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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4939 matches for " Christoph "
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Establishing Payment Hubs—Unwind the Spaghetti?  [PDF]
Christoph Markert
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2014.44024

Banks and financial services providers are facing a more and more competitive business within the retail banking as well as corporate market. Increasing productivity and efficiency by decreasing operational costs is very often one milestone on the strategic business roadmap of a bank or financial services providers. The payment area is usually seen as a cost intensive, but necessary part of the business and information technology (IT) landscape. Many banks and financial services providers do still follow a best-of-breed approach within the system payments landscape, which ends up in high operational and maintenance costs as different payment processing platforms are serving different business purposes. The establishment of a single globally centralized payment hub cannot be only the solution for the ending of a heterogeneous payment processing landscape, but also for supporting the strategic management roadmap by decreasing system complexity and increasing the efficiency of the payment platforms and thus decreasing operational and maintenance IT costs. Furthermore it can support banks to establish a far more flexible technological implementation approach for an entire core banking transformation program. This paper is analyzing the challenges and issues banks and financial services providers are facing with the establishment of payment hubs in their enterprise system landscape from a management as well as IT point of view.

Determination of Material Properties like Permittivity and Density with Microwaves  [PDF]
Christoph Sklarczyk
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.56043

With the help of electromagnetic waves in deci-, centi- and millimeter-wave range (microwaves) it is possible to determine the properties of non-metallic objects like permittivity or density in a nondestructive and if necessary in a contactless way. Depending on the type of the test object the measurement can be carried out both with low-cost narrowband or more expensive wideband devices and sensors. To get the characteristic value in most cases it is necessary to calibrate the test device with the help of reference materials. It is recommendable to sustain a constant distance (lift-off or standoff) between the antenna of the sensor and the test object. The paper deals with the characterization of asphalt, especially the determination of its density.

Photon Structure Function Revisited  [PDF]
Christoph Berger
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.68107
Abstract: The flux of papers from electron positron colliders containing data on the photon structure function \"\"ended naturally around 2005. It is thus timely to review the theoretical basis and confront the predictions with a summary of the experimental results. The discussion will focus on the increase of the structure function with x (for x away from the boundaries) and its rise with \"\", both characteristics being dramatically different from hadronic structure functions. The agreement of the experimental observations with the theoretical calculations is a striking success of QCD. It also allows a new determination of the QCD coupling constant \"\"which very well corresponds to the values quoted in the literature.
Optimal Costly Information Gathering in Public Service Provision  [PDF]
Paul Geertsema, Christoph Schumacher
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.23060
Abstract: Imperfect information regarding the true needs of recipients is a common problem for governmental or not-for-profit service providers. This can lead to potentially dangerous under-provision or wasteful over-provision of services. We provide a method for optimally improving a service provider’s information regarding true client need through costly information gathering. Our contribution is to allow providers to endogenously and optimally choose the intensity of information gathering. Providers do so by specifying the level of correlation between observed and true recipient need, subject to an arbitrary cost function over the specified correlation. We derive the conditions that characterize the choice of optimal correlation for providers with quadratic utility. Using a realistic exponential correlation cost function, we show that there exists a critical value of true client need variance below which it is never optimal to engage in information gathering. Further, for true client variance above this critical level the optimal correlation will always exceed 0.5. Our findings have a wide range of policy implications in areas such as health care, social wellfare and even counter-terroism.
Relative importance of different physical processes on upper crustal specific heat flow in the Eifel-Maas region, Central Europe and ramifications for the production of geothermal energy  [PDF]
Lydia Dijkshoorn, Christoph Clauser
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.52A039

We study the recent upper crustal heat flow variations caused by long-term physical processes such as paleoclimate, erosion, sedimentation and mantle plume upwelling. As specific heat flow is a common lower boundary condition in many models of heat en fluid flow in the Earth’s crust we quantify its long-term transient variation caused by paleoclimate, erosion or sedimentation, mantle plume upwelling and deep groundwater flow. The studied area extends between the Eifel mountains and the Maas river inCentral Europe. The total variation due to these processes in our study area amounts to tectonic events manifested in the studied area 20 mW/m2, about 30% of the present day specific heat flow in the region.

A Methodology to Assess the Safety of Aircraft Operations When Aerodrome Obstacle Standards Cannot Be Met  [PDF]
Hartmut Fricke, Christoph Thiel
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2015.52007
Abstract: When Aerodrome Obstacle Standards cannot be met as a result of urban or technical development, an aeronautical study can be carried out with the permission of EASA, in conjunction with ICAO, to prove how aircrafts can achieve an equivalent level of safety. However currently, no detailed guidance for this procedure exists. This paper proposes such a safety assessment methodology in order to value obstacle clearance violations around airports. This method has already been applied to a safety case at Frankfurt Airport where a tower elevating 4 km out of threshold 25R severely violates obstacle limitation surfaces. The model data refers to a take-off and landing performance model (TLPM) computing precisely aircraft trajectories for both standard and engine out conditions at ground proximity. The generated tracks are used to estimate collision risk incrementally considering EASA/FAA, EU-OPS & ICAO clearance criteria. Normal operations are assessed with a probabilistic analysis of empirical take-off/landing track data generating the local actual navigation performance (ANP) on site. The ANP shows integration to collision risk for an aircraft with any obstacle. The obstacle is tested for clearance within a “5-step-plan” against all performance requirements for landing climb and take-off climb. The methodology thereby delivers a comprehensive risk picture: The presented safety case for Frankfurt Airport showed an equivalent safety level despite the violation of standards. The collision risk during both normal and degraded performance operations was still found to be within ICAO Collision Risk Model (CRM) limits, requiring only limited risk mitigation measures. The presented work should complement ICAO Doc 9774 Appendix 3.
ara Mo ilor – a Regional Term between Economic and Ecological Interests. Some Explorations in the Romanian Periphery
Romanian Review of Regional Studies , 2005,
Abstract: The term “ ara Mo ilor” is very frequently used in the context of the planned gold mining project in Ro ia Montan . The term is as well used in an economic and ecologic way and it is used by those who support the project as well as by its critics. There are a lot of articles in Romanian newspapers and brochures of the last three years combining the gold mining project and the ara Mo ilor topic. It will be analyzed in what different contexts the geographical term is used and the spatial image of ara Mo ilor that is produced in the respective context. Starting with a look into the history of instrumentality of the region it is obvious that there exists a long tradition in using this term for a strong mentality of people who defend their freedom. In an actual context the every day communication of the local population is reproducing this stereotype. The results of a questionnaire shows that the stereotypes used by developer and opponents of the gold mining project met with a strong response. By this way the production and reproduction of a spatial image called “ ara Mo ilor“ can be used successfully for the interests of the actors of both sides. But there exists a geographical differentiation on a small scale between mining and silvicultural areas. This paper focuses on the term “ ara Mo ilor” which is very frequently used when reference is made to the planned gold mining project in Ro ia Montan . The term is also used in economic and ecologic studies and it is used by those who support the project as well as by its critics. There are many articles in Romanian newspapers and brochures of the last three years, which tackle both the gold mining project and the ara Mo ilor topic. Journalists and the public seem to be interested in this matter. I have relied on those arguments which are against the project, as pointed out in Formula AS and on a brochure published in 2002 with the sponsorship of the gold mining company involved in the project. We shall analyze the different contexts where the geographical term is used and the spatial image of ara Mo ilor produced in the respective context.
The diffeomorphism supergroup of a finite-dimensional supermanifold
Christoph Sachse,Christoph Wockel
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: Using the categorical description of supergeometry we give an explicit construction of the diffeomorphism supergroup of a compact finite-dimensional supermanifold. The construction provides the diffeomorphism supergroup with the structure of a Frechet supermanifold. In addition, we derive results about the structure of diffeomorphism supergroups.
A new weapon against an old target
Christoph Fiehn
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/ar3392
Abstract: Methotrexate (MTX) has been established as the anchor drug in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for decades. Its major role as an effective and well-tolerated substance impressively demonstrates that the principle of folate inhibition has key anti-inflammatory effects in the pathomechanism of arthritis. MTX enters the cell primarily by two ways: the reduced folate carrier (RFC) and the folate receptor (FR)-β. The latter is the target of a novel, interesting approach for treating arthritis that was introduced in a previous issue of Arthritis Research & Therapy [1]. RFC is a transmembrane folate transport mechanism that has a ubiquitous distribution throughout the body [2,3]. The high affinity of MTX for RFC may explain why MTX has effects on a large number of cell types. Some are therapeutic targets, such as synovial lymphocytes, but others, such as organ cells of liver or kidney, are sensitive to toxic effects of MTX, thus constituting a dose-limiting factor. In contrast to RFC, FR-β has a restricted distribution, mainly on activated myelo-monocytic cells and neutrophils [4]. In synovial tissue of RA patients it has been shown that FR-β is selectively expressed on activated monocytes and synovial macro-phages and that MTX can enter the cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis [5]. The monocyte/macrophage population of the inflamed synovia is a key effector cell of inflammation and main source of cytokines such as TNF-alpha [6]. MTX may therefore mediate important anti-inflammatory effects through its effect on synovial macrophages in RA. Moreover, reduction of cardio-vascular mortality of RA patients by MTX is also thought to be mediated by an effect on this cell lineage, as it has been shown that MTX reduces foam cell formation by lipid-laden macrophages [7].The specific expression of folate receptors in synovial tissue of RA patients has been used to develop methods to image activated macrophages in the rat model of adjuvant-induced arthritis [8]. Moreo
Clinical Experiences with Radiation Induced Thyroid Cancer after Chernobyl
Christoph Reiners
Genes , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/genes2020374
Abstract: The risk of developing thyroid cancer increases considerably after exposure to external or internal radiation, especially in children below the age of 10. After the Chernobyl reactor accident, the yearly incidence of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus increased to approximately 40 per 1.000.000 in girls and to roughly 20 per 1.000.000 in boys compared to approximately 0.5 cases per 1.000.000 prior to the accident. Typically, young children with thyroid cancer after radiation exposure present in ≈95% of the cases as papillary cancers, in ≈50% as invasive tumors growing outside the thyroid capsule, in ≈65% with lymph node metastases and in ≈15% with distant metastases. A joint Belarusian-German project starting in April 1993 that combined treatment with surgery and radioiodine was organized in 237 selected children from Belarus who were exposed to the Chernobyl fallout and had advanced stages of thyroid cancer. The study group included 141 girls and 96 boys. Their median age at the time of the accident was 1.7 years; whereas the median age at the time of diagnosis was 12.4 years. With the exception of two cases with follicular histology, the majority of the patients had been diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancers. In 63%, the tumor had grown outside the thyroid capsule and invaded the tissue of the neck (pT4). Nearly all of the selected cases (96%) showed-up with lymph node metastases (pN1) and 43% of the patients with distant metastases mainly to the lungs (pM1). In 58% of the children, complete remissions of thyroid cancer could be achieved until December 31st 2010 and in 34% of the children, stable partial remissions; in the remaining 8% of the patients, partial remissions were observed. The risk of radiation-induced thyroid cancer increased considerably in children and adolescents who were affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident. In spite of the fact, that thyroid cancers in young children seem to behave more aggressively than in older patients, the results of combined treatment with thyroidectomy, radioiodine therapy and thyroid hormone replacement are excellent.
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