Abstract:
May-Thurner Syndrome (MTS) or iliac vein compression syndrome is caused by compression of the left common iliac vein by the right common iliac artery. This obstruction may cause leg swelling, varicosities, deep venous thrombosis, chronic venous stasis ulcers, or more serious complications, such as pulmonary embolism. Iliac vein compression can be assessed with computed tomography (CT) and iliac venography. The goals of treatment are to reduce symptoms and to reduce the risk of complications. Stent placement is an alternative method to a direct surgical approach. We present a case of MTS, treated with stent placement.

Abstract:
Mefenamic acid (MA) is a high-dose, anti-inflammatory, analgesic agent that is widely prescribed for pain related to menstrual disorders. It has some negative properties, such as a high hydrophobicity with a propensity to stick to surfaces, and possess great problems during granulation and tableting. Crystallization kinetics was investigated for mefenamic acid. Availability of data on the kinetics of crystal growth is very important for the development and operation of industrial crystallisation processes. The experiments for the measurement of crystal growth kinetics were carried out using the desupersaturation curve technique based on the measurement of the solution concentration versus time in a seeded isothermal batch experiment. To predict the optimum parameters (b, k_{b}, g, k_{g}) for the nucleation and growth kinetics from the desupersaturation curve obtained, the Population Balance Modelling was used and solved by the method of moments. The initial values for the optimisation problem were estimated by using the approach developed by Garside et al. (1982) [1].

Abstract:
Our objective was to evaluate the role of EAT and MAT 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD-1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) expression in comparison with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in the development of coronary atherosclerosis in obese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and to assess their correlations with CD68 and fatty acids from these tissues.Expression of 11β-HSD-1 and GCR was measured by qRT-PCR in EAT, MAT and SAT of thirty-one obese patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting due to CAD (obese CAD group) and sixteen obese patients without CAD undergoing heart valve surgery (controls). 11β-HSD-1 and GCR expression in MAT were found to be significantly increased in the obese CAD group compared with controls (p？<？0.05). In the obese CAD group, 11β-HSD-1 and GCR mRNA levels were strongly correlated in MAT. Stearidonic acid was significantly increased in EAT and MAT of the obese CAD group and arachidonic acid was significantly expressed in MAT of the obese male CAD group (p？<？0.05).We report for the first time the increased expression of 11β-HSD-1 and GCR in MAT compared with EAT and SAT, and also describe the interrelated effects of stearidonic acid, HOMA-IR, plasma cortisol and GCR mRNA levels, explaining 40.2% of the variance in 11β-HSD-1 mRNA levels in MAT of obese CAD patients. These findings support the hypothesis that MAT contributes locally to the development of coronary atherosclerosis via glucocorticoid action.In obesity, fat depots localized around the heart are reported to contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) [1-3]. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) generates various bioactive molecules which significantly affect cardiac function, and their association with the severity of CAD was has also been reported [2,4]. Human and animal studies have demonstrated EAT is located near to the arteries and that segments of an artery surrounded by EAT develop atherosclerosis faster than the intra-m

Abstract:
Delta hepatitis or hepatitis D leads to acute and chronic liver disease in humans. The causative agent, the hepatitis delta virus (HDV), is a defective virus which leads to hepatitis in humans in the presence of the hepatitis B virus. This helper function of HBV is required for transmission and propagation of HDV infection but not for replication. HDV RNA replication occurs through the double-rolling circle model and does not possess a reverse transcription step. Hepatitis D-induced liver disease is immune-mediated and occurs either as co-infection of both viruses or as superinfection of a hepatitis B carrier with hepatitis D. Based on a sequence variation of 19-38%, to date seven genotypes of HDV have been described. HDV infection has declined significantly in many endemic areas in the last decades, however, due to migration to industrialized countries, this decline appears to have reached a plateau in western countries. The clinical course of delta hepatitis in general is associated with rapid progression. Delta hepatitis may be an additional risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The only established management for delta hepatitis consists of treatment with interferon for a period of at least one year. For those unresponsive to interferon treatment and patients with advanced disease new therapies are an urgent need. Such therapies may be on the horizon but translation of bench work to clinical practice is required.

Abstract:
The Weierstrassian $\wp, \zeta$ and $\sigma $ functions are generalized to ${\bf R}^{n}$. The $n=3$ and $n=4$ cases have already been used in gravitational and Yang-Mills instanton solutions which may be interpreted as explicit realizations of spacetime foam and the monopole condensate, respectively. The new functions satisfy higher dimensional versions of the periodicity properties and Legendre's relations obeyed by their familiar complex counterparts. For $n=4$, the construction reproduces functions found earlier by Fueter using quaternionic methods. Integrating over lattice points along all directions but two, one recovers the original Weierstrassian elliptic functions.

Abstract:
Many of the most familiar features of our everyday environment, and some of our basic notions about it, stem from Relativistic Quantum Field Theory (RQFT). We argue in particular that the origin of common names, verbs, adjectives such as full and empty, the concepts of identity, similarity, Plato's Universals, natural numbers, and existence versus non-existence can be traced to the space-time and gauge symmetries and quantum properties embodied in RQFT. These basic tools of human thought cannot arise in a universe strictly described by classical Physics based on Planck's constant being exactly equal to zero.

Abstract:
We discuss the possible relevance of some recent mathematical results and techniques on four-manifolds to physics. We first suggest that the existence of uncountably many R^4's with non-equivalent smooth structures, a mathematical phenomenon unique to four dimensions, may be responsible for the observed four-dimensionality of spacetime. We then point out the remarkable fact that self-dual gauge fields and Weyl spinors can live on a manifold of Euclidean signature without affecting the metric. As a specific example, we consider solutions of the Seiberg-Witten Monopole Equations in which the U(1) fields are covariantly constant, the monopole Weyl spinor has only a single constant component, and the 4-manifold M_4 is a product of two Riemann surfaces Sigma_{p_1} and Sigma_{p_2}. There are p_{1}-1(p_{2}-1) magnetic(electric) vortices on \Sigma_{p_1}(\Sigma_{p_2}), with p_1 + p_2 \geq 2 (p_1=p_2= 1 being excluded). When the two genuses are equal, the electromagnetic fields are self-dual and one obtains the Einstein space \Sigma_p x \Sigma_p, the monopole condensate serving as the cosmological constant.

Abstract:
We present unique solutions of the Seiberg-Witten Monopole Equations in which the U(1) curvature is covariantly constant, the monopole Weyl spinor consists of a single constant component, and the 4-manifold is a product of two Riemann surfaces of genuses p_1 and p_2. There are p_1 -1 magnetic vortices on one surface and p_2 - 1 electric ones on the other, with p_1 + p_2 \geq 2 p_1 = p_2= 1 being excluded). When p_1 = p_2, the electromagnetic fields are self-dual and one also has a solution of the coupled euclidean Einstein-Maxwell-Dirac equations, with the monopole condensate serving as cosmological constant. The metric is decomposable and the electromagnetic fields are covariantly constant as in the Bertotti-Robinson solution. The Einstein metric can also be derived from a K\"{a}hler potential satisfying the Monge-Amp\`{e}re equations.