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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3140 matches for " Chuki Christina Mtuya "
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Determinants of Modern Contraceptive Use among Women of Reproductive Age in Tanzania: Evidence from Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey Data  [PDF]
Paulo Lino Kidayi, Sia Msuya, Jim Todd, Chuki Christina Mtuya, Tara Mtuy, Michael Johnson Mahande
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2015.53006
Abstract: Introduction: Tanzania is among of the African countries with high maternal and child mortality rates and fast growing population. It also has high fertility rate and a huge unmet need for family planning. Contraceptive use reported to avert more than 1 million maternal deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa due to decline in fertility rate and thus help to achieve MDG 4 and 5. Therefore, this study aimed to determine factors influencing modern contraceptive use among women aged 15 - 49 years in Tanzania. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of Tanzania Demographic Health Survey (TDHS), 2010. A total of 475 clusters (urban and rural) composed of 9663 households were selected. During the survey, a total of 10,139 women aged 15 - 49 years were interviewed about sexual and reproductive matters using a standardized questionnaire. We restricted our analysis to married/cohabiting women (n = 6412) responded for in individual records and domestic violence (n = 4471). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using Stata version 11.0. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for determinants of modern contraceptive use were estimated. A P value of 5% (2 tails) was considered statistically significant. Results: Women empowerment (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.13 - 1.63), male-female age difference of less or equal to nine (OR = 1.6; 95 CI: 1.01 - 2.66), and advice given at health care facilities on family planning (OR = 1.6; 95 CI: 1.37 - 1.96) were predictors of modern contraceptive use. Woman sexual violence was not associated with modern contraceptive use. Conclusions: The predictors of modern contraceptive use in our study correspond with previous studies in low and middle income countries. Women empowerment, male-female age difference, and child desire were important predictors for modern contraceptive use. This highlights the need to promote contraceptive use among women of reproductive age.
Species-Specific Responses of Corals to Bleaching Events on Anthropogenically Turbid Reefs on Okinawa Island, Japan, over a 15-year Period (1995–2009)
Chuki Hongo, Hiroya Yamano
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060952
Abstract: Coral bleaching, triggered by elevated sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) has caused a decline in coral cover and changes in the abundances of corals on reefs worldwide. Coral decline can be exacerbated by the effects of local stressors like turbidity, yet some reefs with a natural history of turbidity can support healthy and resilient coral communities. However, little is known about responses of coral communities to bleaching events on anthropogenically turbid reefs as a result of recent (post World War II) terrestrial runoff. Analysis of region-scale coral cover and species abundance at 17–20 sites on the turbid reefs of Okinawa Island (total of 79 species, 30 genera, and 13 families) from 1995 to 2009 indicates that coral cover decreased drastically, from 24.4% to 7.5% (1.1%/year), subsequent to bleaching events in 1998 and 2001. This dramatic decrease in coral cover corresponded to the demise of Acropora species (e.g., A. digitifera) by 2009, when Acropora had mostly disappeared from turbid reefs on Okinawa Island. In contrast, Merulinidae species (e.g., Dipsastraea pallida/speciosa/favus) and Porites species (e.g., P. lutea/australiensis), which are characterized by tolerance to thermal stress, survived on turbid reefs of Okinawa Island throughout the period. Our results suggest that high turbidity, influenced by recent terrestrial runoff, could have caused a reduction in resilience of Acropora species to severe thermal stress events, because the corals could not have adapted to a relatively recent decline in water quality. The coral reef ecosystems of Okinawa Island will be severely impoverished if Acropora species fail to recover.
What Reasons Might the Other One Have?—Perspective Taking to Reduce Psychological Reactance in Individualists and Collectivists  [PDF]
Christina Steindl, Eva Jonas
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.312A170

Previous research has demonstrated a considerable amount of negative consequences resulting from psychological reactance. The purpose of this study was to explore opportunities to reduce the amount of reactance. Using the method of perspective taking as an intervention, the current study of 196 Austrians and 198 Filipinos examined whether reactance could be reduced and whether individualists and collectivists differ concerning reactance and their perspective taking abilities. Our results indicated that participants who took the perspective of the person who threatened them experienced less reactance than participants who did not take this approach. This was the case for people from both cultural backgrounds. Nevertheless, comparisons among the two cultural groups yielded different reactions to restrictions. This indicates that individualists are more sensitive to a self-experienced restriction than collectivists, but less sensitive to a restriction of another person. Consequently, we consider culture to be a crucial determinant in predicting the amount of reactance.

Current Treatment of DCIS  [PDF]
Christina Choy, Kefah Mokbel
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.52022

Abstract: Ductal carcinoma in-situ DCIS is a heterogeneous entity in breast neoplasm with unpredictable biological behavior. This poses challenge in the management of DCIS. Various trials on DCIS have shown good outcome with integral treatment of adequate surgery, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy. Identification of subgroup of DCIS for radiotherapy and hormonal therapy could improve recurrence rate, contralateral tumours incidence and perhaps overall survival. Various risk score calculations could help to direct radiotherapy and hormonal treatment verses surgery alone and to avoid over treatment. Oncotype DX assay could be a new way of risk calculation to direct types of DCIS treatment. The recent increased use of MRI could increase the detection of DCIS and a more accurate extent of disease estimation. This article is a summary of major literatures and major trials result for DCIS.

Influences on the Marking of Examinations  [PDF]
Christina Bermeitinger, Benjamin Unger
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.52014

In the present work, we examined a phenomenon highly relevant in the educational field for assessing or judging performance, that is, the question how the second examiner’s marking is influenced by the evaluation of the first examiner. This phenomenon is known as anchoring in cognitive psychology. In general, in anchoring effects numeric information (i.e., the anchor) pulls estimations or judgments towards the anchor. One domain which is highly important in real life has been investigated only occasionally, that is, the marking of examinations. In three experiments, participants were asked to evaluate a written assignment. The mark (either good or bad) of a ficticious first examiner was used as the anchor. We found clear anchoring effects that were unaffected by feedback in a preceding task (positive, neutral, negative) or the expert status of the presumed first examiner. We discussed the problems related to this effect.

An X-Band Low Noise Amplifier Design for Marine Navigation Radars  [PDF]
Christina Lessi, Evangelia Karagianni
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2014.73009

In this paper, the design of a 9.1 GHz Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) of a RADAR receiver that is used in the Navy is presented. For the design of the LNA, we used GaAs Field-Effect Transistors (FETs) from Agilent ADS component library. In order to keep the cost of the circuit in low prices and the performance high, we design a two-stage LNA.

Spectral Modifications of Graphene Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations  [PDF]
David Liesegang, Christina Oligschleger
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.54025

We investigated graphene structures grafted with fullerenes. The size of the graphene sheets ranges from 6400 to 640,000 atoms. The fullerenes (C60 and C240) are placed on top of the graphene sheets, using different impact velocities we could distinguish three types of impact. Furthermore, we investigated the changes of the vibrational properties. The modified graphene planes show additional features in the vibronic density of states.

Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Greek Validation on Student Sample  [PDF]
Christina Galanou, Michael Galanakis, Euaggelos Alexopoulos, Christina Darviri
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.58093

This paper presents the standardization of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) in the Greek population. Self-esteem is defined as the positive or negative reflection that the individual has for himself/herself and the belief of being able to cope with the basic challenges of life. The RSES was completed by university students with a mean age of 19. Along with the RSES we administered the Health Locus of Control Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Stress and Personality Self Test and the self-esteem questionnaire (Darviri & Varvogli). The results on the reliability and validity of the RSES were satisfactory as the internal reliability index crombach a was .80 and the RSES had positive statistical significant relationship with the second questionnaire of self-esteem. We also found statistically significant relationships with stress levels, health locus of control and personality types. It seems that when people attribute their good health to others, they have increased self-esteem in relation to people who attributed their good health to themselves. Furthermore our study showed that women have higher levels of self-esteem than men, an opposite outcome to the one of previous validations. The RSES Greek version is a tool that can be used for the measurement of Self-Esteem in the Greek Population.

Villegagnon & Cook: tupinambá e havaiano
Osward, Christina;
História (S?o Paulo) , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-90742008000100012
Abstract: we are dealing here with a suggestion of symmetry between what happened in guanabara bay in the xvi century between the tupinamba and the french, and in the kealakakua bay, in the xviii century between the hawaiians and the english taking into consideration the dynamics of misunderstanding. the argument develops that the white men were captured by the natives, in both cases in a similar manner that is to say by way of ontological preying.
A matéria da imagina??o: o que podemos aprender com as ideias das crian?as fijianas sobre suas vidas como adultos
Toren, Christina;
Horizontes Antropológicos , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-71832010000200002
Abstract: by means of an analysis of fijian children's essays about the future, this paper explores ideas of sociality, personhood and the self that are the very stuff of intersubjectivity and thus of the imagination. the material presented here bears on a single aspect of data derived from 75 essays by fijian village children aged between 7 and 15 years old collected in april 2005: their constitution over time of a spatiotemporal orientation towards a view of generations to come. this partial analysis is the first part of the larger project, which will look at all aspects of the data derived from the essays as they vary together. the paper uses this example of spatiotemporal orientation to show how, seen through the perspective derived from long-term participant observer fieldwork, data such as these enable an ethnographic analysis of meaning-making as a transformational, historical process.
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