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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5106 matches for " Christine Cheval "
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Les investissements étrangers en Bretagne de 1988 à 1994
Mappemonde , 1996,
Abstract: à la fin des années 1980, principalement des Britanniques, mais aussi des Allemands, Belges ou Hollandais ont investi dans l'immobilier rural en Bretagne. Ces achats ont assez souvent été liés avec plus ou moins de succès à des projets de création d'équipements de tourisme et de loisirs. Ce mouvement s'est considérablement ralenti aujourd'hui.
DTKI: a new formalized PKI with no trusted parties
Jiangshan Yu,Vincent Cheval,Mark Ryan
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: The security of public key validation protocols for web-based applications has recently attracted attention because of weaknesses in the certificate authority model, and consequent attacks. Recent proposals using public logs have succeeded in making certificate management more transparent and verifiable. How- ever, those proposals involve a fixed set of authorities which create a monopoly, and they have heavy reliance on trusted parties that monitor the logs. We propose a distributed transparent key infrastructure (DTKI), which greatly reduces the monopoly of service providers and removes the reliance on trusted parties. In addition, this paper formalises the public log data structure and provides a formal analysis of the security that DTKI guarantees.
Composing security protocols: from confidentiality to privacy
Myrto Arapinis,Vincent Cheval,Stéphanie Delaune
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Security protocols are used in many of our daily-life applications, and our privacy largely depends on their design. Formal verification techniques have proved their usefulness to analyse these protocols, but they become so complex that modular techniques have to be developed. We propose several results to safely compose security protocols. We consider arbitrary primitives modeled using an equational theory, and a rich process algebra close to the applied pi calculus. Relying on these composition results, we are able to derive some security properties on a protocol from the security analysis performed on each sub-protocol individually. We consider parallel composition and the case of key-exchange protocols. Our results apply to deal with confidentiality but also privacy-type properties (e.g. anonymity, unlinkability) expressed using a notion of equivalence. We illustrate the usefulness of our composition results on protocols from the 3G phone application and electronic passport.
Prognostic consequences of borderline dysnatremia: pay attention to minimal serum sodium change
Michael Darmon, Eric Diconne, Bertrand Souweine, Stéphane Ruckly, Christophe Adrie, Elie Azoulay, Christophe Clec'h, Ma?té Garrouste-Orgeas, Carole Schwebel, Dany Goldgran-Toledano, Hatem Khallel, Anne-Sylvie Dumenil, Samir Jamali, Christine Cheval, Bernard Allaouchiche, Fabrice Zeni, Jean-Fran?ois Timsit
Critical Care , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/cc11937
Abstract: Observational study on a prospective database fed by 13 intensive care units (ICUs). Unselected patients with ICU stay longer than 48 h were enrolled over a 14-year period were included in this study. Mild to severe hyponatremia were defined as serum sodium concentration < 135, < 130, and < 125 mmol/L respectively. Mild to severe hypernatremia were defined as serum sodium concentration > 145, > 150, and > 155 mmol/L respectively. Borderline hyponatremia and hypernatremia were defined as serum sodium concentration between 135 and 137 mmol/L or 143 and 145 respectively.A total of 11,125 patients were included in this study. Among these patients, 3,047 (27.4%) had mild to severe hyponatremia at ICU admission, 2,258 (20.3%) had borderline hyponatremia at ICU admission, 1,078 (9.7%) had borderline hypernatremia and 877 (7.9%) had mild to severe hypernatremia. After adjustment for confounder, both moderate and severe hyponatremia (subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) 1.82, 95% CI 1.002 to 1.395 and 1.27, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.60 respectively) were associated with day-30 mortality. Similarly, mild, moderate and severe hypernatremia (sHR 1.34, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.57; 1.51, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.99; and 2.64, 95% CI 2.00 to 3.81 respectively) were independently associated with day-30 mortality.One-third of critically ill patients had a mild to moderate dysnatremia at ICU admission. Dysnatremia, including mild changes in serum sodium concentration, is an independent risk factor for hospital mortality and should not be neglected.Dysnatremia is a common finding at ICU admission [1-3]. Abnormal serum sodium concentrations are known to adversely affect physiologic function and an increasing body of evidence suggests that dysnatremia may be associated with adverse outcome [1-4]. Critically ill patients are particularly exposed to dysnatremia due to the nature of the disease leading to ICU admission and to lack of free access to water [2,4,5]. Up to one-third of critically ill patients have a dys
Of Mice and Men: Divergence of Gene Expression Patterns in Kidney
Lydie Cheval, Fabien Pierrat, Rabary Rajerison, David Piquemal, Alain Doucet
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046876
Abstract: Since the development of methods for homologous gene recombination, mouse models have played a central role in research in renal pathophysiology. However, many published and unpublished results show that mice with genetic changes mimicking human pathogenic mutations do not display the human phenotype. These functional differences may stem from differences in gene expression between mouse and human kidneys. However, large scale comparison of gene expression networks revealed conservation of gene expression among a large panel of human and mouse tissues including kidneys. Because renal functions result from the spatial integration of elementary processes originating in the glomerulus and the successive segments constituting the nephron, we hypothesized that differences in gene expression profiles along the human and mouse nephron might account for different behaviors. Analysis of SAGE libraries generated from the glomerulus and seven anatomically defined nephron segments from human and mouse kidneys allowed us to identify 4644 pairs of gene orthologs expressed in either one or both species. Quantitative analysis shows that many transcripts are present at different levels in the two species. It also shows poor conservation of gene expression profiles, with less than 10% of the 4644 gene orthologs displaying a higher conservation of expression profiles than the neutral expectation (p<0.05). Accordingly, hierarchical clustering reveals a higher degree of conservation of gene expression patterns between functionally unrelated kidney structures within a given species than between cognate structures from the two species. Similar findings were obtained for sub-groups of genes with either kidney-specific or housekeeping functions. Conservation of gene expression at the scale of the whole organ and divergence at the level of its constituting sub-structures likely account for the fact that although kidneys assume the same global function in the two species, many mouse “models” of human pathologies do not display the expected phenotype.
Expression Profile of Nuclear Receptors along Male Mouse Nephron Segments Reveals a Link between ERRβ and Thick Ascending Limb Function
Halla Krid, Aude Dorison, Amel Salhi, Lydie Cheval, Gilles Crambert
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034223
Abstract: The nuclear receptor family orchestrates many functions related to reproduction, development, metabolism, and adaptation to the circadian cycle. The majority of these receptors are expressed in the kidney, but their exact quantitative localization in this ultrastructured organ remains poorly described, making it difficult to elucidate the renal function of these receptors. In this report, using quantitative PCR on microdissected mouse renal tubules, we established a detailed quantitative expression map of nuclear receptors along the nephron. This map can serve to identify nuclear receptors with specific localization. Thus, we unexpectedly found that the estrogen-related receptor β (ERRβ) is expressed predominantly in the thick ascending limb (TAL) and, to a much lesser extent, in the distal convoluted tubules. In vivo treatment with an ERR inverse agonist (diethylstilbestrol) showed a link between this receptor family and the expression of the Na+,K+-2Cl? cotransporter type 2 (NKCC2), and resulted in phenotype presenting some similarities with the Bartter syndrom (hypokalemia, urinary Na+ loss and volume contraction). Conversely, stimulation of ERRβ with a selective agonist (GSK4716) in a TAL cell line stimulated NKCC2 expression. All together, these results provide broad information regarding the renal expression of all members of the nuclear receptor family and have allowed us to identify a new regulator of ion transport in the TAL segments.
Assembl y of Poly-3-Hexylthiophene Nano-Crystallites into Low Dimensional Structures Using Indandione Derivatives
Nicolas Cheval,Valdis Kampars,Clifford Fowkes,Neil Shirtcliffe,Amir Fahmi
Nanomaterials , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/nano3010107
Abstract: Conductive polymer poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) needles were self-assembled using a second component (indandione derivatives) as a linking agent to enhance their long range alignment. The morphologies of the hybrid organic/organic materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both linear and branched structures could be produced, with the degree of branching depending upon the linker used. Incorporation of indandione derivatives broadened the UV absorbance band of P3HT without significant change to its photoluminescence. This hybrid material could open a promising avenue in photovoltaic applications due to its interesting morphologies and optical properties.
Reducing Land Degradation on the Highlands of Kilimanjaro Region: A Biogeographical Perspective  [PDF]
Christine Noe
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2014.413043

In 2012, governments across the world adopted “The Future We Want” outcome document in Rio De Janeiro as a commitment to achieve a land-degradation-neutral world. This document reasserts the importance of sustainable land management in the top of the debates on sustainable development. This paper provides an overview of Tanzania’s preparedness towards achieving these global objectives. The paper is based on a keynote address which was presented in the conference on reducing land degradation on the highlands of Kilimanjaro Region in Tanzania. Using a biogeographical perspective, the paper assesses challenges of adopting programmatic approach to sustainable land management in Tanzania. It also presents some opportunities that exist through Global Mechanism of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, which promote actions leading to coordination, mobilization and channeling of financial resources to assist member countries to coordinate and sustain sustainable land management projects.

Compressors for Hyper-Sonic Engines —A Theoretical Study of Future Compressors for Hyper Sonic Engines  [PDF]
Christine Cherian
Advances in Aerospace Science and Technology (AAST) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aast.2018.34007
This paper is an eye opening to the new horizon of the design of operational Compressors in our jet engines. That are compressors usually perform an operation called isentropic process and which levitate the pressure and temperature to the optimum level which require for effective ignition. Basically, our compressors have several sets of blades to perform this function, more precisely saying Rotor and stator blades. Where rotor blade provides air molecule to push at very high velocity to the Stationary blade and when the air Enders to the Stator, the stator races its pressure to move on to the next stage. And we call this set of Stator and rotor as a stage ref [1]. However, in this work, I consider the geometry of the incoming air molecule and how it transforms its physical quantities such as Pressure and temperature ref [2]. For that I tie the concept of Thermodynamic and mechanics on the platform of Tensor analysis ref [3]. That is, I consider the quantities like Pressure, Temperature and rate of flow are their corresponding vector spaces and energy related quintets like heat, work as the scaling elements on the above vector space. And quantities such as entropy enthalpy and specific heat capacity are corresponding physics of it. Considering the advantages, one of the important advantages of this approach is the applicability of results of this work to the formulation of blade less compression Example: Ram and Scram jet engine. Again, the relevant upgrading which is essential for future hypersonic air crafts can achieve from this study and this will be a mile stone for bright air and space travel. To conclude, this approach will be a great transformation on the conventional idea for realization of compression for operational Scram and Ram jet engines ref [4] [5].
A New Methodology for Quantification of Alternatively Spliced Exons Reveals a Highly Tissue-Specific Expression Pattern of WNK1 Isoforms
Emmanuelle Vidal-Petiot, Lydie Cheval, Julie Faugeroux, Thierry Malard, Alain Doucet, Xavier Jeunemaitre, Juliette Hadchouel
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037751
Abstract: Mutations in the WNK1 gene, encoding a serine-threonine kinase of the WNK (With No lysine (K)) family, have been implicated in two rare human diseases, Familial Hyperkalemic Hypertension (FHHt) and Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy type 2 (HSAN2). Alternative promoters give rise to a ubiquitous isoform, L-WNK1, and a kidney-specific isoform, KS-WNK1. Several other isoforms are generated through alternative splicing of exons 9, 11 and 12 but their precise tissue distribution is not known. Two additional exons, 8b and HSN2, involved in HSAN2, are thought to be specifically expressed in the nervous system. The purpose of this study was to establish an exhaustive description of all WNK1 isoforms and to quantify their relative level of expression in a panel of human and mouse tissues and in mouse nephron segments. For the latter purpose, we developed a new methodology allowing the determination of the proportions of the different isoforms generated by alternative splicing. Our results evidenced a striking tissue-specific distribution of the different isoforms and the unexpected presence of exon HSN2 in many tissues other than the nervous system. We also found exon 26 to be alternatively spliced in human and identified two new exons, 26a and 26b, within intron 26, specifically expressed in nervous tissues both in humans and mice. WNK1 should therefore no longer be designated as a 28- but as a 32-exon gene, with 8 of them - 8b, HSN2, 9, 11, 12, 26, 26a and 26b - alternatively spliced in a tissue-specific manner. These tissue-specific isoforms must be considered when studying the different roles of this ubiquitous kinase.
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