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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14798 matches for " Christian Obiora Ndubuisi Ikeobi "
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Application of multivariate principal component analysis to morphological characterization of indigenous goats in Southern Nigeria
Moses Okpeku, , Abdulmojeed Yakubu, Sunday Olusola Peters, , Michael Ohiokhuaobo Ozoje, Christian Obiora Ndubuisi Ikeobi, Olufunmilayo Ayoka Adebambo, Ikhide Godwin Imumorin
Acta agriculturae Slovenica , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10014-011-0026-4
Abstract: Phenotypic variation present in a population arises due to genotypic and environmental effects, and the magnitude of phenotypic variability differs under different environmental conditions, therefore, the purpose of this study was to objectively describe the linear type traits of extensively managed mature indigenous goats of Southern Nigeria and to predict body weight from their orthogonal shape characters using principal component analysis. Body weight and four body measurements namely, height at withers, neck length, body length and heart girth were measured in 265 randomly selected West African Dwarf (WAD) and Red Sokoto (RS) goats of both sexes. RS goats had significantly (P < 0.05) higher morphological traits compared to their WAD counterparts. Sexual dimorphism was observed in all the traits with higher values recorded for males. Phenotypic correlations among body weight and biometric traits were positive and highly significant (r = 0.76-0.91 versus 0.82-0.97 and 0.66-0.94 versus 0.83-0.91 for WAD and RS female and male goats, respectively). In the varimax rotated principal component factor analysis, two factors were extracted for each sex of the two breeds, although with varying degrees of factor loadings. The principal component based regression models, which are preferable for selecting animals for optimal balance, accounted for 89.00 and 96.00% as well as 81.00 and 91.00% of the variation in body weight of female and male WAD and RS goats, respectively. The information obtained could be useful in designing appropriate management, selection and breeding programmes for utilization of goat genetic resources.
Early Functional Outcome of Posterior Spinal Decompression for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis at a Tertiary Health Institution, South East Nigeria  [PDF]
Obiora Nonso Muoghalu, Cajetan U. Nwadinigwe, Emmanuel C. Iyidobi, Ndubuisi N. Duru, Udo E. Anyaehie, Ikechukwu C. Okwesili
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.67001
Abstract: Background: Surgical treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis by posterior spinal decompression may be indicated if non-surgical management for the symptoms of low back and lower limbs radicular pains is unsuccessful and/or in patients with persisting or worsening neurological deficits. It has been reported to be an effective treatment modality in well selected patients. This procedure is however not without possible complications which can adversely affect the outcome of treatment in the affected patients. This prospective study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the early functional outcome of posterior spinal decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis at our health institution. Method: All patients with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis admitted for posterior spinal decompression and who met the inclusion criteria were recruited with their written informed consent. The patients’ pain severity and functional disability were assessed preoperatively with visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The VAS and ODI were also used to reassess the patients postoperatively, at 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 12 weeks respectively. All intraoperative and/or postoperative complications were documented and the results were analyzed. Results: The patients’ mean preoperative lower back pain and leg pain VAS score was 8.26 ± 1.46 while the mean preoperative ODI was 62.4% ±13.56. The commonest combination of spinal decompressive procedure done in the patients was laminectomy + foraminotomy in 10 (25% patients). The most common decompressed spinal level was L4/L5 (89.7%); while almost equal number of patients had either one spinal level or two-spinal level decompression (43.6% and 46.1% respectively). Postoperative pain assessment showed a mean VAS of 3.79 ± 1.15, 2.55 ± 1.27 and 2.00 ± 1.41 at 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 12 weeks respectively (p = 0.000). Functional outcome assessment with ODI was 34% ± 11.79%, 24% ± 10.75% and 18.12% ± 10.61% at 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 12 weeks respectively (p = 0.000). The commonest surgical complication seen was dura tear which occurred in nine patients (23.1%). Conclusion: There was significant reduction in low back and radicular pains with consequent functional improvement in majority of the patients who had posterior spinal decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis at our health institution. There were few complications of which dura tear was the commonest.
Effects of coat colour genes on body measurements, heat tolerance traits and haematological parameters in West African Dwarf sheep  [PDF]
John S. Decampos, Christian O. N. Ikeobi, Olajide Olowofeso, Olusiji F. Smith, Matthew A. Adeleke, Mathew Wheto, David O. Ogunlakin, Abubakar A. Mohammed, Timothy M. Sanni, Babatunde A. Ogunfuye, Raman A. Lawal, Adeyemi S. Adenaike, Samuel A. Amusan
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2013.34031

With 178 West African Dwarf sheep aged 1 to 3 years, a study was conducted to investigate the effects of coat colour genes on body measurements, heat tolerance traits and haematological parameters. Body measurements considered included body length, hair length, ear length, hip width, tail length, height at withers, rump height, fore cannon bone length, chest depth, heart girth and body weight. Heat tolerance traits considered were skin temperature, rectal temperature, pulse rate and respiratory rate. Blood samples were collected for the evaluation of white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin (HGB), haematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin cell (MCHC), red cell distribution width (RDW), platelets (PLT), mean platelets volume (MPV), platelets distribution width (PDW) and plateletcrits (PCT). Results showed that coat colour gene (CCG) had significant (P < 0.01) effect on rump height and tail length. Animals with black (BB) coat colour had the highest mean value for rump height (57.80 ± 1.29 cm) and tail length (22.10 ± 0.89 cm), while brown (Bb) coat colour had the least value of 53.00 ± 6.00 cm for rump height and 17.50 ± 0.50 cm for tail length. The CCG had significant (P < 0.01) effect on body temperature and pulse rate, with the grey/mouflon (Ag) colour possessing the highest body temperature (38.90°C ± 0.22°C), and Bb having the least value of 37.20°C ± 0.35°C

Novel intron 2 polymorphism in the melanophilin gene is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and is not associated with coat color in goats  [PDF]
Mufliat A. Adefenwa, Brilliant O. Agaviezor, Sunday O. Peters, Matthew Wheto, Oludotun J. Ekundayo, Moses Okpeku, Bola O. Oboh, Khalid O. Adekoya, Christian O. N. Ikeobi, Marcos De Donato, Bolaji N. Thomas, Ikhide G. Imumorin
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2013.33022

Pigmentation plays important adaptation and physiological efficiency roles in animals. In the sequence of a 648 bp fragment representing intron 1, exon 2, and part of intron 2 of the MLPH mammalian pigmentation gene, we identified a novel g.469C> G mutation in intron 2, and genotyped it in 266 Nigerian goats using PCR-RFLP analysis. The C allele had frequencies of 0.9625, 0.9804 and 0.97405 in West African Dwarf (WAD),Sahel(SH) and Red Sokoto (RS) breeds, respectively. The G allele was the highest in WAD (0.0375), followed by RS (0.02595), and then SH (0.0196). Overall low FIS and FST and high Nm values demonstrate little differentiation within and among the goat breeds at this intronic locus. This g.469C> G polymorphism in MLPH gene is the first in any goat breed and also first in Nigerian goats. Our results suggest that this intronic SNP locus is maintained at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05) and the lack of association of this SNP with coat color may indicate its neutrality in goats.

An Alternative Theoretical Model for Economic Reforms in Africa
KI Obiora
Africa Development , 2007,
Abstract: This paper offers an alternative model for economic reforms in Africa. It proposes that Africa can still get on the pathway of sustained economic growth if economic reforms can focus on a key variable, namely, the price of non-tradables. Prices of non-tradables are generally less in Africa than in advanced economies, and the typical basket of goods for many Africans will contain more non-tradables, while the reverse is the case in advanced economies. Working through its effect on the real exchange rate and given some plausible assumptions, this paper demonstrates that economic reforms which reduce the price of non-tradables in Africa vis-à-vis the price of non-tradables in advanced economies can lead to real exchange rate depreciation, a rise in net exports, an avoidance of the “Dutch Disease” syndrome and a rise in per capita income. The paper concludes that any economic reforms that either skew consumption in Africa in favour of nontradables vis-à-vis tradables or that reduce the price of non-tradables in Africa vis-à-vis non-tradables in advanced economies is likely to be welfare-improving.
Quality of Moral Judgement in the Nigerian Police Force: Assessing the Mediating Influences of Level of Education and Gender  [PDF]
Tobias Obiora Ozor, Chiedozie Okechukwu Okafor
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2015.52008
Abstract: The study investigated gender and level of education as factors in quality of moral judgement among the Nigerian Police Force. A total of 167 participants comprising eighty-one (81) males and eighty-six (86) females of the Nigerian Police were drawn from Central Police Station (C.P.S), Uwani, and State CID Head Quarters, all in Enugu State. A 28 items ethical moral self inventory was administered to them to measure their quality of moral judgment. A cross-sectional survey design was used, while a 2-way ANOVA Statistics was applied to analyze the data. The findings revealed no significant influence of the two independent variables (gender and level of education). Gender: F(1,163) = .02 at p < .05; level of education: F(1,163) = .35 at p < .05, and gender interaction level of education: F(1,163) = .07 at p < .05 on quality of moral judgement among the Nigerian Police. The finding was discussed in terms of its relevance to further education, and on-the-job training and counseling.
Molecular Diagnosis of Subclinical African Trypanosoma vivax Infection and Association with Physiological Indices and Serum Metabolites in Extensively Managed Goats in the Tropics  [PDF]
Timothy M. Sanni, Gbolabo O. Onasanya, Mufliat A. Adefenwa, Abdulmojeed Yakubu, Christian O. N. Ikeobi, Olufunmilayo A. Adebambo, Adewale O. Talabi, Michael O. Ozoje, Mathew Wheto, Michael I. Takeet, Sunday O. Peters, Marcos De Donato, Bolaji N. Thomas, Ikhide G. Imumorin
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2013.31007

Trypanosomosis remains a major challenge to livestock production in much of tropical Sub-Saharan Africa, while diagnosis and treatment still depend on inefficient parasitological techniques. Endemic infections depend on animal reservoirs with subclinical parasitemia. We report molecular diagnosis of subclinical Trypanosoma vivax (T. vivax) infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the first time in Nigerian goats and associate parasite presence with gross physiological traits and serum metabolites in extensively managed Nigerian goats. PCR was used to amplify a 400 bp DNA fragment of the parasite genome in 205 goats across three geographical zones of the country. Results showed a high subclinical infection rate (SCIR) of 71.7% in the total goats examined. Overall SCIRs of 71%, 75.9% and 55.6% were recorded in West African Dwarf, Red Sokoto and Sahel goats respectively, while geographical SCIRs were 71.2% (Southwest), 75% (Northwest) and 70% (Northeast). T. vivax presence had significant (P < 0.05) effect on respiratory rate and is associated with higher creatinine levels in sera. Logistic regression analyses with Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit showed that respiratory rate is the most important predictive trait for the presence of T. vivax infection (P < 0.05). Goats appear to be a viable reservoir for T. vivax infection of other livestock. Molecular diagnosis of subclinical trypanosomosis using PCR could be useful for large scale epidemiological studies, early diagnosis of subclinical infection and treatment of the disease in extensively managed tropical goats.

A comparative study of the gradient accommodative convergence/accommodation ratios obtained through +1.00ds and -1.00ds in primary school children
OU Amaechi, I Obiora
Journal of the Nigerian Optometric Association , 2004,
Abstract: The gradient accommodative convergence/accommodation ratios (AC/A ratios) of fifty healthy primary school children between the ages of 6-12 years determined through a+1.00 DS lens and through a -1.00DS lens were compared. This was done by measuring the induced phoria at near using the Von Graeffe technique and subsequently through a +1.00DS lens and a -100DS lens; the change in phoria brought about by the change in stimulus to accommodation gave the value of the gradientAC/Aratio. The mean AC/Aratio through +1.00DS was 3.4±1.4 and through -1.00DS was 4.2±2.0. The difference in the two A/C ratios was found to be significant (P<0.05). It is recommended that borderline patients should have their gradientAC/Aratiochecked through both lenses for more precise diagnosis and management
Climate Change Mitigation: The Role of Agriculture
CJ Obiora, MC Madukwe
Journal of Agricultural Extension , 2011,
Abstract: The paper examined available information on the contribution of agriculture toward climate change, the effect of climate change on agriculture and the mitigation potentials of agriculture on climate change. Findings reveal that agriculture contributes to climate change majorly by the emission of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon (iv) oxide. Climate change affects agriculture through temperature rises which affect both crop and animal production, rising sea levels which causes farm land salinization and flooding and pests/diseases infestation. The mitigation potential of agriculture relies on sustainable agricultural practices which include organic farming, agro biodiversity, better land and water management practices, composting, vermicomposting, integrated pest management, cover cropping, mulching, use of bio fuel/bio energy, reduction of fertilizer use, crop rotations and soil conserving tillage which reduce soil erosion. For effective climate change mitigation through agriculture, the following recommendations were made (i) there is need for a systematic redirection of investment, funding, research and policy focus towards sustainable agriculture (ii) agricultural policies that encourage farming by subsidizing safe and sustainable farm inputs should be encouraged (iii) extension services should promote awareness-raising about sustainable agriculture and (iv) sustainable agriculture should be integrated into all level of the education system.
Identifying and Mapping Linkages between Actors in the Climate Change Innovation System
MC Madukwe, CJ Obiora
Journal of Agricultural Extension , 2012,
Abstract: Promoting innovations in climate change requires innovation partnerships and linkages and also creating an enabling environment for actors. The paper reviewed available information on the identification and mapping of linkages between actors in the climate change innovation system. The findings showed different linkage types and mechanisms that could exist in the climate change innovation system. Actor linkage map, actor linkage matrix, actor determinant diagram and actor time lines were identified as ways of mapping linkages between actors in the climate change innovation system. For effective innovations in the system, it is recommended that linkages between actors be identified and mapped and enabling environment for innovations provided.
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