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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4222 matches for " Christophe Bonny "
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JNK3 Maintains Expression of the Insulin Receptor Substrate 2 (IRS2) in Insulin-Secreting Cells: Functional Consequences for Insulin Signaling
Saida Abdelli, Christophe Bonny
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035997
Abstract: We have recently shown that silencing of the brain/islet specific c-Jun N-terminal Kinase3 (JNK3) isoform enhances both basal and cytokine-induced beta-cell apoptosis, whereas silencing of JNK1 or JNK2 has opposite effects. While it is known that JNK1 or JNK2 may promote apoptosis by inhibiting the activity of the pro-survival Akt pathway, the effect of JNK3 on Akt has not been documented. This study aims to determine the involvement of individual JNKs and specifically JNK3 in the regulation of the Akt signaling pathway in insulin-secreting cells. JNK3 silencing strongly decreases Insulin Receptor Substrate 2 (IRS2) protein expression, and blocks Akt2 but not Akt1 activation by insulin, while the silencing of JNK1 or JNK2 activates both Akt1 and Akt2. Concomitantly, the silencing of JNK1 or JNK2, but not of JNK3, potently phosphorylates the glycogen synthase kinase3 (GSK3β). JNK3 silencing also decreases the activity of the transcription factor Forkhead BoxO3A (FoxO3A) that is known to control IRS2 expression, in addition to increasing c-Jun levels that are known to inhibit insulin gene expression. In conclusion, we propose that JNK1/2 on one hand and JNK3 on the other hand, have opposite effects on insulin-signaling in insulin-secreting cells; JNK3 protects beta-cells from apoptosis and dysfunction mainly through maintenance of a normal IRS2 to Akt2 signaling pathway. It seems that JNK3 mediates its effects mainly at the transcriptional level, while JNK1 or JNK2 appear to mediate their pro-apoptotic effect in the cytoplasm.
Role of JNK isoforms in the development of neuropathic pain following sciatic nerve transection in the mouse
Giusi Manassero, Ivan E Repetto, Stefano Cobianchi, Valeria Valsecchi, Christophe Bonny, Ferdinando Rossi, Alessandro Vercelli
Molecular Pain , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-8-39
Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury produced pain–related behavior on the ipsilateral hindpaw, accompanied by an increase in the percentage of GAP43-immunoreactive (IR) neurons and a decrease in the percentage of CGRP-IR neurons in the lumbar DRGs. The JNK inhibitor, D-JNKI-1, successfully modulated the effects of the sciatic nerve transection. The onset of neuropathic pain was not prevented by the deletion of a single JNK isoform, leading us to conclude that all JNK isoforms collectively contribute to maintain neuropathy. Autotomy behavior, typically induced by sciatic nerve axotomy, was absent in both the JNK1 and JNK3 knockout mice.JNK signaling plays an important role in regulating pain threshold: the inhibition of all of the JNK isoforms prevents the onset of neuropathic pain, while the deletion of a single splice JNK isoform mitigates established sensory abnormalities. JNK inactivation also has an effect on axonal sprouting following peripheral nerve injury.
Regulation of the JNK3 Signaling Pathway during Islet Isolation: JNK3 and c-fos as New Markers of Islet Quality for Transplantation
Saida Abdelli, Klearchos K. Papas, Kate R. Mueller, Mike P. Murtaugh, Bernhard J. Hering, Christophe Bonny
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099796
Abstract: Stress conditions generated throughout pancreatic islet processing initiate the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways and beta-cell destruction. Our goal is to identify relevant and preferably beta-specific markers to assess the activation of beta-cell stress and apoptotic mechanisms, and therefore the general quality of the islet preparation prior to transplantation. Protein expression and activation were analyzed by Western blotting and kinase assays. ATP measurements were performed by a luminescence-based assay. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was measured based on standard protocols using fiber optic sensors. Total RNA was used for gene expression analyzes. Our results indicate that pancreas digestion initiates a potent stress response in the islets by activating two stress kinases, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) and p38. JNK1 protein levels remained unchanged between different islet preparations and following culture. In contrast, levels of JNK3 increased after islet culture, but varied markedly, with a subset of preparations bearing low JNK3 expression. The observed changes in JNK3 protein content strongly correlated with OCR measurements as determined by the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rho in the matching islet samples, while inversely correlating with c-fos mRNA expression . In conclusion, pancreas digestion recruits JNK and p38 kinases that are known to participate to beta-cell apoptosis. Concomitantly, the islet isolation alters JNK3 and c-fos expression, both strongly correlating with OCR. Thus, a comparative analysis of JNK3 and c-fos expression before and after culture may provide for novel markers to assess islet quality prior to transplantation. JNK3 has the advantage over all other proposed markers to be islet-specific, and thus to provide for a marker independent of non-beta cell contamination.
Herbicide-tolerant Transgenic Soybean over 15 Years of Cultivation: Pesticide Use, Weed Resistance, and Some Economic Issues. The Case of the USA
Sylvie Bonny
Sustainability , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/su3091302
Abstract: Genetically modified (GM) herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops have been largely adopted where they have been authorized. Nevertheless, they are fiercely criticized by some, notably because of the herbicide use associated with them. However, how much herbicide is applied to GMHT crops compared to conventional crops, and what impacts does the use of herbicide have? The paper first presents some factors explaining the predominance of GMHT crops. Then, trends in the use of herbicide for GM crops are studied in the case of the most widespread HT crop: HT soybean in the USA. The trends in the toxicity of herbicides applied to HT soybean are also addressed, as well as the appearance of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. Lastly, the paper examines the spread of GR weeds and its impact. How are farmers, weed scientists, and the industry coping with this development, and what are the prospects of glyphosate-tolerant crops given weed resistance? In conclusion, some issues of sustainability and innovation governance raised by genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops are discussed.
Why are most Europeans opposed to GMOs?: Factors explaining rejection in France and Europe
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2003,
Abstract: a strong movement of opposition to gmos developed in the late 1990s in many countries, especially in europe, although these technologies were presented from the outset as highly promising and their advantages were often highlighted. how can this rejection be explained? the aim of this paper is to answer that question through the case of france, which is fairly representative in this respect of various european countries, even if the opposition movement is here particularly strong. one examines various factors, actors and processes that have led to such strong opposition to gmos that at this stage their development in europe has almost totally been halted. in the first part of the article we recall the results of several recent surveys, showing the level of acceptance or refusal of genetic engineering in several countries. we then examine important factors of rejection: the focus on potential risks of gmos and the extensive publicity given to them, coupled with the inadequacy of answers to these diverse criticisms, and a drawing up of an unfavorable risk-benefit balance. lastly, we point out that various fears and objections to the evolution of agriculture and to the functioning of society (i.e. limited trust in institutions and firms) appear to be crystallized around gmos.
Arrhythmogenic Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy: Insights from the Rationale of Disease Nomenclature and Clinical Perspectives  [PDF]
Aimé Bonny, Mohammed A. Talle, Guy Fontaine
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2015.58025
Abstract: “Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia” (ARVD), a heart muscle disorder characterized by the presence of fibro-fatty tissue and ventricular electrical vulnerability related to sudden death, was first described in 1977 by a French team. Since then, other terms such as “arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy” (ARVC), “arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy” (AC), “left-dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy” (LDAC), and “arrhythmogenic left ventricular dysplasia” (ALVD) have been introduced. These changes in nomenclature of the same disease entity are based on different explanations of pathomorphologic patterns. The dysplasia theory claims cardiac growth “maldevelopment” whereas the cardiomyopathy has been seen as an atrophy from acquired injury (myocyte death) and repair (fibrofatty replacement). The other area of divergent opinion is with regards to involvement of both ventricles rather than being an isolated right ventricular anomaly that may result in increased likelihood of diagnosing the concealed form manifesting with pre-dominant left ventricular arrhythmias. Multiple line of evidences support common disease path-ways: Presence of fibro-fatty and superimposed myocarditis, desmosome mutations and malfunc-tion. These compelling data regarding the heart growth, and pathological, clinical, phenotype/ genotype correlates have advanced our understanding of arrhythmogenic ventricular dysplasia/ cardiomyopathy and increased the diagnostic accuracy as well as providing an avenue for future development of new mechanism-based therapies.
Music Psychotherapy: Guided Imagery and Music
Helen L. Bonny
Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy , 2010,
Abstract: Keynote Speech by Helen Lindquist Bonny at the Music Therapy International Forum: Toward the Recovery of our Humanity held in Gifu-City, Japan on November 3-5, 2000.
A Constraint Satisfaction Framework for Executing Perceptions and Actions in Diagrammatic Reasoning
Bonny Banerjee,B. Chandrasekaran
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1613/jair.3069
Abstract: Diagrammatic reasoning (DR) is pervasive in human problem solving as a powerful adjunct to symbolic reasoning based on language-like representations. The research reported in this paper is a contribution to building a general purpose DR system as an extension to a SOAR-like problem solving architecture. The work is in a framework in which DR is modeled as a process where subtasks are solved, as appropriate, either by inference from symbolic representations or by interaction with a diagram, i.e., perceiving specified information from a diagram or modifying/creating objects in a diagram in specified ways according to problem solving needs. The perceptions and actions in most DR systems built so far are hand-coded for the specific application, even when the rest of the system is built using the general architecture. The absence of a general framework for executing perceptions/actions poses as a major hindrance to using them opportunistically -- the essence of open-ended search in problem solving. Our goal is to develop a framework for executing a wide variety of specified perceptions and actions across tasks/domains without human intervention. We observe that the domain/task-specific visual perceptions/actions can be transformed into domain/task-independent spatial problems. We specify a spatial problem as a quantified constraint satisfaction problem in the real domain using an open-ended vocabulary of properties, relations and actions involving three kinds of diagrammatic objects -- points, curves, regions. Solving a spatial problem from this specification requires computing the equivalent simplified quantifier-free expression, the complexity of which is inherently doubly exponential. We represent objects as configuration of simple elements to facilitate decomposition of complex problems into simpler and similar subproblems. We show that, if the symbolic solution to a subproblem can be expressed concisely, quantifiers can be eliminated from spatial problems in low-order polynomial time using similar previously solved subproblems. This requires determining the similarity of two problems, the existence of a mapping between them computable in polynomial time, and designing a memory for storing previously solved problems so as to facilitate search. The efficacy of the idea is shown by time complexity analysis. We demonstrate the proposed approach by executing perceptions and actions involved in DR tasks in two army applications.
Fuentes de Estrés y Estrategias de Afrontamiento en Escolares y Venezolanos
Bonny Dávila,Leticia Guarino
Revista Interamericana de Psicología , 2001,
Learning Features and their Transformations by Spatial and Temporal Spherical Clustering
Jayanta K. Dutta,Bonny Banerjee
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Learning features invariant to arbitrary transformations in the data is a requirement for any recognition system, biological or artificial. It is now widely accepted that simple cells in the primary visual cortex respond to features while the complex cells respond to features invariant to different transformations. We present a novel two-layered feedforward neural model that learns features in the first layer by spatial spherical clustering and invariance to transformations in the second layer by temporal spherical clustering. Learning occurs in an online and unsupervised manner following the Hebbian rule. When exposed to natural videos acquired by a camera mounted on a cat's head, the first and second layer neurons in our model develop simple and complex cell-like receptive field properties. The model can predict by learning lateral connections among the first layer neurons. A topographic map to their spatial features emerges by exponentially decaying the flow of activation with distance from one neuron to another in the first layer that fire in close temporal proximity, thereby minimizing the pooling length in an online manner simultaneously with feature learning.
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