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Bioconversion of paper sludge to biofuel by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using a cellulase of paper sludge origin and thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae TJ14
Joni Prasetyo, Kazuya Naruse, Tatsuya Kato, Chuenchit Boonchird, Satoshi Harashima, Enoch Y Park
Biotechnology for Biofuels , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1754-6834-4-35
Abstract: When 50 g PS organic material (PSOM)/l was used in SSF, the ethanol yield based on PSOM was 23% (g ethanol/g PSOM) and was two times higher than that obtained by a separate hydrolysis and fermentation process. Cellulase activity throughout SSF remained at around 60% of the initial activity. When 50 to 150 g PSOM/l was used in SSF, the ethanol yield was 21% to 23% (g ethanol/g PSOM) at the 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask scale. Ethanol production and theoretical ethanol yield based on initial hexose was 40 g/l and 66.3% (g ethanol/g hexose) at 80 h, respectively, when 161 g/l of PSOM, 15 filter paper units (FPU)/g PSOM, and 20% inoculum were used for SSF, which was confirmed in the 2 l scale experiment. This indicates that PS is a good raw material for bioethanol production.Ethanol concentration increased with increasing PSOM concentration. The ethanol yield was stable at PSOM concentrations of up to 150 g/l, but decreased at concentrations higher than 150 g/l because of mass transfer limitations. Based on a 2 l scale experiment, when 1,000 kg PS was used, 3,182 kFPU cellulase was produced from 134.7 kg PS. Produced cellulase was used for SSF with 865.3 kg PS and ethanol production was estimated to be 51.1 kg. Increasing the yeast inoculum or cellulase concentration did not significantly improve the ethanol yield or concentration.Recently, much research has been conducted on reducing the input energy and cost of ethanol production. Around 5 million tons of paper sludge (PS) is discharged annually by the paper manufacturing industry in Japan. Disposing of PS in landfill or by incineration creates environmental problems, and legislative trends in many countries are restricting the amount and types of materials that are permitted to be disposed of by landfill [1]. The production of bioethanol from PS can reduce dependence on fossil fuels while simultaneously solving the environmental problems associated with PS disposal. The use of bioethanol produced from PS offers an alternat
Persistence of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus delays mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus infection in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)
Sudkhate Molthathong, Sarocha Jitrakorn, Yutthana Joyjinda, Chuenchit Boonchird, Boonsirm Witchayachamnarnkul, Pattira Pongtippatee, Timothy Flegel, Vanvimon Saksmerprome
BMC Veterinary Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-9-33
Abstract: A multiplex PCR system was developed to amplify the entire IHHNV genome, ensuring the accurate diagnosis. Field samples containing IHHNV DNA templates as low as 20 pg or equivalent 150 viral copies can be detected by this method. By challenging the two groups of diagnosed shrimp with WSSV, we found that shrimp with IHHNV infection and those with viral inserts responded to WSSV differently. Considering cumulative mortality, average time to death of shrimp in IHHNV-infected group (day 14) was significantly delayed relative to that (day 10) of IHHNV-inserted group. Real-time PCR analysis of WSSV copy number indicated the lower amount of WSSV in the IHHNV-infected group than the virus-inserted group. The ratio of IHHNV: WSSV copy number in all determined IHHNV-infected samples ranged from approximately 4 to 300-fold.The multiplex PCR assay developed herein proved optimal for convenient differentiation of shrimp specimens with real IHHNV infection and those with insert types. Diagnosed shrimp were also found to exhibit different WSSV tolerance. After exposed to WSSV, the naturally pre-infected IHHNV P.monodon were less susceptible to WSSV and, consequently, survived longer than the IHHNV-inserted shrimp.
Construction of Bordetella pertussis strains with enhanced production of genetically-inactivated Pertussis Toxin and Pertactin by unmarked allelic exchange
Wasin Buasri, Attawut Impoolsup, Chuenchit Boonchird, Anocha Luengchaichawange, Pannipa Prompiboon, Jean Petre, Watanalai Panbangred
BMC Microbiology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-12-61
Abstract: Three recombinant strains of Bordetella pertussis were obtained by homologous recombination using an allelic exchange vector, pSS4245. In the first construct, the segment encoding PT subunit S1 was replaced by two mutations (R9K and E129G) that removed PT toxicity and Bp-WWC strain was obtained. In the second construct, a second copy of the whole cluster of PT structural genes containing the above mutations was inserted elsewhere into the chromosome of Bp-WWC and the Bp-WWD strain was obtained. This strain generated increased amounts of rPT (3.77 ± 0.53 μg/mL) compared to Bp-WWC (2.61 ± 0.16 μg/mL) and wild type strain (2.2 μg/mL). In the third construct, a second copy of the prn gene was inserted into the chromosome of Bp-WWD to obtain Bp-WWE. Strain Bp-WWE produced PRN at 4.18 ± 1.02 μg/mL in the cell extract which was about two-fold higher than Bp-WWC (2.48 ± 0.10 μg/mL) and Bp-WWD (2.31 ± 0.17 μg/mL). Purified PTd from Bp-WWD at 0.8-1.6 μg/well did not show any toxicity against Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell whereas purified PT from WT demonstrated a cell clustering endpoint at 2.6 pg/well.We have constructed Bordetella pertussis strains expressing increased amounts of the antigens, rPT or rPT and PRN. Expression of the third antigen, FHA was unchanged (always in excess). These strains will be useful for the manufacture of affordable acellular Pertussis vaccines.Pertussis or whooping cough is a severe respiratory disease resulting from colonisation of the upper respiratory tract by the causative organism Bordetella pertussis [1]. Vaccines have been available for decades, comprising killed whole cells of B. pertussis that are chemically detoxified and formulated with Diphtheria and Tetanus antigens. They are administered as a trivalent Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis combination, or in newer combinations with HBV and Hib, providing additional immunity against Hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b invasive disease, respectively [2]. The use of whole-cell Pe
Differential binding with ERα and ERβ of the phytoestrogen-rich plant Pueraria mirifica
Boonchird, C.;Mahapanichkul, T.;Cherdshewasart, W.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2009007500026
Abstract: variations in the estrogenic activity of the phytoestrogen-rich plant, pueraria mirifica, were determined with yeast estrogen screen (yes) consisting of human estrogen receptors (her) herα and herβ and human transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (htif2) or human steroid receptor coactivator 1 (hsrc1), respectively, together with the β-galactosidase expression cassette. relative estrogenic potency was expressed by determining the β-galactosidase activity (ec50) of the tuber extracts in relation to 17β-estradiol. twenty-four and 22 of the plant tuber ethanolic extracts interacted with herα and herβ, respectively, with a higher relative estrogenic potency with herβ than with herα. antiestrogenic activity of the plant extracts was also determined by incubation of plant extracts with 17β-estradiol prior to yes assay. the plant extracts tested exhibited antiestrogenic activity. both the estrogenic and the antiestrogenic activity of the tuber extracts were metabolically activated with the rat liver s9-fraction prior to the assay indicating the positive influence of liver enzymes. correlation analysis between estrogenic potency and the five major isoflavonoid contents within the previously hplc-analyzed tuberous samples namely puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein revealed a negative result.
Screening of antagonistic bacteria against the green mold disease (Trichoderma harzianum Rifai) of Grey Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quel.)
Maneechai, P.,Petcharat, V.,Chuenchit, S.,Nualsri, C.
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2005,
Abstract: A total of 174 strains of bacteria antagonistic against the green mold (Trichoderma harzianum), isolated from cultivating bags and fruiting bodies of the mushrooms, were screened for effects on mushroom mycelia and ability to control the green mold disease. Twenty-eight of them promoted the primodia formation of the Pleurotus pulmonarius mycelia on agar plates. Twenty-two isolates were selected and further tested in a mushroom house. Cell suspension of each isolate was prepared and sprayed onto the spawn surface of P. pulmonarius. Fifteen isolates shortened the times required from watering to 2nd and 3rd flushing and increased yield of the basidiocarps by 1.1-34.3% over 30 days. Six isolates of bacteria which showed an inhibitory effect against T. harzianum, enhanced primordia formation and increased yield of P. pulmonarius were selected and used for control testing in a cultivation house. The suspension of each isolate was sprayed onto the spawn surface immediately after exposure to the air in the mushroom house, followed by spore suspension of T. harzianum two days later. The number of infected bags was counted at 30 days after inoculation and the cumulative yield was compared after 60 days. The results showed that bacteria isolate B012-022 was highly effective in suppressing the green mold disease.Only 6.7% of the cultivating bags were found to be infected by T. harzianum when bacteria isolate B012-022 was applied. Cumulative yield obtained from 900 g of 94% sawdust + 5% rice bran + 1% Ca(OH)2 was 300.0 g/bag after 60 days, 71.1% higher than the bags infected by the green mold and without bacterial spraying. Identification of the six bacterial isolates showed all to be Bacillus spp.
Developing a Model of Green and Happiness Community for Rural Villages in Northeast Thailand
Som Nasa-arn,Vinai Veravatnanond,Boonchird Pinyoanuntapong,Koson Srisang
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a model of green and happiness community for the rural villages of E-San (northeast Thailand) by using a mixed quantitative and qualitative method. The study was carried out with 20 resource persons and the samples of 72 operators in communities, 365 community leaders selected by multi-stage sampling and 360 heads of families selected by systematic sampling. The research instruments were questionnaires, interviews and focus groups. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, MANOVA, with the use of SPSS for Windows. For the confirmatory factor analysis and the test of hypothesized model s fit with the empirical data, LISREL Program version 8.30 was applied. The research results revealed that, regarding a green and happiness community in rural villages of E-San, there were 6 main factors, 22 sub-factors and 107 indicators. They comprised 14 indicators for factor 1 "good environment and natural resources, 20 indicators for factor 2, good health, 13 indicators for factor 3, strong community economy, 19 indicators for factor 4, appropriate technology, wisdom and learning, 24 indicators for factor 5, good society and culture with morality and 17 indicators for factor 6, strong community administration and management. The models of factors 1-6 for a green and happiness community fitted with the empirical data with 2 = 59.20, 155.40, 43.06, 113.01, 138.95 and 68.26, respectively (p>0.05 in all items). For other indexes, they followed the criteria with reliability value of the indicators 0.55-0.88. Regarding the second order confirmatory factor analysis, all indicators could measure the main factors of a green and happiness community. For the result from evaluating a green and happiness community in general, it was at the high level. In comparing the means of green and happiness communities in upper, middle and lower areas of Kalasin Province, they were found to be different at the 0.05 level of statistical significance. For the appropriate model and guidelines to develop a green and happiness community according to the main factors, there were 21 guidelines and 71 major activities. The results of the study, it is appropriate to bring the model into practice in order to develop green and happiness community in the rural villages.
Developing Alternative Ways of Life for Village Communities in Lower Mun River Area: A Participatory Action Research in Pakdom Village Ubon Ratchathani Province, Northeast Thailand
Angkun Chamroensan,Vinai Veravatnanond,Boonchird Pinyoanuntapong,Koson Srisang
The Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: The main purpose of this research was to develop alternative ways of life for village communities in Northeast Thailand, with two main concepts people’s participation and sufficiency economy as the basic guidelines. The experiment action took place at Pakdom village, Phibunmangsahan district, Ubon Ratchathani province. A mixed group of 53 key informants were asked to join a focus group discussion in order to provide historical background, current situation and future possibilities. Then a Learning Center was organized on a 9 rai plot on which the experiment was undertaken between January and May, 2008, by a core group of 15 volunteers, chosen from among the Pakdom villagers who participated in the introductory meeting. The instruments included community meeting, field motes, observation forms, unstructured and semi structured interviews, focus groups and photo recording. The collected data were classified into groups according to the objectives and conceptual framework for descriptive analysis and interpretation. The research findings were as follows: the environment and the ways of life of Pakdom community had basically changed from the previous ways of simplicity, living in harmony with the environment and relying on natural resources for their living. The environment has now changed so much that Pakdom villagers can no longer rely on food from nature. They have had to rely on buying food in the market. Pakdom people have begun to realize the problem. At the Learning Center, agricultural activities deemed appropriate for producing food as well as for improving the environment were carried our by the 15 volunteers. They grew vegetables, raised local pigs and hens and raised fish in plastic-coated ponds. What they produced were sufficient for their consumption, cutting the need to buy food from outside. They also fermented organic fertilizers and bio-extracts, using raw materials which could be found in the community. As a result, the environment was also improved, due to the practice of the principles of sufficiency economy and people’s participation. In the evaluation of the experiment at the Learning Center, the following findings were revealed. The environment around the Learning Center was better due to the use of organic fertilizers and bio-extracts to improve the soil. The project participants exchanged their various knowledge and experience in the spirit of mutual care and share in the operation of the Learning Center. Thus, the products from growing vegetables, raising animals and fish and fermenting organic fertilizes and bio-extracts provided the members of the project with enough clean and safe food for their own consumption. Working together in the project, they were able to reduce production costs and well as to become self-reliant, leading to their communal well-being and better quality of life. Instead of competing for self-interests, Pakdom villagers have returned to mutual care and share. The spirit of communal cooperation has b
A Study and Development on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice in Forest Conservation and Reforestration of Youth in Ban Khao Phra Community Nakhon Nayok Province
Benjawan Suparat,Adisak Singseewo,Boonchird Pinyoanuntapong,Penkair Thamaseananupap
The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2010.554.558
Abstract: This research aims at developing the knowledge, the attitude and the practice in the forest conservation and revival of the youths in Baan Khao Phra community, Nakhon Nayok Province employing the mixed method (qualitative and quantitative). The subjects in this research consisted of the leaders of the community who are both officials and villagers knowledgeable and having real practices in the forest area. The 30 officials involved from the Office of Natural Resource and Environment in Nakhon Nayok province are obtained by means of snow ball sampling and the sample group for the training course is 30 youths who are students studying in a secondary school level. The package of the training course was evaluated by means of enquiry, interview and group talk. The data derived are analyzed by means of descriptive statistic; percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistic; testing the hypotheses using ANNOVA with repeated measure: one between two within. The results were found accordingly. The problems happened to the forest in Baan Khao Phra community are mostly caused by the actions of the villagers: forested items collecting, animals hunting, forest area pioneering and deforestation. These yield both the indirect and indirect effects on the forest itself but the most important cause for deforestation is attributed to human beings lack of knowledge, understanding, mutual participation and responsibility to conserve the forest. Despite the accumulated and passed over wisdom of the community to sustain lives on the benefits from the forest, the mutual participation of the villagers who tie to the forest is necessary to be enhanced to strengthen community for self-reliance. The package of the training course for forest conservation and revival of the youths in Baan Khao Phra community, Nakhon Nayok province, comprises the knowledge, the attitude and behavioral practice to conserve and revive the forest undergone the development based on the studies on thinking, a related theory, a local wisdom for forest resource management and a participatory action research with a try-out to assure a high reliability. The youths knowledge in the forest conservation and revival before the training is rated moderate and after the training is rated high. By a comparison, the knowledge in the forest conservation and revival of the youth after the training is rated higher than before the training at a significantly statistical level of 0.01. The youth with different genders show no difference in terms of knowledge in overall. The youths attitude towards the forest conservation and revival is rated at a moderate level and after the training is rated at the same level. By a comparison, the attitude towards the forest conversation and revival after the training is rated higher than before the training at a significantly statistical level of 0.05. The youth with different genders show no difference in terms of knowledge in overall. The youths behavioral prac
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