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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 75220 matches for " Chun-Yu Lo "
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Combination of RGD Compound and Low-Dose Paclitaxel Induces Apoptosis in Human Glioblastoma Cells
Ming-Wei Chang, Jem-Mau Lo, Hsueh-Fen Juan, Hsin-Yi Chang, Chun-Yu Chuang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037935
Abstract: Background Integrins are a family of transmembrane adhesion proteins that mediate cell adhesion and intracellular signaling. Integrin-αvβ3 is expressed on the surface of human glioblastoma cells, and can be further induced by chemical stress. The Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif-containing peptides are specifically bound to integrin-αvβ3, and to inhibit neovasculature underlying competition to normal extracellular matrix proteins. This study employed two types of RGD peptides, cyclic RGD (c(RGDyK)) and bi-cyclic RGD (E[c(RGDyK)]2) peptide, to human glioblastoma U87MG cells with combination of low dose Paclitaxel (PTX) pre-treatment to augment therapeutic activity for RGD peptide-induced apoptosis. Principal Findings Human glioblastoma U87MG cells were treated with RGD peptides in the absence or presence of initial exposure to low-dose 10 nM PTX. Results showed that integrin-αvβ3 expressing on the surface of U87MG cells was induced by 10 nM PTX pre-treatment for 12 hrs. Additionally, the U87MG cells pre-treated with PTX and followed by RGD peptides exhibited greater expression of caspases-3, -8 and -9 than those merely treated with single agent of PTX or RGD peptide. Furthermore, the caspase-3, -8 and -9 inhibitor presented significant protection against E[c(RGDyK)]2 peptide induced U87MG programmed cell death. The increased expression of PTX-induced integrin-αvβ3 was correlated with the enhanced apoptosis in U87MG cells. Conclusions This study provides a novel concept of targeting integrin-αvβ3 with RGD peptides in combination with low-dose PTX pre-treatment to improve efficiency in human glioblastoma treatment.
Antennal epicuticular structure of camel crickets (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae) for identifying the prey of Mustella sibrica Pallas  [PDF]
Chun-Yu Hu, Jeng-Tze Yang, Wu-Chun Tu
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2014.21001
Abstract: Camel crickets (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae) are a group of wingless and humpbacked Orthopteran insects. They are closed relatives to katydids and crickets; they were called spider crickets somewhere because of their long legs. Camel cricket plays an important role in the food web in various ecosystems. In the forest ecosystem, they live in the ground level of forestry under litters and fallen leaves, and some of them live beneath the log and hid themselves under loosen tree barks. They feed on decomposing organic substances and serve as decomposers in the food chain. It is a very common insect prey to insectivorous animals in natural and artificial vegetation. Guandaushi (GDS) is the experimental forest station of National Chung Hsing University, as the study site of long term ecological research (LTER) in Taiwan. And the camel cricket became an important subject and a dominant insect group in the LTER studies. They are the major parts of the insect preys of vertebrates, especially to the insectivorous mammals. According to our previous publication, 32.2% of the insect preys of Mustela sibirica Pallas are camel crickets in GDS forest ecosystem. There were 5 morpho-species of camel crickets by the characters of antennal epicuticular characters. The camel cricket was collected from various ways according to the LTER study during 1995-1998. The morphology of antennal epicuticular structure from totally 60 individuals was observed by using SEM. The epicuticular sculpture was described and classified into Type I and Type II by the SEM photographs. Type I has 8 patterns and Type II has 5 patterns in this study. The illustration and the pictorial key were provided here as the tool for further application. The morpho-species could not be identified due to the remainder being fragmented while examined. After the study, the SEM antennal epicuticular structures were classified and identified based upon the antennae sample of the morphospecies from the specimens of the 5 camel crickets which were collected from GDS forest ecosystem in this study. This is a part of the fundamental study for the protocol of ecosystem study. The protocol for identifying the insectivorous animal’s prey by the insect fragment of food remainders is necessary. One more, there were 7 of the 13 patterns of antennal epicuticular structure applied to analysis the 5 morpho-species provided as the case study for taxonomy.
Gut Microbiota: Physiology and Relationship with Inflammatory Bowel Disease  [PDF]
Chun-Yu Lin, Yeong-Jang Lin, Hung-An Chen
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (OJEMD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2013.37039
Abstract:

The intestinal microbiota, which evolved over tens of thousands of years along with their human hosts, constitutes a complex and diverse ecosystem whose composition differs from person to person. Accumulating evidence indicates that commensal bacteria exert numerous beneficial physiological effects for humans, including nutrition, protection, metabolism, organ development and immunomodulation. However, mucosal immune responses to intestinal microflora require precise control to allow appropriate defense against potential pathogens but restrict the immune response to beneficial resident bacteria. The task of intestinal homeostasis is accomplished by epithelium and specialized immune system in the gastrointestinal tract. Alternation in the composition of the bacterial community, consisting of increased representation of harmful species or under presence of protective species, or dysbiosis has been linked to various chronic and inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease. An improved understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of host-microorganism interactions could bring new insights into onset and pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. This review will discuss physiologic properties of commensal microbiota and how dysregulated immune responses to them contribute to chronic mucosal inflammation.

Formation of Power-law Energy Spectra in Space Plasmas by Stochastic Acceleration due to Whistler-Mode Waves
Chun-yu Ma,Danny Summers
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1029/1998GL900108
Abstract: A non-relativistic Fokker-Planck equation for the electron distribution function is formulated incorporating the effects of stochastic acceleration by whistler-mode waves and Coulomb collisions. The stationary solution $f$ to the equation, subject to a zero-flux boundary condition, is found to be a generalized Lorentzian (or kappa) distribution, which satisfies $f\propto v^{-2(\kappa+1)}$ for large velocity $v$, where $\kappa$ is the spectral index. The parameter $\kappa$ depends strongly on the relative wave intensity $R$. Taking into account the critical energy required for resonance of electrons with whistlers, we calculate a range of values of $R$ for each of a number of different space plasmas for which kappa distributions can be expected to be formed. This study is one of the first in the literature to provide a theoretical justification for the formation of generalized Lorentzian (or kappa) particle distribution functions in space plasmas.
Generalized Painlevé-Gullstrand metrics
Chun-Yu Lin,Chopin Soo
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2008.12.051
Abstract: An obstruction to the implementation of spatially flat Painleve-Gullstrand(PG) slicings is demonstrated, and explicitly discussed for Reissner-Nordstrom and Schwarzschild-anti-deSitter spacetimes. Generalizations of PG slicings which are not spatially flat but which remain regular at the horizons are introduced. These metrics can be obtained from standard spherically symmetric metrics by physical Lorentz boosts. With these generalized PG metrics, problematic contributions to the imaginary part of the action in the Parikh-Wilczek derivation of Hawking radiation due to the obstruction can be avoided.
On the dynamo driven accretion disks
Chun-yu Ma,Peter L Biermann
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: We add the $\alpha-$ effect in the dynamo driven accretion disk model proposed by Tout & Pringle (1992), i.e., a dynamo model depends on the physical processes such as Parker instability, Balbus-Hawley instability, magnetic field reconnection and $\alpha-\omega$ mean field dynamo as well. The $\alpha-$ effect in the dynamo mechanism is determined by the strength of turbulence of the accretion flow. When the turbulent Mach number $M_t$ is less than 0.25, the solutions of the magnetic fields oscillate around their equilibrium values. The increase of the value of $M_t$ makes the amplitude of the oscillation smaller and the period longer, but does not affect the equilibrium values. The Shakura-Sunyaev viscosity parameter $\alpha_{SS}$ oscillates around the equilibrium value of 0.33. When the turbulent Mach number $M_t$ is larger than 0.25, the magnetic field components reach a stable state. In the non-linear dynamo region, the critical turbulent Mach number $M_t$ is 0.44 rather than 0.25. The oscillating magnetic fields and viscosity parameter can explain the basic properties of the dwarf nova eruptions and some properties of quiescent disks (Armitage et al. 1996).
A Model for Generating Relativistic Electrons in the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere Based on Gyroresonant Wave-Particle Interactions
Danny Summers,Chun-yu Ma
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1029/1999JA900444
Abstract: During the recovery phase of a magnetic storm, fluxes of relativistic ($>1$ MeV) electrons in the inner magnetosphere ($3\le L \le 6$) increase to beyond pre-storm levels, reaching a peak about 4 days after the initiation of the storm. In order to account for the generation of these "killer electrons", a model is presented primarily based on stochastic acceleration of electrons by enhanced whistler-mode chorus. In terms of a quasi-linear formulation, a kinetic (Fokker-Planck) equation for the electron energy distribution is derived, comprising an energy diffusion coefficient based on gyroresonant electron-whistler-mode wave interaction and parallel wave propagation; a source term representing substorm-produced (lower energy) seed electrons; and a loss term representing electron precipitation due to pitch-angle scattering by whistler-mode waves and EMIC waves. Steady-state solutions for the electron energy distribution are constructed, and fitted to an empirically-derived relativistic Maxwellian distribution for the high energy "hard" electron population at geosynchronous orbit. The mechanism is expected to be particularly effective for the class of small and moderate storms possessing a long-lasting recovery phase during which many substorms occur.
Endobronchial Mucosa Invasion Predicts Survival in Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer
Pai-Chien Chou, Shu-Min Lin, Chun-Yu Lo, Hao-Cheng Chen, Chih-Wei Wang, Chun-Liang Chou, Chih-Teng Yu, Horng-Chyuan Lin, Chun-Hua Wang, Han-Pin Kuo
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047613
Abstract: Background Current staging system for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) categorizes patients into limited- or extensive-stage disease groups according to anatomical localizations. Even so, a wide-range of survival times has been observed among patients in the same staging system. This study aimed to identify whether endobronchial mucosa invasion is an independent predictor for poor survival in patients with SCLC, and to compare the survival time between patients with and without endobronchial mucosa invasion. Methods We studied 432 consecutive patients with SCLC based on histological examination of biopsy specimens or on fine-needle aspiration cytology, and received computed tomography and bone scan for staging. All the enrolled patients were assessed for endobronchial mucosa invasion by bronchoscopic and histological examination. Survival days were compared between patients with or without endobronchial mucosa invasion and the predictors of decreased survival days were investigated. Results 84% (364/432) of SCLC patients had endobronchial mucosal invasion by cancer cells at initial diagnosis. Endobronchial mucosal involvement (Hazard ratio [HR], 2.01; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.30–3.10), age (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03–1.06), and extensive stage (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.06–1.84) were independent contributing factors for shorter survival time, while received chemotherapy (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.25–0.42) was an independent contributing factor better outcome. The survival days of SCLC patients with endobronchial involvement were markedly decreased compared with patients without (median 145 vs. 290, p<0.0001). Among SCLC patients of either limited (median 180 vs. 460, p<0.0001) or extensive (median 125 vs. 207, p<0.0001) stages, the median survival duration for patients with endobronchial mucosal invasion was shorter than those with intact endobronchial mucosa, respectively. Conclusion Endobronchial mucosal involvement is an independent prognostic factor for SCLC patients and associated with decreased survival days.
Concomitant Active Tuberculosis Prolongs Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Study in a Tuberculosis-Endemic Country
Chih-Hsi Kuo, Chun-Yu Lo, Fu-Tsai Chung, Kang-Yun Lee, Shu-Min Lin, Chun-Hua Wang, Chih-Chen Heh, Hao-Cheng Chen, Han-Pin Kuo
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033226
Abstract: Background Adjuvant tumor cell vaccine with chemotherapy against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) shows limited clinical response. Whether it provokes effective cellular immunity in tumor microenvironment is questionable. Concomitant active tuberculosis in NSCLC (TBLC) resembles locoregional immunotherapy of tumor cell vaccine; thus, maximally enriches effective anti-tumor immunity. This study compares the survival and immunological cell profile in TBLC over NSCLC alone. Methods Retrospective review of NSCLC patients within 1-year-period of 2007 and follow-up till 2010. Results A total 276 NSCLC patients were included. The median survival of TBLC is longer than those of NSCLC alone (11.6 vs. 8.8 month, p<0.01). Active tuberculosis is an independent predictor of better survival with HR of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.48~0.97). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (55.8 vs. 31.7%, p<0.01) is a significant risk factor for NSCLC with active TB. The median survival of SCC with active tuberculosis is significantly longer than adenocarcinoma or undetermined NSCLC with TB (14.2 vs. 6.6 and 2.8 months, p<0.05). Active tuberculosis in SCC increases the expression of CD3 (46.4±24.8 vs. 24.0±16.0, p<0.05), CXCR3 (35.1±16.4 vs. 19.2±13.3, p<0.01) and IP-10 (63.5±21.9 vs. 35.5±21.0, p<0.01), while expression of FOXP3 is decreased (3.5±0.5 vs. 13.3±3.7 p<0.05, p<0.05). Survival of SCC with high expression of CD3 (12.1 vs. 3.6 month, p<0.05) and CXCR3 (12.1 vs. 4.4 month, p<0.05) is longer than that with low expression. Conclusions Active tuberculosis in NSCLC shows better survival outcome. The effective T lymphocyte infiltration in tumor possibly underlies the mechanism. Locoregional immunotherapy of tumor cell vaccine may deserve further researches.
Structural and Optical Properties of HfLaO Films Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering
LI Zhi, MIAO Chun-Yu, MA Chun-Yu, ZHANG Qing-Yu
无机材料学报 , 2011, DOI: 10.3724/sp.j.1077.2011.01281
Abstract: HfLaO films doped with different La contents, varying from 17% to 37%, were deposited using RF magnetron sputtering. The structure, thermal stability, surface morphology, and optical properties of HfLaO films were investigated by X―ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM) and spectrophotometry. The results indicate that as―deposited HfLaO with 25%―37% La films are amorphous. With the increase of La contents, the crystallization temperature for HfLaO films is increased. The HfLaO film with 37% La remains amorphous even after annealed at 900 . The AFM images show amorphous HfLaO films, which imply a good thermal stability have a relatively smooth surface. The average transmittance in the visible range is above 82% for all the films. The amorphous structure yields films of significantly higher transparency than the polycrystalline structure does. The refractive indices of the films are determined to be in the range 1.77―1.87. As the La concent increases the refractive indices of the films are initially increased and then decreased. The optical band gap of the HfLaO films decreases to 5.9eV (La 17%), 5.87eV(La 25%), 5.8eV(La 33%), 5.77eV(La 37%), respectively.
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