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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 405441 matches for " Christine M. Freitag "
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Online Social Skills Group Training for Adolescents and Young Adults with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS)  [PDF]
Bronwyn Glaser, Stephan Eliez, Hannah Cholemkery, Christine M. Freitag, Maude Schneider
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2018.83008
Abstract: Somatic, cognitive and psychiatric obstacles contribute to social impairment in 22q11.2DS and prevent adequate responses during interactions. We adapted the autism-specific SOSTA-FRA program for use during online group sessions with geographically-isolated 22q11DS adolescents or adults. The 12 weekly sessions targeted communication, emotional awareness, and reciprocity. Twenty-two participants were evaluated on behaviour, social responsiveness, and cognition pre- and post-intervention. Parents completed a questionnaire to ascertain whether the intervention met their needs. Parents were satisfied with the format and curriculum contents and reported improved emotional awareness, well-being, and reciprocity post-intervention. Pre-post results suggest large effects on social awareness and small to medium effects on social motivation. Results indicate that online social skills training is feasible and effective for individuals with 22q11.2DS.
The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial
Freitag Christine M,Cholemkery Hannah,Elsuni Leyla,Kroeger Anne K
Trials , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-14-6
Abstract: Background Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA–FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS) compared to treatment as usual (TAU). It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. Methods/design The SOSTA – net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. Discussion This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. Trial registration ISRCTN94863788 – SOSTA – net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.
Monitoring Cortical Excitability during Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Children with ADHD: A Single-Blind, Sham-Controlled TMS-EEG Study
Christian Helfrich, Simone S. Pierau, Christine M. Freitag, Jochen Roeper, Ulf Ziemann, Stephan Bender
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050073
Abstract: Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) allows non-invasive stimulation of the human brain. However, no suitable marker has yet been established to monitor the immediate rTMS effects on cortical areas in children. Objective TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs) could present a well-suited marker for real-time monitoring. Monitoring is particularly important in children where only few data about rTMS effects and safety are currently available. Methods In a single-blind sham-controlled study, twenty-five school-aged children with ADHD received subthreshold 1 Hz-rTMS to the primary motor cortex. The TMS-evoked N100 was measured by 64-channel-EEG pre, during and post rTMS, and compared to sham stimulation as an intraindividual control condition. Results TMS-evoked N100 amplitude decreased during 1 Hz-rTMS and, at the group level, reached a stable plateau after approximately 500 pulses. N100 amplitude to supra-threshold single pulses post rTMS confirmed the amplitude reduction in comparison to the pre-rTMS level while sham stimulation had no influence. EEG source analysis indicated that the TMS-evoked N100 change reflected rTMS effects in the stimulated motor cortex. Amplitude changes in TMS-evoked N100 and MEPs (pre versus post 1 Hz-rTMS) correlated significantly, but this correlation was also found for pre versus post sham stimulation. Conclusion The TMS-evoked N100 represents a promising candidate marker to monitor rTMS effects on cortical excitability in children with ADHD. TMS-evoked N100 can be employed to monitor real-time effects of TMS for subthreshold intensities. Though TMS-evoked N100 was a more sensitive parameter for rTMS-specific changes than MEPs in our sample, further studies are necessary to demonstrate whether clinical rTMS effects can be predicted from rTMS-induced changes in TMS-evoked N100 amplitude and to clarify the relationship between rTMS-induced changes in TMS-evoked N100 and MEP amplitudes. The TMS-evoked N100 amplitude reduction after 1 Hz-rTMS could either reflect a globally decreased cortical response to the TMS pulse or a specific decrease in inhibition.
Visual Processing of Biological Motion in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Event Related Potential-Study
Anne Kr?ger, Katharina Hof, Christoph Krick, Michael Siniatchkin, Tomasz Jarczok, Christine M. Freitag, Stephan Bender
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088585
Abstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often accompanied by problems in social behaviour, which are sometimes similar to some symptoms of autism-spectrum disorders (ASD). However, neuronal mechanisms of ASD-like deficits in ADHD have rarely been studied. The processing of biological motion–recently discussed as a marker of social cognition–was found to be disrupted in ASD in several studies. Thus in the present study we tested if biological motion processing is disrupted in ADHD. We used 64-channel EEG and spatio-temporal source analysis to assess event-related potentials associated with human motion processing in 21 children and adolescents with ADHD and 21 matched typically developing controls. On the behavioural level, all subjects were able to differentiate between human and scrambled motion. But in response to both scrambled and biological motion, the N200 amplitude was decreased in subjects with ADHD. After a spatio-temporal dipole analysis, a human motion specific activation was observable in occipital-temporal regions with a reduced and more diffuse activation in ADHD subjects. These results point towards neuronal determined alterations in the processing of biological motion in ADHD.
Reduced predictable information in brain signals in autism spectrum disorder
Carlos Gómez,Joseph T. Lizier,Michael Schaum,Patricia Wollstadt,Peter Uhlhaas,Christine M. Freitag,Roberto Hornero,Michael Wibral
Frontiers in Neuroinformatics , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fninf.2014.00009
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common developmental disorder characterized by communication difficulties and impaired social interaction. Recent results suggest altered brain dynamics as a potential cause of symptoms in ASD. Here, we aim to describe potential information-processing consequences of these alterations by measuring active information storage (AIS)—a key quantity in the theory of distributed computation in biological networks. AIS is defined as the mutual information between the past state of a process and its next measurement. It measures the amount of stored information that is used for computation of the next time step of a process. AIS is high for rich but predictable dynamics. We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in 10 ASD patients and 14 matched control subjects in a visual task. After a beamformer source analysis, 12 task-relevant sources were obtained. For these sources, stationary baseline activity was analyzed using AIS. Our results showed a decrease of AIS values in the hippocampus of ASD patients in comparison with controls, meaning that brain signals in ASD were either less predictable, reduced in their dynamic richness or both. Our study suggests the usefulness of AIS to detect an abnormal type of dynamics in ASD. The observed changes in AIS are compatible with Bayesian theories of reduced use or precision of priors in ASD.
Osteoporosis in Canadian adult cystic fibrosis patients: A descriptive study
Christine Brenckmann, Alexandra Papaioannou, Andreas Freitag, Rosamund Hennessey, Suzanne Hansen, George Ioannidis, Colin Webber, Jonathan Adachi
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-4-13
Abstract: A descriptive study of adult cystic fibrosis patients receiving care at a Canadian tertiary care hospital was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of osteoporosis, the prevalence of non-vertebral fractures, and the change in bone mineral density during the course of a year. Data on bone mineral density were obtained for 40 adult cystic fibrosis patients by reviewing dual x-ray absorptiometry scans taken at baseline (when annual scans became standard clinical practice) and one year prior to baseline. Data on prevalent fractures were obtained by reviewing all available patient charts. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from an existing clinic database.Over half of the 40 patients had reduced T- and Z-scores at baseline. For the 27 patients who had data available one year prior to baseline, total hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density had decreased by 3.04% and 0.86% after one year while total body bone mineral density had not changed significantly. Four prior non-vertebral fractures were reported in three patients (1,146 patient-years).This study confirms that osteoporosis is a significant problem in adult cystic fibrosis patients, and constitutes the first published evidence of cystic fibrosis bone disease in Canadians.Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common fatal autosomal recessive genetic disease in the Caucasian population, affecting 30,000 Americans and about the same number of Europeans [1]. In the past, approximately one third of individuals with CF lived to the age of 18 and even fewer lived past the age of 30. Today, the median survival in Canada is greater than 30 years [2]. Advances in medical science have increased life expectancy for CF patients and as a result long-term sequelae of the disease such as osteoporosis and liver disease are becoming apparent in late adolescence and into adulthood.The etiology of osteoporosis in CF remains unknown, although factors such as corticosteroid use, vitamin D malabsorption, hypogonadism, inflammation, ma
Virgin Texas: Treponematosis-Associated Periosteal Reaction 6 Millenia in the Past  [PDF]
Bruce M. Rothschild, Christine Rothschild, Glen Doran
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2011.12003
Abstract: In bioarchaeology, skeletal biology and paleopathology, periosteal reaction has been variably considered as a non-specific sign of trauma and alternatively as having potentially diagnostic implications. Examination of sixth millennium before present Texas cemeteries falsifies the non-specific trauma hypothesis, while examination of a second millennium before present site reveals a new (at least to Texas) population phenomenon. In contrast to isolated bumps and osteomyelitis, the study of periosteal reaction in early Texas is the study of “virgins,” individuals spared the phenomenon that cause such bone alteration. It is only in the second millennium before present that periosteal reaction becomes widespread, both in population penetrance and in extent of skeleton affected. That pattern has previously been documented for the treponematosis yaws, similar to what has been found in other areas of Archaic North America.
Ectomycorrhizal diversity at five different tree species in forests of the Taunus Mountains in Central Germany  [PDF]
Uwe Schirkonyer, Christine Bauer, Gunter M. Rothe
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2013.31009
Abstract:

Ectomycorrhizal fungi were investigated on five different forest tree species growing in pure stands on the south slope of the Taunus Mountains, which are situated at the northern end of the Rhine rift valley in Central Germany. Mycorrhizal fungi accompanying the genus Xerocomus were identified and their frequencies counted. Using ITS markers, 22 different fungal species were identified down to species level and 6 down to genus level. On European beech (Fagus sylvatica) 16 fungal species and 4 genera were identified and on Sessile oak (Quercus petraea) 16 ectomycorrhizal species and 2 genera were determined. On both deciduous trees we observed exclusively: Cortinarius subsertipes, Genea hispidula, Lactarius quietus, Tylopilus felleus and a Melanogaster genus. On Norway spruce (Picea abies) we identified 13 different mycorrhizal species and 3 different genera, on Silver fir (Abies alba) 12 species and 3 genera, and in association with European larch (Larix decidua) 11 species and 3 genera. On these conifers

The World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist Improves Post-Operative Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review  [PDF]
Christine S. M. Lau, Ronald S. Chamberlain
Surgical Science (SS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2016.74029
Abstract: Background: The incidence of in-hospital adverse events is about 10%, with a majority of these related to surgery, and nearly half considered preventable events. In attempts to improve patient safety, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a checklist to be used at critical perioperative moments. This meta-analysis examines the impact of the WHO surgical safety checklist (SSC) on various patient outcomes. Methods: A comprehensive search of all published studies assessing the use of the WHO SSC in patients undergoing surgery was conducted. Studies using the WHO SSC in any surgical setting, with pre-implementation and post-implementation outcome data were included. The incidence of patient outcomes (total complications, surgical site infections, unplanned return to the operating room (OR) within 30 days, and overall mortality) and adherence to safety measures were analyzed. Results: 10 studies involving 51,125 patients (27,490 prior to implementation and 23,635 after implementation of the WHO SSC) were analyzed. The implementation of the WHO SSC significantly reduced the risk of total complications by 37.9%, surgical site infections by 45.5%, unplanned return to OR by 32.1%, and mortality by 15.3%. Increased adherence to safety measures including airway evaluation, use of pulse oximetry, prophylactic antibiotics when necessary, confirmation of patient name and surgical site, and sponge count was also observed. Conclusions: The use of the WHO SSC is associated with a significant reduction in post-operative complication rates and mortality. The WHO SSC is a valuable tool that should be universally implemented in all surgical centers and utilized in all surgical patients.
Non-volatile molecular memory elements based on ambipolar nanotube field effect transistors
M. Radosavljevic,M. Freitag,K. V. Thadani,A. T. Johnson
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1021/nl025584c
Abstract: We have fabricated air-stable n-type, ambipolar carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNFETs), and used them in nanoscale memory cells. N-type transistors are achieved by annealing of nanotubes in hydrogen gas and contacting them by cobalt electrodes. Scanning gate microscopy reveals that the bulk response of these devices is similar to gold-contacted p-CNFETs, confirming that Schottky barrier formation at the contact interface determines accessibility of electron and hole transport regimes. The transfer characteristics and Coulomb Blockade (CB) spectroscopy in ambipolar devices show strongly enhanced gate coupling, most likely due to reduction of defect density at the silicon/silicon-dioxide interface during hydrogen anneal. The CB data in the ``on''-state indicates that these CNFETs are nearly ballistic conductors at high electrostatic doping. Due to their nanoscale capacitance, CNFETs are extremely sensitive to presence of individual charge around the channel. We demonstrate that this property can be harnessed to construct data storage elements that operate at the few-electron level.
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