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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5096 matches for " Christine Bouchardy "
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Primary breast lymphomas
Olivier Julen,Ilaria Dellacasa,Marie Fran?oise Pelte,Christine Bouchardy
Rare Tumors , 2009, DOI: 10.4081/rt.2009.e14
Abstract: The diagnosis, prognostic factors, and optimal management of primary breast lymphomas (PBL) is difficult. Seven patients recorded at the Geneva Cancer Registry between 1973-1998 were reviewed. Five patient had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, one a follicular lymphoma and one a MALT-lymphoma. All patients had clinical and radiological findings consistent with breast cancer and underwent mastectomy, which is not indicated in PBL. Diagnosis should be established prior to operative interventions, as fine needle aspiration missed the diagnosis for one patient and intra-operative frozen sections for 3 patients in our study. Five-year and 10-year overall survivals were 57% and 15%, respectively. Of the 3 patients who died from PBL, 2 had tumors that were Bcl-2 positive but Bcl-6 negative. All 3 surviving patients have positive Bcl-2 and Bcl-6 immunostaining, which could be important prognostic factors if confirmed by a larger study.
Remarkable change in age-specific breast cancer incidence in the Swiss canton of Geneva and its possible relation with the use of hormone replacement therapy
Christine Bouchardy, Alfredo Morabia, Helena M Verkooijen, Gérald Fioretta, Yves Wespi, Peter Sch?fer
BMC Cancer , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-6-78
Abstract: We used population-based data from the Geneva cancer registry, which collects information on method of detection, stage and tumour characteristics since 1975. For patients diagnosed between 1997–2003, we obtained additional information on use of hormone replacement therapy from a large prospective study on breast cancer. Using generalized log linear regression analysis, we compared age-specific incidence rates with respect to period, stage, oestrogen receptor status, method of detection and use of hormone replacement therapy.In the periods 1975–1979 and 1985–1989, breast cancer risk increased with age, showing the highest incidence rates among women aged ≥ 85 years. From 1997, the age-specific incidence curve changed completely (p < 0.0001), showing an incidence peak at 60–64 years and a reduced incidence among elderly women. This incidence peak concerned mainly early stage and oestrogen positive cancers and was exclusively observed among women who ever used hormone replacement therapy, regardless whether the tumour was screen-detected or not.The increasing prevalence of hormone replacement therapy use during the 1990s could explain the important change in age-specific breast cancer incidence, not only by increasing breast cancer risk, but also by revealing breast cancer at an earlier age.In Western countries, breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women and its incidence is still increasing. Several factors have contributed to this increase. Screening mammography temporarily increases incidence by discovering incident, as well as prevalent cases. Higher exposure to breast cancer risk factors, such as low and late parity, alcohol intake and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) [1,2] could also explain the incidence increase. It has now been established that HRT represents a true risk factor for breast cancer [3,4]. After the publication of the Women's Health Initiative in 2002, a study reporting greater harm than benefit of HRT use [5], HRT use has decr
Management of the quality in the French public higher education: debate on the measure
Essachess : Journal for Communication Studies , 2009,
Abstract: The quality certification devices set up in business for over twenty years in France have basically inspired those currently at work in public services, now at university. After a search in progress, this work tries to identify several operational issues relating to the isomorphism of processes applied to this new side of non- market services in a global context of deregulation French state, emphasizing the limits of measure as a tool for decision support for university leaders.
A comparative population-based study of prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in Singapore, Sweden and Geneva, Switzerland from 1973 to 2006
Cynthia Chen, Nasheen Naidoo, Qian Yang, Mikael Hartman, Helena MariekeM Verkooijen, En Yun Loy, Christine Bouchardy, Kee Seng Chia, Sin Eng Chia
BMC Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-222
Abstract: Data from patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were extracted from national cancer registries in Singapore (n?=?5,172), Sweden (n?=?188,783) and Geneva (n?=?5,755) from 1973 to 2006. Trends of incidence and mortality were reported using the Poisson and negative binomial regression models. The age, period and birth-cohort were tested as predictors of incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer.Incidence rates of prostate cancer increased over all time periods for all three populations. Based on the age-period-cohort analysis, older age and later period of diagnosis were associated with a higher incidence of prostate cancer, whereas older age and earlier period were associated with higher mortality rates for prostate cancer in all three countries.This study demonstrated an overall increase in incidence rates and decrease in mortality rates in Singapore, Sweden and Geneva. Both incidence and mortality rates were much lower in Singapore. The period effect is a stronger predictor of incidence and mortality of prostate cancer than the birth-cohort effect.
Thermométrie DRASC appliquée aux milieux en combustion Cars Temperature Measurements in Combustion
Bouchardy P.,Collin G.,Magre P.,Pealat M.
Oil & Gas Science and Technology , 2006, DOI: 10.2516/ogst:1993018
Abstract: La diffusion Raman anti-Stokes cohérente (DRASC) est devenue une technique de thermométrie aujourd'hui opérationnelle. Après un rappel du principe de la mesure, un montage de DRASC est décrit. Les diverses contraintes auxquelles l'expérimentateur doit faire face sont présentées. Les avantages et les inconvénients des spectroscopies DRASC par balayage et multiplex sont comparés. Deux expériences, l'une dans un écoulement à haute enthalpie, l'autre dans un foyer de simulation de turbomachine, illustrent, par leurs résultats, les performances obtenues ainsi que les difficultés le plus souvent rencontrées. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman diffusion (CARS) has now become an operational thermometric technique. After reviewing the principle of the measurement, this article describes a CARS set-up. The different constraints that an experimenter must cope with are described. The advantages and disadvantages of CARS spectroscopy by scanning and multiplexing are compared. The results of two experiments, one in a high-enthalpy flow and the other in a turbojet engine simulation combustion chamber illustrate the performances obtained as well as the difficulties most often encountered.
Natural Recolonization of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) in Massif Central (France)
Christian Bouchardy,Charles Lemarchand,,Yves Boulade,No?l Gouilloux
IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin , 2011,
Abstract: The natural expansion of otter populations from thier stronghold in the Massif Central was followed over four decades, with regular monitoring. In this area, many of the watersheds between drainage basins are themselves wetlands, and otters were able to overcome many natural barriers such as dams, by crossing these watersheds. This, along with conservation of riparian corridors, has facilitated otter recovery. The connections between wetlands and watersheds is as important as the linear routes along watercourses
Reducing Land Degradation on the Highlands of Kilimanjaro Region: A Biogeographical Perspective  [PDF]
Christine Noe
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2014.413043

In 2012, governments across the world adopted “The Future We Want” outcome document in Rio De Janeiro as a commitment to achieve a land-degradation-neutral world. This document reasserts the importance of sustainable land management in the top of the debates on sustainable development. This paper provides an overview of Tanzania’s preparedness towards achieving these global objectives. The paper is based on a keynote address which was presented in the conference on reducing land degradation on the highlands of Kilimanjaro Region in Tanzania. Using a biogeographical perspective, the paper assesses challenges of adopting programmatic approach to sustainable land management in Tanzania. It also presents some opportunities that exist through Global Mechanism of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, which promote actions leading to coordination, mobilization and channeling of financial resources to assist member countries to coordinate and sustain sustainable land management projects.

Compressors for Hyper-Sonic Engines —A Theoretical Study of Future Compressors for Hyper Sonic Engines  [PDF]
Christine Cherian
Advances in Aerospace Science and Technology (AAST) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aast.2018.34007
This paper is an eye opening to the new horizon of the design of operational Compressors in our jet engines. That are compressors usually perform an operation called isentropic process and which levitate the pressure and temperature to the optimum level which require for effective ignition. Basically, our compressors have several sets of blades to perform this function, more precisely saying Rotor and stator blades. Where rotor blade provides air molecule to push at very high velocity to the Stationary blade and when the air Enders to the Stator, the stator races its pressure to move on to the next stage. And we call this set of Stator and rotor as a stage ref [1]. However, in this work, I consider the geometry of the incoming air molecule and how it transforms its physical quantities such as Pressure and temperature ref [2]. For that I tie the concept of Thermodynamic and mechanics on the platform of Tensor analysis ref [3]. That is, I consider the quantities like Pressure, Temperature and rate of flow are their corresponding vector spaces and energy related quintets like heat, work as the scaling elements on the above vector space. And quantities such as entropy enthalpy and specific heat capacity are corresponding physics of it. Considering the advantages, one of the important advantages of this approach is the applicability of results of this work to the formulation of blade less compression Example: Ram and Scram jet engine. Again, the relevant upgrading which is essential for future hypersonic air crafts can achieve from this study and this will be a mile stone for bright air and space travel. To conclude, this approach will be a great transformation on the conventional idea for realization of compression for operational Scram and Ram jet engines ref [4] [5].
Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception
Christine Quail,Christine Larabie
Global Media Journal : Canadian Edition , 2010,
Abstract: This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.
Intrinsic Motivation and Real Individual Piecewise Linear Wages  [PDF]
Marie-Christine Thaize Challier
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.23038
Abstract: This paper presents a simple framework for understanding the prevalence of basic piecewise linear wages in the real world. It extends the analysis of individual piecewise linear wages to environments in which the participation constraint is reinforced by intrinsic motivations. It identifies a class of “acceptable” piecewise linear wages verifying both this reinforced participation constraint and the adverse selection constraint. Among them, it restricts the characterization to a class of real-world wages. Through the advantages and drawbacks of certain acceptable piecewise linear wages, it helps explaining why they are common in the real world even if they are not optimal.
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