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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5098 matches for " Christine Manyando "
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A systematic review of the safety and efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine against uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria during pregnancy
Christine Manyando, Kassoum Kayentao, Umberto D'Alessandro, Henrietta U Okafor, Elizabeth Juma, Kamal Hamed
Malaria Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-141
Safety and Efficacy of Co-Trimoxazole for Treatment and Prevention of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria: A Systematic Review
Christine Manyando, Eric M. Njunju, Umberto D’Alessandro, Jean-Pierre Van geertruyden
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056916
Abstract: Introduction Cotrimoxazole (CTX) has been used for half a century. It is inexpensive hence the reason for its almost universal availability and wide clinical spectrum of use. In the last decade, CTX was used for prophylaxis of opportunistic infections in HIV infected people. It also had an impact on the malaria risk in this specific group. Objective We performed a systematic review to explore the efficacy and safety of CTX used for P.falciparum malaria treatment and prophylaxis. Result CTX is safe and efficacious against malaria. Up to 75% of the safety concerns relate to skin reactions and this increases in HIV/AIDs patients. In different study areas, in HIV negative individuals, CTX used as malaria treatment cleared 56%–97% of the malaria infections, reduced fever and improved anaemia. CTX prophylaxis reduces the incidence of clinical malaria in HIV-1 infected individuals from 46%–97%. In HIV negative non pregnant participants, CTX prophylaxis had 39.5%–99.5% protective efficacy against clinical malaria. The lowest figures were observed in zones of high sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance. There were no data reported on CTX prophylaxis in HIV negative pregnant women. Conclusion CTX is safe and still efficacious for the treatment of P.falciparum malaria in non-pregnant adults and children irrespective of HIV status and antifolate resistance profiles. There is need to explore its effect in pregnant women, irrespective of HIV status. CTX prophylaxis in HIV infected individuals protects against malaria and CTX may have a role for malaria prophylaxis in specific HIV negative target groups.
European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP): the path towards a true partnership
Mecky I Matee, Christine Manyando, Peter M Ndumbe, Tumani Corrah, Walter G Jaoko, Andrew Y Kitua, Herman PA Ambene, Mathieu Ndounga, Lynn Zijenah, David Ofori-Adjei, Simon Agwale, Steven Shongwe, Thomas Nyirenda, Michael Makanga
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-249
Abstract: EDCTP promotes collaborative research supported by multiple funding agencies and harnesses networking expertise across different African and European countries. EDCTP is different from other similar initiatives. The organisation of EDCTP blends important aspects of partnership that includes ownership, sustainability and responds to demand-driven research. The Developing Countries Coordinating Committee (DCCC); a team of independent scientists and representatives of regional health bodies from sub-Saharan Africa provides advice to the partnership. Thus EDCTP reflects a true partnership and the active involvement and contribution of these African scientists ensures joint ownership of the EDCTP programme with European counterparts.The following have been the major achievements of the EDCTP initiative since its formation in 2003; i) increase in the number of participating African countries from two to 26 in 2008 ii) the cumulative amount of funds spent on EDCTP projects has reached € 150 m, iii) the cumulative number of clinical trials approved has reached 40 and iv) there has been a significant increase number and diversity in capacity building activities.While we recognise that EDCTP faced enormous challenges in its first few years of existence, the strong involvement of African scientists and its new initiatives such as unconditional funding to regional networks of excellence in sub-Saharan Africa is envisaged to lead to a sustainable programme. Current data shows that the number of projects supported by EDCTP is increasing. DCCC proposes that this success story of true partnership should be used as model by partners involved in the fight against other infectious diseases of public health importance in the region.Tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria cross paths in sub-Saharan Africa, the epicentre of the three infections. Although HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria are three treatable and preventable diseases, they are having a devastatin
Safety of artemether-lumefantrine in pregnant women with malaria: results of a prospective cohort study in Zambia
Christine Manyando, Rhoda Mkandawire, Lwipa Puma, Moses Sinkala, Evans Mpabalwani, Eric Njunju, Melba Gomes, Isabela Ribeiro, Verena Walter, Mailis Virtanen, Raymond Schlienger, Marc Cousin, Miriam Chipimo, Frank M Sullivan
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-249
Abstract: Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were assigned to groups based on the drug used to treat their most recent malaria episode (AL vs. sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, SP). Safety was assessed using standard and pregnancy-specific parameters. Post-delivery follow-up was six weeks for mothers and 12 months for live births. Primary outcome was perinatal mortality (stillbirth or neonatal death within seven days after birth).Data from 1,001 pregnant women (AL n = 495; SP n = 506) and 933 newborns (AL n = 466; SP n = 467) showed: perinatal mortality (AL 4.2%; SP 5.0%), comprised of early neonatal mortality (each group 2.3%), stillbirths (AL 1.9%; SP 2.7%); preterm deliveries (AL 14.1%; SP 17.4% of foetuses); and gestational age-adjusted low birth weight (AL 9.0%; SP 7.7%). Infant birth defect incidence was 1.8% AL and 1.6% SP, excluding umbilical hernia. Abortions prior to antenatal care could not be determined: abortion occurred in 4.5% of women treated with AL during their first trimester; none were reported in the 133 women exposed to SP and/or quinine during their first trimester. Overall development (including neurological assessment) was similar in both groups.These data suggest that exposure to AL in pregnancy, including first trimester, is not associated with particular safety risks in terms of perinatal mortality, malformations, or developmental impairment. However, more data are required on AL use during the first trimester.More than 30 million women become pregnant each year in malaria-endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa [1]. Malaria during pregnancy causes adverse outcomes, including abortion, anaemia, and low infant birth weight, with the latter complication due to foetal growth restriction and preterm delivery [2,3]. An important preventative strategy in highly endemic areas is intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) [4], and as SP becomes less effective with increasing Plasmodium falciparum resistance [5], effective tr
Safety of Daily Co-Trimoxazole in Pregnancy in an Area of Changing Malaria Epidemiology: A Phase 3b Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Christine Manyando, Eric M. Njunju, David Mwakazanga, Gershom Chongwe, Rhoda Mkandawire, Davies Champo, Modest Mulenga, Maaike De Crop, Yves Claeys, Raffaella M. Ravinetto, Chantal van Overmeir, Umberto D’ Alessandro, Jean-Pierre Van geertruyden
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096017
Abstract: Introduction Antibiotic therapy during pregnancy may be beneficial and impacts positively on the reduction of adverse pregnancy outcomes. No studies have been done so far on the effects of daily Co-trimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis on birth outcomes. A phase 3b randomized trial was conducted to establish that daily CTX in pregnancy is not inferior to SP intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) in reducing placental malaria; preventing peripheral parasitaemia; preventing perinatal mortality and also improving birth weight. To establish its safety on the offspring by measuring the gestational age and birth weight at delivery, and compare the safety and efficacy profile of CTX to that of SP. Methods Pregnant women (HIV infected and uninfected) attending antenatal clinic were randomized to receive either daily CTX or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as per routine IPT. Safety was assessed using standard and pregnancy specific measurements. Women were followed up monthly until delivery and then with their offspring up to six weeks after delivery. Results Data from 346 pregnant women (CTX = 190; SP = 156) and 311 newborns (CTX = 166 and SP = 145) showed that preterm deliveries (CTX 3.6%; SP 3.0%); still births (CTX 3.0%; SP 2.1%), neonatal deaths (CTX 0%; SP 1.4%), and spontaneous abortions (CTX 0.6%; SP 0%) were similar between study arms. The low birth weight rates were 9% for CTX and 13% for SP. There were no birth defects reported. Both drug exposure groups had full term deliveries with similar birth weights (mean of 3.1 Kg). The incidence and severity of AEs in the two groups were comparable. Conclusion Exposure to daily CTX in pregnancy may not be associated with particular safety risks in terms of birth outcomes such as preterm deliveries, still births, neonatal deaths and spontaneous abortions compared to SP. However, more data are required on CTX use in pregnant women both among HIV infected and un-infected individuals. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00711906.
Reducing Land Degradation on the Highlands of Kilimanjaro Region: A Biogeographical Perspective  [PDF]
Christine Noe
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2014.413043

In 2012, governments across the world adopted “The Future We Want” outcome document in Rio De Janeiro as a commitment to achieve a land-degradation-neutral world. This document reasserts the importance of sustainable land management in the top of the debates on sustainable development. This paper provides an overview of Tanzania’s preparedness towards achieving these global objectives. The paper is based on a keynote address which was presented in the conference on reducing land degradation on the highlands of Kilimanjaro Region in Tanzania. Using a biogeographical perspective, the paper assesses challenges of adopting programmatic approach to sustainable land management in Tanzania. It also presents some opportunities that exist through Global Mechanism of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, which promote actions leading to coordination, mobilization and channeling of financial resources to assist member countries to coordinate and sustain sustainable land management projects.

Compressors for Hyper-Sonic Engines —A Theoretical Study of Future Compressors for Hyper Sonic Engines  [PDF]
Christine Cherian
Advances in Aerospace Science and Technology (AAST) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aast.2018.34007
This paper is an eye opening to the new horizon of the design of operational Compressors in our jet engines. That are compressors usually perform an operation called isentropic process and which levitate the pressure and temperature to the optimum level which require for effective ignition. Basically, our compressors have several sets of blades to perform this function, more precisely saying Rotor and stator blades. Where rotor blade provides air molecule to push at very high velocity to the Stationary blade and when the air Enders to the Stator, the stator races its pressure to move on to the next stage. And we call this set of Stator and rotor as a stage ref [1]. However, in this work, I consider the geometry of the incoming air molecule and how it transforms its physical quantities such as Pressure and temperature ref [2]. For that I tie the concept of Thermodynamic and mechanics on the platform of Tensor analysis ref [3]. That is, I consider the quantities like Pressure, Temperature and rate of flow are their corresponding vector spaces and energy related quintets like heat, work as the scaling elements on the above vector space. And quantities such as entropy enthalpy and specific heat capacity are corresponding physics of it. Considering the advantages, one of the important advantages of this approach is the applicability of results of this work to the formulation of blade less compression Example: Ram and Scram jet engine. Again, the relevant upgrading which is essential for future hypersonic air crafts can achieve from this study and this will be a mile stone for bright air and space travel. To conclude, this approach will be a great transformation on the conventional idea for realization of compression for operational Scram and Ram jet engines ref [4] [5].
Use of an In-Class Sensory Activity Schedule for a Student with Autism: Critical Case Study  [PDF]
Caroline Mills, Christine Chapparo
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.77102
Abstract: Many students with autism and intellectual disability demonstrate atypical sensory behaviours which impact on their schooling. Few studies provide empirical support for teachers using planned sensory activities in special education classrooms. Aim: To determine whether a classroom based Sensory Activity Schedule (SAS) improves behavioural outcomes for one student with ASD who demonstrated atypical sensory processing and associated challenging behaviour. Methods: Critical case study methods were used to describe changes in the frequency of challenging behaviour “incidents” recorded for one eight year old student with autism over one school term during implementation of a Sensory Activity Schedule. Results: There was a reduction in the reported frequency of challenging behaviour incidents which were associated with sensory triggers over one school term. Conclusion: When applied with caution, in context, and with appropriate training, a Sensory Activity Schedule was associated with a reduction in challenging behaviour incidents for one student with autism during classroom activities.
Online or Face-to-Face Microbiology Laboratory Sessions? First Year Higher Education Student Perspectives and Preferences  [PDF]
Susan Salter, Christine Gardner
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.714189
Abstract: Reducing the number of face-to-face laboratory sessions and supplementing with virtual/online alternatives are critical to managing the combined pressures of increasing first-year student numbers and decreasing university budgets. Most of the research studies about online practicals are hypothesis generating rather than hypothesis testing thus only providing initial support and direction for the generation of pedagogically sound online laboratory teaching. This pilot study investigated the effectiveness of using a combination of online and face-to-face practical sessions to enable students in a Microbiology unit, offered to students completing several health science courses, to connect discipline-specific theory and practical application. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered using a paper-based questionnaire from 72 first-year students. Results showed that 65 percent of students preferred a combination of face-to-face and online sessions. Furthermore, determinants for engagement with online sessions varied with student gender.
Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception
Christine Quail,Christine Larabie
Global Media Journal : Canadian Edition , 2010,
Abstract: This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.
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