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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 329754 matches for " Christine S. Autenrieth "
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Patterns of Multimorbidity in the Aged Population. Results from the KORA-Age Study
Inge Kirchberger, Christa Meisinger, Margit Heier, Anja-Kerstin Zimmermann, Barbara Thorand, Christine S. Autenrieth, Annette Peters, Karl-Heinz Ladwig, Angela D?ring
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030556
Abstract: Multimorbidity is a common problem in aged populations with a wide range of individual and societal consequences. The objective of the study was to explore patterns of comorbidity and multimorbidity in an elderly population using different analytical approaches. Data were gathered from the population-based KORA-Age project, which included 4,127 persons aged 65–94 years living in the city of Augsburg and its two surrounding counties in Southern Germany. Information on the presence of 13 chronic conditions was collected in a standardized telephone interview and a self-administered questionnaire. Patterns of comorbidity and multimorbidity were analyzed using prevalence figures, logistic regression models and exploratory tetrachoric factor analysis. The prevalence of multimorbidity (≥2 diseases) was 58.6% in the total sample. Hypertension and diabetes (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.95, 99.58% confidence interval [CI] [2.19–3.96]), as well as hypertension and stroke (OR 2.00, 99.58% CI [1.26–3.16]) most often occurred in combination. This association was independent of age, sex and the presence of other conditions. Using factor analysis, we identified four patterns of multimorbidity: the first pattern includes cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, the second includes joint, liver, lung and eye diseases, the third covers mental and neurologic diseases and the fourth pattern includes gastrointestinal diseases and cancer. 44% of the persons were assigned to at least one of the four multimorbidity patterns; 14% could be assigned to both the cardiovascular/metabolic and the joint/liver/lung/eye pattern. Further common pairs were the mental/neurologic pattern combined with the cardiovascular/metabolic pattern (7.2%) or the joint/liver/lung/eye pattern (5.3%), respectively. Our results confirmed the existence of co-occurrence of certain diseases in elderly persons, which is not caused by chance. Some of the identified patterns of multimorbidity and their overlap may indicate common underlying pathological mechanisms.
Die kologie der humanen Darmflora: physiologische und pathophysiologische Aspekte
Autenrieth IB
Journal für Gastroenterologische und Hepatologische Erkrankungen , 2003,
Abstract: Die Schleimhautoberfl che des Menschen inklusive des Magen-Darm-Traktes, der Atemwege und des Urogenitaltraktes betr gt etwa 400 m2. Ein gro er Teil dieser Schleimhautoberfl che ist mit einer normalen bakteriellen Flora besiedelt. Die Oberfl che des Magen-Darm-Traktes betr gt etwa 200-300 m2. Die normale Darmflora besteht aus mehr als 400 verschiedenen Bakterienspezies und Subspezies, insgesamt etwa 10hoch12-10hoch13 Bakterien. Die Gesamtzahl von Bakterien pro Mensch betr gt etwa 10hoch14, d.h. es kommen etwa 10 Bakterien auf eine menschliche Zelle (der Mensch besteht aus etwa 10hoch13 Zellen). Sowohl Pilze als auch Protozoen k nnen Bestandteile der normalen Darmflora sein, jedoch in einer nur geringen Keimzahl. Ferner spielen diese Mikroorganismen keine bedeutende Rolle für die Physiologie des Magen-Darm-Traktes. Die normale Darmflora befindet sich üblicherweise in einem "steady state level". Dieses kritische kologische Gleichgewicht entfaltet verschiedene wichtige physiologische Effekte zum Nutzen des Menschen. Die Wechselwirkung zwischen verschiedenen Bakterienspezies sowie die Wechselwirkung zwischen Bakterien und Wirtszellen sind für die Aufrechterhaltung dieses kologischen Gleichgewichtes von gro er Bedeutung. Ver nderungen seitens des Wirtes oder der bakteriellen Flora k nnen unter Umst nden zu einer Dysbalance führen, die nachfolgend dramatische Effekte mit schweren Erkrankungen des Menschen hervorrufen kann.
Die kologie der humanen Darmflora: physiologische und pathophysiologische Aspekte
Autenrieth IB
Journal für Ern?hrungsmedizin , 2000,
Abstract: Die Schleimhautoberfl che des Menschen inklusive des Magen-Darm-Traktes, der Atemwege und des Urogenitaltraktes betr gt etwa 400 m2. Ein gro er Teil dieser Schleimhautoberfl che ist mit einer normalen bakteriellen Flora besiedelt. Die Oberfl che des Magen-Darm-Traktes betr gt etwa 200?300 m2. Die normale Darmflora besteht aus mehr als 400 verschiedenen Bakterienspezies und Subspezies, insgesamt etwa 1012?1013 Bakterien. Die Gesamtzahl von Bakterien pro Mensch betr gt etwa 1014, d. h. es kommen etwa 10 Bakterien auf eine menschliche Zelle (der Mensch besteht aus etwa 1013 Zellen). Sowohl Pilze als auch Protozoen k nnen Bestandteile der normalen Darmflora sein, jedoch in einer nur geringen Keimzahl. Ferner spielen diese Mikroorganismen keine bedeutende Rolle für die Physiologie des Magen-Darm-Traktes. Die normale Darmflora befindet sich üblicherweise in einem "steady state level". Dieses kritische kologische Gleichgewicht entfaltet verschiedene wichtige physiologische Effekte zum Nutzen des Menschen. Die Wechselwirkung zwischen verschiedenen Bakterienspezies sowie die Wechselwirkung zwischen Bakterien und Wirtszellen sind für die Aufrechterhaltung dieses kologischen Gleichgewichtes von gro er Bedeutung. Ver nderungen seitens des Wirtes oder der bakteriellen Flora k nnen unter Umst nden zu einer Dysbalance führen, die nachfolgend dramatische Effekte mit schweren Erkrankungen des Menschen hervorrufen kann.
The World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist Improves Post-Operative Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review  [PDF]
Christine S. M. Lau, Ronald S. Chamberlain
Surgical Science (SS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2016.74029
Abstract: Background: The incidence of in-hospital adverse events is about 10%, with a majority of these related to surgery, and nearly half considered preventable events. In attempts to improve patient safety, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a checklist to be used at critical perioperative moments. This meta-analysis examines the impact of the WHO surgical safety checklist (SSC) on various patient outcomes. Methods: A comprehensive search of all published studies assessing the use of the WHO SSC in patients undergoing surgery was conducted. Studies using the WHO SSC in any surgical setting, with pre-implementation and post-implementation outcome data were included. The incidence of patient outcomes (total complications, surgical site infections, unplanned return to the operating room (OR) within 30 days, and overall mortality) and adherence to safety measures were analyzed. Results: 10 studies involving 51,125 patients (27,490 prior to implementation and 23,635 after implementation of the WHO SSC) were analyzed. The implementation of the WHO SSC significantly reduced the risk of total complications by 37.9%, surgical site infections by 45.5%, unplanned return to OR by 32.1%, and mortality by 15.3%. Increased adherence to safety measures including airway evaluation, use of pulse oximetry, prophylactic antibiotics when necessary, confirmation of patient name and surgical site, and sponge count was also observed. Conclusions: The use of the WHO SSC is associated with a significant reduction in post-operative complication rates and mortality. The WHO SSC is a valuable tool that should be universally implemented in all surgical centers and utilized in all surgical patients.
Role of CD40 ligation in dendritic cell semimaturation
Anna M Gerlach, Alexander Steimle, Lea Krampen, Alexandra Wittmann, Kerstin Gronbach, Julia Geisel, Ingo B Autenrieth, Julia S Frick
BMC Immunology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2172-13-22
Abstract: Upon CD40 ligation smDC secreted IL-12p40 but not the bioactive heterodimer IL-12p70. Additionally, CD40 ligation of smDC resulted in an increased production of IL-6 but not in an increased expression of CD40. Analysis of the phosphorylation pattern of MAP kinases showed that in smDC the p38 phosphorylation induced by CD40 ligation is inhibited. In contrast, phosphorylation of ERK upon CD40 ligation was independent of the DC maturation state.Our data show that the semimature differentiation state of DC can not be overcome by CD40 ligation. We suggest that the inability of CD40 ligation in overcoming DC semimaturation might contribute to the tolerogenic phenotype of semimature DC and at least partially account for maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis.
Creative Learning Setting: Autonomous Self-Regulatory Support as Smoking Prevention  [PDF]
Christine S. Hedler, Franz X. Bogner
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.42022
Abstract:

298 fifth graders’ motivational styles were measured using the Treatment Self-Regulatory Questionnaire prior to and six weeks following a creative student-centred anti-smoking intervention in secondary schools. In this paper we can clearly show that our creative learning setting leads to a significant increase in autonomous motivation and a decrease in controlled motivation. Autonomously motivated pupils had less or no experience with cigarettes. Pupils’ main guesses about when or why young people smoke, are curiosity or being together with others. We conclude that such a short-term preventative intervention with different creative educational methods positively affects pupils’ health self-regulation.

A Narrative Review of the Laboratory Information System and Its Role in Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance in South Africa  [PDF]
Peter S. Nyasulu, Christine Paszko, Nontombi Mbelle
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.410074
Abstract:

A laboratory information system (LIS) established in a microbiology department has the potential to play an important role in the quality of microbiology data such as culture of blood, urine, stool, pus swab samples etc. Such data could be effectively utilised to measure the burden of antimicrobial resistance among patients presented to various hospitals and clinics with an episode of an infectious illness of bacterial origin. A variety of clinical and epidemiological investigations are conducted using culture data and the presence of an electronic system such as LIS enhances such investigations and improves the reliability of measures of antimicrobial resistance owing to improved data quality as well as completeness of data gathered as opposed to paper based system. Therefore to improve surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in South Africa, there is a need to reinforce the functionality of the LIS in both public and private microbiology laboratories as this will help to improve internal quality control methodologies.

Perioperative Adjunct Magnesium Decreases Postoperative Opioid Requirements—A Meta-Analysis  [PDF]
Sudha Arumugam, Christine S. M. Lau, Ronald S. Chamberlain
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2016.75032
Abstract: Objectives: Magnesium (Mg) is the fourth most common cation in the body and has numerous physiological activities and anti-nociceptive effects. The anti-nociceptive effects are primarily mediated by regulation of calcium influx into the cell and antagonism of the N-Methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors. Opioids are widely used as analgesics to minimize postoperative pain, but their use is associated with various side effects as well as the potential for addiction and tolerance. Systemic Mg has been proposed as an adjunct to minimize postoperative pain in numerous clinical studies. This meta-analysis aims to critically examine the ability of perioperative intravenous (IV) Mg to reduce opioid use and its’ side effects. Methods: A comprehensive literature search of Pub Med, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar (1966-2016) was performed to identify all randomized control trials (RCTs) assessing the use of perioperative IV Mg in the reduction of postoperative opioid consumption. Keywords searched included combinations of “magnesium”, “pain”, “postoperative”, “preoperative”, “analgesia” and “opioid”. Inclusion criteria included RCTs comparing the use of perioperative IV Mg with a control group in adult patients (>18 yrs) undergoing elective surgery. Cumulative opioid consumption within the first 24 hours (hrs) postoperative period and the incidence of nausea and vomiting were analyzed. Results: 14 RCTs involving 910 patients were identified (455 patients received Mg and 455 patients received placebo or no therapy). Opioid consumption was significantly decreased in the systemic Mg group (standard mean difference [SMD]: 1.39, 95% CI 1.83 to -0.96; p < 0.001) at 24 hrs postoperatively. Subgroup analysis revealed a significant reduction in the morphine consumption (SMD: -1.37, 95% CI: -1.79 to -0.95; p < 0.001) with the use of IV Mg. There was a decrease in tramadol consumption; however, this did not reach statistical significance (SMD: -1.74, 95% CI: -4.62 to 1.13; p = 0.234). Systemic Mg adjunct had no significant effect on postoperative nausea and vomiting (RR = 0.63; 95% CI 0.38 to 1.04; p = 0.07). Conclusion: Perioperative IV Mg administration reduces opioid use in the first 24 hours postoperatively without any serious adverse events. The decreased need for postoperative opioids in the Mg group was not associated with a decrease in opioid-related side effects such as nausea and vomiting. Mg is an efficacious adjunct for postoperative analgesia and should be considered in multimodal analgesic
The Water Resources Board: England and Wales' venture into national water resources planning, 1964-1973
Christine S. McCulloch
Water Alternatives , 2009,
Abstract: An era of technocratic national planning of water resources is examined against the views of a leading liberal economist and critics, both contemporary and retrospective. Post Second World War Labour Governments in Britain failed to nationalise either land or water. As late as 1965, the idea of public ownership of all water supplies appeared in the Labour Party manifesto and a short-lived Ministry of Land and Natural Resources, 1964-1966, had amongst its duties the development of plans for reorganising the water supply industry under full public ownership. However, instead of pursuing such a politically dangerous takeover of the industry, in July 1964, a Water Resources Board (WRB), a special interest group dominated by engineers, was set up to advise on the development of water resources. In its first Annual Report (1965) WRB claimed its role as "the master planner of the water resources of England and Wales". The WRB had a great deal of influence and justified its national planning role by promoting large-scale supply schemes such as interbasin transfers of water, large reservoirs and regulated rivers. Feasibility studies were even carried out for building innovative, large storage reservoirs in tidal estuaries. Less progress was made on demand reduction. Yet the seeds of WRB’s demise were contained in its restricted terms of reference. The lack of any remit over water quality was a fatal handicap. Quantity and quality needed to be considered together. Privatisation of the water industry in 1989 led to a shift from national strategic planning by engineers to attempts to strengthen economic instruments to fit supply more closely to demand. Engineers have now been usurped as leaders in water resources management by economists and accountants. Yet climate change may demand a return to national strategic planning of engineered water supply, with greater democratic input.
Intestinal Colonization of IL-2 Deficient Mice with Non-Colitogenic B. vulgatus Prevents DC Maturation and T-Cell Polarization
Martina Müller, Kerstin Fink, Julia Geisel, Frauke Kahl, Burghardt Jilge, J?rg Reimann, Nicolas Mach, Ingo B. Autenrieth, Julia S. Frick
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002376
Abstract: Background IL-2 deficient (IL-2?/?) mice mono-colonized with E. coli mpk develop colitis whereas IL-2?/?-mice mono-colonized with B. vulgatus mpk do not and are even protected from E. coli mpk induced colitis. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated if mono-colonization with E. coli mpk or B. vulgatus mpk differentially modulates distribution, activation and maturation of intestinal lamina propria (LP) dendritic cells (DC). LP DC in mice mono-colonized with protective B. vulgatus mpk or co-colonized with E. coli mpk/B. vulgatus mpk featured a semi-mature LP DC phenotype (CD40loCD80loMHC-IIhi) whereas mono-colonization with colitogenic E. coli mpk induced LP DC activation and maturation prior to onset of colitis. Accordingly, chemokine receptor (CCR) 7 surface expression was more strikingly enhanced in mesenteric lymph node DC from E. coli mpk than B. vulgatus mpk mono- or co-colonized mice. Mature but not semi-mature LP DC promoted Th1 polarization. As B. vulgatus mpk promotes differentiation of semi-mature DC presumably by IL-6, mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 was investigated in LP DC. The data demonstrated that IL-6 mRNA and protein was increased in LP DC of B. vulgatus mpk as compared to E. coli mpk mono-colonized IL-2?/?-mice. The B. vulgatus mpk mediated suppression of CCR7 expression and DC migration was abolished in IL-6?/?-DC in vitro. Conclusions/Significance From this data we conclude that the B. vulgatus triggered IL-6 secretion by LP DC in absence of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-12 or TNF-α induces a semi-mature LP DC phenotype, which might prevent T-cell activation and thereby the induction of colitis in IL-2?/?-mice. The data provide new evidence that IL-6 might act as an immune regulatory cytokine in the mucosa by targeting intestinal DC.
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