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Previous research has demonstrated a considerable amount of negative consequences resulting from psychological reactance. The purpose of this study was to explore opportunities to reduce the amount of reactance. Using the method of perspective taking as an intervention, the current study of 196 Austrians and 198 Filipinos examined whether reactance could be reduced and whether individualists and collectivists differ concerning reactance and their perspective taking abilities. Our results indicated that participants who took the perspective of the person who threatened them experienced less reactance than participants who did not take this approach. This was the case for people from both cultural backgrounds. Nevertheless, comparisons among the two cultural groups yielded different reactions to restrictions. This indicates that individualists are more sensitive to a self-experienced restriction than collectivists, but less sensitive to a restriction of another person. Consequently, we consider culture to be a crucial determinant in predicting the amount of reactance.
carcinoma in-situ DCIS is a
heterogeneous entity in breast neoplasm with unpredictable biological behavior.
This poses challenge in the management of DCIS. Various trials on DCIS have
shown good outcome with integral treatment of adequate surgery, radiotherapy
and hormonal therapy. Identification of subgroup of DCIS for radiotherapy and
hormonal therapy could improve recurrence rate, contralateral tumours incidence
and perhaps overall survival. Various risk score calculations could help to
direct radiotherapy and hormonal treatment verses surgery alone and to avoid
over treatment. Oncotype DX
assay could be a new way of risk calculation to direct types of DCIS treatment.
The recent increased use of MRI could increase the detection of DCIS and a more
accurate extent of disease estimation. This article is a summary of major
literatures and major trials result for DCIS.
In the present work, we
examined a phenomenon highly relevant in the educational field for assessing or
judging performance, that is, the question how the second examiner’s marking is
influenced by the evaluation of the first examiner. This phenomenon is known as
anchoring in cognitive psychology. In general, in anchoring effects numeric
information (i.e., the anchor) pulls estimations or judgments towards the
anchor. One domain which is highly important in real life has been investigated
only occasionally, that is, the marking of examinations. In three experiments,
participants were asked to evaluate a written assignment. The mark (either good
or bad) of a ficticious first examiner was used as the anchor. We found clear anchoring effects that were unaffected by feedback in a
preceding task (positive, neutral, negative) or the expert status of the
presumed first examiner. We discussed the problems related to this effect.
In this paper, the design of a 9.1 GHz Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) of a RADAR
receiver that is used in the Navy is presented. For the design of the LNA, we used GaAs Field-Effect Transistors (FETs) from Agilent
ADS component library. In order to keep the cost of the circuit in low prices
and the performance high, we design a two-stage LNA.
We investigated graphene
structures grafted with fullerenes. The size of the graphene sheets ranges from
6400 to 640,000 atoms. The
fullerenes (C60 and C240) are placed on top of the
graphene sheets, using different impact velocities we could distinguish three
types of impact. Furthermore, we investigated the changes of the vibrational
properties. The modified graphene planes show additional features in the
vibronic density of states.
paper presents the standardization of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) in
the Greek population. Self-esteem is defined as the positive or negative
reflection that the individual has for himself/herself and the belief of being
able to cope with the basic challenges of life. The RSES was completed by
university students with a mean age of 19. Along with the RSES we administered
the Health Locus of Control Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Stress
and Personality Self Test and the self-esteem questionnaire (Darviri &
Varvogli). The results on the reliability and validity of the RSES were
satisfactory as the internal reliability index crombach a was .80 and the RSES
had positive statistical significant relationship with the second questionnaire
of self-esteem. We also found statistically significant relationships with
stress levels, health locus of control and personality types. It seems that
when people attribute their good health to others, they have increased self-esteem
in relation to people who attributed their good health to themselves.
Furthermore our study showed that women have higher levels of self-esteem than
men, an opposite outcome to the one of previous validations. The RSES Greek
version is a tool that can be used for the measurement of Self-Esteem in the