicted genetic values for 281 sires according to the analysis on pldc vs pl305 were large, oscillating from 0.85 to 0.94. in selecting above 5% of the top sires for pl305, there was an overlapping of above 80% of the animals for pldc. in some pldc the coincidence level of the sires rank correlation with pl305 was very low.
Epidemiologia da hanseníase em coorte de contatos intradomiciliares no Rio de Janeiro (1987-1991)
Matos, Haroldo José de;Duppre, Nádia;Alvim, Maria Fernanda Sardella;Vieira, Leila Maria Machado;Sarno, Euzenir Nunes;Struchiner, Cláudio José;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X1999000300010
Abstract: this study aimed to identify factors influencing the development of leprosy (hansen's disease) in household contacts. a dynamic cohort was analyzed from 1987 to 1991 at the hansen's disease department of the oswaldo cruz foundation in rio de janeiro. the incidence rate was 0.01694 person-years of follow-up. nevertheless, for subjects at the end of the first year of follow-up the incidence rate was 0.06385 (end of second year, 0.03299; end of third year, 0.02370; end of fourth year, 0.018622; and end of observation period, 0.01694). a stepwise multivariate logistic regression model was proposed to study the risk of developing leprosy, including co-prevalent cases, totaling 758 contacts. in the final model, the risk was associated with a negative mitsuda skin test (or = 3.093; ci 95% = 1.735-5.514), prior bcg vaccination (or = 0.3802; ci 95% = 0.2151-0.66719), and multibacillary primary clinical form (or = 2.547; ci 95% = 1.249-5.192). the results showed that both multibacillary leprosy and specific immune status are significant indicators for developing the disease in a cohort of household contacts.
Rela??es Raciais entre Universitários no Rio de Janeiro
Machado, Elielma Ayres;Barcelos, Luiz Cláudio;
Estudos Afro-Asiáticos , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-546X2001000200002
Abstract: this article analyses aspects of the relationship among university students and their perception of racial relations in brazil, based on data collected from a survey that resorted to quantitative and qualitative procedures. we investigated the students' outlook on differentiated treatment of negroes and caucasians in society in general and at the university in particular, as well as their opinion regarding the presence of only a few negroes at the university and the measures that could be adopted to increase the presence of negroes. during interviews with students who answered the questionnaire, we endeavored to understand the recurring aspects in their treatment of above mentioned themes. in general, this particular segment of the population was identified to tend to acknowledge the existence of discrimination in society, but not at the university. also, only a few are in favor of specific policies leading to an increase of the negro contingent at the university. although the sub-group in favor of measures to this effect consists of negroes studying at private universities, the main difference in this respect refers to students at public universities vis-à-vis those at private universities.
Análise comparativa da florística e fitossociologia da vegeta??o arbórea do cerrado sensu stricto na Chapada Pratinha, DF - Brasil
Felfili, Jeanini Maria;Silva Jr, Manoel Cláudio da;Rezende, Alba Valéria;Machado, José Wagner B.;Walter, Bruno M. Teles;Silva, Paulo Ernane N. da;Hay, John Duvall;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 1992, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33061992000200003
Abstract: six sites were surveyed at chapada pratinha in brazil (15-20o s e 46-49o w). three of them were localized in conservation units in the federal district and the others were in silvania-go, paracatu-mg e patroci'nio-mg. ten plots of 1000 m2 (20x50m) were sampled in each site. the minimum diameter for measurement of the woody plants was 5 cm at 0.30 m from the ground level. floristic composition, importance value index and shannon's diversity index were analyzed for each area. s?rense's and morisita's similarity indices were used to compare the six sites. there were 139 species belonging to 42 families. of these, only 22 species were common to all areas. only leguminosae and vochysiaceac had high importance values for all areas. the number of trees/ha ranged from 664 to 1396. shannon's diversity index ranged from 3.11 to 3.56. similarities were high for s?rense's index but low when paracatu and patroci'nio were compared to the other areas using morisita's index. the existing conservation units do not include all structural and floristic diversity of the region, and therefore, the creation of new units in the last two areas is suggested.
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