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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1001 matches for " Ciro Costagliola "
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Vitreous Analysis in the Management of Uveitis
Erika M. Damato,Martina Angi,Mario R. Romano,Francesco Semeraro,Ciro Costagliola
Mediators of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/863418
Abstract: A correct diagnosis of uveitis is often challenging, given the wide range of possible underlying conditions and the lack of typical phenotypes. Management decisions may be difficult in view of the risk of visual loss with either inappropriate or delayed therapy. Analysis of the vitreous may therefore be used to provide the clinician with valuable information. In this paper, we describe the main clinical situations in which vitreous sampling is indicated and provide some guidance to clinicians for tailoring their requests. These situations include suspected intraocular infection and suspected intraocular malignancy. We describe the principal tests carried out on vitreous samples, including cultures, polymerase chain reaction-based testing, and cytokine analysis. Limitations of the tests used are likely to become less as more advanced testing methods are introduced. The importance of selecting the appropriate investigations to support a clinical suspicion is emphasised, as is the interpretation of test results within a clinical context. 1. Introduction The term “uveitis” encompasses a wide spectrum of conditions resulting in intraocular inflammation. Standardised uveitis nomenclature (SUN) defines uveitis depending on the predominant site of inflammation within the eye [1]. At the most severe end of the spectrum, uncontrolled or inadequately treated posterior uveitis may result in irreversible visual loss. Uveitis may be associated with an underlying systemic disease or may exclusively involve the eye [2]. There are a vast number of causes and conditions related to the development of uveitis; however, these may be broadly divided into infectious, autoinflammatory, and neoplastic causes. Extensive investigations are often carried out to establish one, as the clinical phenotype may not be specific for a diagnosis. Common investigations include angiography, blood tests, urinalysis, chest X-rays, and CT scans. In certain situations, incorrect treatment may be catastrophic for vision and could potentially threaten the patient’s life [3]. Hence, a rapid and accurate diagnosis based on intraocular sampling may be essential, mainly to exclude infection or malignancy before the introduction of powerful immunosuppressive or steroid therapy. The vitreous gel is amenable to sampling, either by vitreous tap, where a small amount of gel is aspirated with a needle or by a formal vitrectomy, where most or all of the vitreous gel is removed surgically [4]. In this paper, we describe the clinical situations in which vitreous sampling may become necessary, providing a guide
Inflammatory Mediators and Angiogenic Factors in Choroidal Neovascularization: Pathogenetic Interactions and Therapeutic Implications
Claudio Campa,Ciro Costagliola,Carlo Incorvaia,Carl Sheridan,Francesco Semeraro,Katia De Nadai,Adolfo Sebastiani,Francesco Parmeggiani
Mediators of Inflammation , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/546826
Abstract: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a common and severe complication in heterogeneous diseases affecting the posterior segment of the eye, the most frequent being represented by age-related macular degeneration. Although the term may suggest just a vascular pathological condition, CNV is more properly definable as an aberrant tissue invasion of endothelial and inflammatory cells, in which both angiogenesis and inflammation are involved. Experimental and clinical evidences show that vascular endothelial growth factor is a key signal in promoting angiogenesis. However, many other molecules, distinctive of the inflammatory response, act as neovascular activators in CNV. These include fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor, tumor necrosis factor, interleukins, and complement. This paper reviews the role of inflammatory mediators and angiogenic factors in the development of CNV, proposing pathogenetic assumptions of mutual interaction. As an extension of this concept, new therapeutic approaches geared to have an effect on both the vascular and the extravascular components of CNV are discussed. 1. Introduction Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) represents the growth of new blood vessels from the choroid into the subretinal pigment epithelium which, in several patients, reaches the retina. CNV is a common pathological endpoint in a heterogeneous variety of chorioretinal diseases [1]. Virtually any pathologic process that involves the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and damages Bruch’s membrane can be complicated by CNV. The most frequent cause of CNV is age-related macular degeneration (AMD) [2]. The clinical classification of AMD-related CNV is carried out according to the definitions of Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Photodynamic Therapy (TAP) and Visudyne in Photodynamic Therapy (VIP) studies [3–6], distinguishing between four subtypes characterized by different patterns during the fluorescein angiography (FA):(i)classic CNV: a demarcated area of uniform hyperfluorescence with a hypofluorescent margin in FA early phase, and dye leakage obscuring the boundaries during the mid and late phases (Figures 1(a) and 1(b));(ii)predominantly classic CNV: the classic component occupying 50% or more of the entire neovascular lesion (including occult CNV and all the fluorescence-blocking constituents) (Figures 2(a) and 2(b));(iii)minimally classic CNV: the classic component occupying less than 50% of the neovascular complex (Figures 3(a) and 3(b));(iv)occult CNV with no classic component: including two types: fibrovascular RPE
Comparative Oral Absorption of Different Citicoline and Homotaurine Formulations: A Single-Dose, Two-Period Crossover Trial in the Dog  [PDF]
Andrea Marchegiani, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Maria Rosaria Romano, Decio Capobianco, Ciro Costagliola, Carlotta Marini, Giuseppe Lubrano Lavadera, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Andrea Spaterna
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2019.127028
Abstract: Background: Citicoline and homotaurine are compounds with a potent neuroprotective activity and they have been administered for many years in the treatment of numerous neurodegenerative and ophthalmological diseases, including glaucoma. Initially available only as liquid form, through parenteral route, nowadays citicoline can be administered also as tablet but no data on bioavailability of these different forms are available. In the present study, pharmacokinetics of citicoline in tablet versus vials, each at the therapeutic dose of 500 mg, in addition to 50 mg of homotaurine was investigated. Materials and methods: Ten mixed breed dogs received a single dose of 50 mg oral homotaurine and 500 mg citicoline in tablet and vials with the same dose were administered after a seven days wash-out period. Parameters assessed for citicoline metabolites (cytidine, uridine and choline) were AUC0t, Cmax and Tmax. Results: Citicoline bioavailability appeared to be slightly higher for the tablet compared to the vial formulation. Cytidine is equivalent in absorption dynamics both for tablet and liquid form; uridine for tablet reaches its maximum and is reabsorbed more quickly while choline for the liquid form reaches the maximum first and is reabsorbed more quickly. Conclusions: Citicoline in tablet and liquid formulation have pharmacokinetic properties leading to a very similar bioavailability.
OPE Coefficients of the 3D Ising model with a trapping potential
Gianluca Costagliola
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Recently the OPE coefficients of the 3D Ising model universality class have been calculated by studying the two-point functions perturbed from the critical point with a relevant field. We show that this method can be applied also when the perturbation is performed with a relevant field coupled to a non uniform potential acting as a trap. This setting is described by the trap size scaling ansatz, that can be combined with the general framework of the conformal perturbation in order to write down the correlators $<\sigma (\mathbf {r})\sigma(0)>$, $<\sigma (\mathbf{r})\epsilon(0)>$ and $<\epsilon (\mathbf {r})\epsilon(0)>$, from which the OPE coefficients can be estimated. We find $C^{\sigma}_{\sigma\epsilon}= 1.051(3)$ , in agreement with the results already known in the literature, and $C^{\epsilon}_{\epsilon\epsilon}= 1.32 (15)$ , confirming and improving the previous estimate obtained in the uniform perturbation case.
Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Francesco Parmeggiani,Mario R. Romano,Ciro Costagliola,Francesco Semeraro,Carlo Incorvaia,Sergio D’Angelo,Paolo Perri,Paolo De Palma,Katia De Nadai,Adolfo Sebastiani
Mediators of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/546786
Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease that represents the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over the age of 50 in Europe, the United States, and Australia, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of central blindness. Risk factors of AMD are heterogeneous, mainly including increasing age and different genetic predispositions, together with several environmental/epigenetic factors, that is, cigarette smoking, dietary habits, and phototoxic exposure. In the aging retina, free radicals and oxidized lipoproteins are considered to be major causes of tissue stress resulting in local triggers for parainflammation, a chronic status which contributes to initiation and/or progression of many human neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD. Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. This paper reviews some attractive aspects of the literature about the mechanisms of inflammation in AMD, especially focusing on those findings or arguments more directly translatable to improve the clinical management of patients with AMD and to prevent the severe vision loss caused by this disease.
Vibrationally excited HC3N in NGC 4418
F. Costagliola,S. Aalto
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913370
Abstract: We investigate the molecular gas properties of the deeply obscured luminous infrared galaxy NGC 4418. We address the excitation of the complex molecule HC3N to determine whether its unusually luminous emission is related to the nature of the buried nuclear source. We use IRAM 30m and JCMT observations of rotational and vibrational lines of HC3N to model the excitation of the molecule by means of rotational diagrams. We report the first confirmed extragalactic detection of vibrational lines of HC3N. We detect 6 different rotational transitions ranging from J=10-9 to J=30-29 in the ground vibrational state and obtain a tentative detection of the J=38-37 line. We also detect 7 rotational transitions of the vibrationally excited states v6 and v7, with angular momenta ranging from J=10-9 to 28-27. The energies of the upper states of the observed transitions range from 20 to 850 K. In the optically thin regime, we find that the rotational transitions of the vibrational ground state can be fitted for two temperatures, 30 K and 260 K, while the vibrationally excited levels can be fitted for a rotational temperature of 90 K and a vibrational temperature of 500 K. In the inner 300 pc of NGC 4418, we estimate a high HC3N abundance, of the order of 10^-7. The excitation of the HC3N molecule responds strongly to the intense radiation field and the presence of warm, dense gas and dust at the center of NGC 4418. The intense HC3N line emission is a result of both high abundances and excitation. The properties of the HC3N emitting gas are similar to those found for hot cores in Sgr B2, which implies that the nucleus (< 300 pc) of NGC 4418 is reminiscent of a hot core. The potential presence of a compact, hot component (T=500 K) is also discussed.
Critical dynamics in trapped particle systems
Gianluca Costagliola,Ettore Vicari
Statistics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/1742-5468/2011/08/L08001
Abstract: We discuss the effects of a trapping space-dependent potential on the critical dynamics of lattice gas models. Scaling arguments provide a dynamic trap-size scaling framework to describe how critical dynamics develops in the large trap-size limit. We present numerical results for the relaxational dynamics of a two-dimensional lattice gas (Ising) model in the presence of a harmonic trap, which support the dynamic trap-size scaling scenario.
Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: An Up-to-Date on Genetic Landmarks
Francesco Parmeggiani,Francesco S. Sorrentino,Mario R. Romano,Ciro Costagliola,Francesco Semeraro,Carlo Incorvaia,Sergio D'Angelo,Paolo Perri,Katia De Nadai,Elia Bonomo Roversi,Paola Franceschelli,Adolfo Sebastiani,Michele Rubini
Mediators of Inflammation , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/435607
Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over 50 years of age, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of legal blindness in Western countries. Although the aging represents the main determinant of AMD, it must be considered a multifaceted disease caused by interactions among environmental risk factors and genetic backgrounds. Mounting evidence and/or arguments document the crucial role of inflammation and immune-mediated processes in the pathogenesis of AMD. Proinflammatory effects secondary to chronic inflammation (e.g., alternative complement activation) and heterogeneous types of oxidative stress (e.g., impaired cholesterol homeostasis) can result in degenerative damages at the level of crucial macular structures, that is photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch’s membrane. In the most recent years, the association of AMD with genes, directly or indirectly, involved in immunoinflammatory pathways is increasingly becoming an essential core for AMD knowledge. Starting from the key basic-research notions detectable at the root of AMD pathogenesis, the present up-to-date paper reviews the best-known and/or the most attractive genetic findings linked to the mechanisms of inflammation of this complex disease. 1. Introduction Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible central vision loss in elderly populations in developed countries, and 30–50 million people are affected worldwide. In the United States, it has been estimated that the prevalence of AMD is 13.4% among persons aged 60 years and older [1, 2]. AMD affects all retinal layers of the macula, the structure responsible for the central vision involving, in different degenerative patterns, photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and Bruch’s membrane. AMD is primary characterized by the development of drusen, pathological extracellular deposits between RPE and Bruch’s membrane mainly containing glycolipids, proteins, and cellular debris. At the level of macular area, the presence of few small hard drusen can be considered as a part of the normal tissue aging. On the other hand, AMD consists of numerous and large soft drusen, RPE dystrophy, macular pigmentary changes, and/or thickening of Bruch’s membrane [3–8]. Advanced AMD can manifest as either dry form or wet one. In dry AMD, geographic atrophy with RPE and photoreceptors degenerative changes occurs. Conversely, wet AMD is characterized by the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) with exudative and hemorrhagic
Barreira cutanea para reconstru o mamária com prótese Dermal barrier for immediate prosthetic breast reconstruction
Bishara S. Atiyeh,Jaber Abbas,Michel Costagliola
Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Plástica , 2012,
Abstract: INTRODU O: A reconstru o mamária imediata com implante de silicone após mastectomia subcutanea tornou-se uma op o válida para médicos e pacientes devido à simplicidade das manobras cirúrgicas, menor tempo cirúrgico, cicatriz mínima e resultados estéticos imediatos. Os implantes submusculares também s o recomendados, apesar de exigirem um procedimento cirúrgico mais agressivo. Ambos também podem causar problemas secundários que já foram descritos. Para reduzir esse tipo de problemas, neste artigo é descrita uma modifica o da mastopexia circunvertical, redu o do padr o de mamoplastia para mastectomia e a reconstru o mamária imediata com implante. MéTODO: A pele entre as linhas de incis o cutanea medial e vertical lateral é desepitelizada, criando uma barreira cutanea para a prótese para refor ar a linha de sutura vertical. CONCLUS ES: A técnica garante uma reconstru o segura, com resultados estéticos gratificantes. BACKGROUND: Immediate breast reconstruction with silicone implant after subcutaneous mastectomy became a valid option among doctors and patients based on the simplicity of the surgical maneuvers, shorter surgical period, minimal scarring and immediate aesthetic results. Submuscular implants also have been advocated despite its more aggressive surgical procedures. Both also may bring secondary already described diversification's problems. An in attempt to reduce this kind of problems, in this article, a modification of the circumvertical mastopexy, reduction mammoplasty pattern for mastectomy and immediate breast implant reconstruction is described. METHODS: The skin between the medial and lateral vertical skin incision lines is de-epithelialized, providing a dermal barrier over the prosthesis to reinforce the vertical suture line. CONCLUSIONS: The technique ensures a safe reconstruction with gratifying aesthetic results.
Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Emissions of Hybrid and Conventional Cars over Legislative and Real Driving Cycles  [PDF]
Maria Antonietta Costagliola, Maria Vittoria Prati, Antonio Mariani, Andrea Unich, Biagio Morrone
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2015.75018
Abstract: Road transport exhaust emissions represent the main sources of atmospheric pollution in urban areas, due to the growing number of circulating vehicles and travelled distances. In order to reduce this pollution source, stricter emission standards are periodically set by governments through- out the world. Consequently, the concentrations of gaseous pollutants and particulate mass to be measured during type-approval tests of new vehicles are becoming progressively lower; moreover from 2011, diesel cars have to comply with particle number limit. In order to assess emission levels of different technology vehicles and investigate the use of a particulate number measurement technique at the exhaust of very low-emitting vehicles, an experimental activity was carried out on three in-use vehicles: a diesel car equipped with a particulate trap (DPF), a hybrid gasoline-elec- tric car and a bi-fuel passenger car fuelled with compressed natural gas (CNG). Cold and hot gaseous and particulate emission factors and fuel consumption were measured during the execution of real and regulatory driving cycles on a chassis dynamometer. Particulate was characterized in terms of mass only for the diesel car and of particle number for all vehicles. The emissions measured over the NEDC show that all three vehicles comply with their standard limits, except CO for CNG passenger car and NOx for diesel car. Cold start influences CO and HC emissions and fuel consumption for all the tested vehicles and in particular for the hybrid car. The real driving cycle is the most critical pattern for the emissions of almost all pollutants. During constant speed tests, the emissions of particles of hybrid car are an order of magnitude lower than those of the CNG car.
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