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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14745 matches for " Christian Ngongang Ouankou "
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Blood Pressure Response to Cold Stress in Black Cameroonian Adults  [PDF]
Sylvie Ndongo Amougou, Hamadou Ba, Chris Nadège Nganou-Gnindjio, Dieudonné Danwe, Jingi Musa Ahmadou, Liliane Kuate Mfeukeu, Jérome Hilaire Boomhbi, Christian Ngongang Ouankou, Samuel Kingue
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104111
Introduction: The cold test is known as a predictor of essential hypertension. The hemodynamic response to this test has rarely been studied in black African adults. Black Africans also suffer cold stress. But whether they suffer it the same way as other populations is still to be determined. Equipment and Method: We studied the response of blood pressure (BP) during the cold test in 62 black normotensive adults and hypertensive Cameroonians aged between 21 and 59 years. Those with an increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) > 20 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure > 15 mmHg were considered to be hyper-reactors. Results: SBP increased significantly in hyper-reactors compared with normo-reactors in both hypertensive and normotensive subjects (176 ± 20 vs. 154 ± 11, p = 0.01 and 148 ± 17 vs. 125 ± 11, p < 0.001, respectively) and this increment persisted up to two minutes after the end of the stress exposure although the difference was no more statistically significant. We found the same result for the DBP (111 ± 13 vs. 99 ± 10, p = 0.04 and 95 ± 11 vs. 81 ± 10, p = 0.001, respectively). However, the DBP stayed higher in hyper reactors compared to normal reactors in the normotensive group up to four minutes after cessation of the stress exposure. The recovery time of the baseline BP was considerably longer in hyper reactors compared with the normal reactors (2.1 ± 0.9 vs. 1.1 ± 0.4 minutes, p = 0.01 and 1.9 ± 1.0 vs. 1.3 ± 0.5 minutes, p = 0.03 respectively in hypertensive and normotensive). Conclusion: Hyper reactors in the cold test have a more pronounced and prolonged reactivity. They are thus predisposed to develop hypertension.
Sensitivity of the Investments of Sub-Saharan Firms to Financial Constraints  [PDF]
Elie Ngongang
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2013.31A020

Investment is an important instrument of growth and competitiveness for non financial firms. However, these firms have limited financial resources (or liquidity) at their disposal. The financial constraint is defined as a conditionality to be met in order to have access to liquidity by assuming that the information held by shareholders is perfect, and that financial markets are efficient. We have attempted in this study to analyze empirically the impact of these financial constraint on the investments of Sub-Saharan manufacturing firms. We carried out an empirical analysis of a sample of 73 firms belonging to the different manufacturing sectors listed on the stock market during the period 1998-2009, and by taking inspiration from panel data methodology. The empirical tests emphasize the fact that the manufacturing firms of Sub-Saharan countries, including the smallest ones and those with which financial institutions have no close relations, witness an environment with a strong information asymmetry between borrowers and lenders. These firms are constrained in their access to external indebtedness due to the levelling-off of indebtedness. However, taking account of uncertainty could enrich the extension of this study.

Foreign Direct Investment in Regional Integration: Comparative Attractiveness in the CEMAC and UEMOA Economic Spaces
Elie Ngongang
European Journal of Sustainable Development , 2012,
Abstract: The competition or complementarity of foreign direct investment (FDI)attractiveness between economically similar regions located in the same continenthas not yet been up to now sufficiently explored in the literature. The purpose ofthis paper is consequently to contribute to this literature by determining whetheror not there exists a long-term relationship between FDI flows in the CEMAC andUEMOA regions of Central and West Africa. This hypothesis is tested in botheconomic spaces using a Vector Autoregression (VAR) model. The study showsthat the FDI flowing in the UEMOA zone directly attracts FDI flows in theCEMAC zone. These inflows improve the business environment in both regions.Overall, the study however finds that the long-term relationship which existsbetween these two regions is inclined to be more competitive rather thancomplementary.
Evaluation des critères physiques des fèves de caféier Robusta (Coffea canephora P.) introduit dans les zones de basse altitude au Cameroun
Fallo, J.,Ngongang Nono, JC.
Tropicultura , 2005,
Abstract: Evaluation of Physical Criteria of Introduced Coffee Robusta (Coffea canephora P.) Beans in Low Altitude of Cameroon. A study based on physical criteria of Robusta coffee beans (Coffea canephora P.) was performed in two agro-ecological areas of IRAD (Institute of Agricultural Research for Development), at Nkolbisson in the centre and Barombi-Kang in the south west Cameroon. Eight clones (B5, B11 and B42 from the Republic of Central Africa, C5 and C6 from Ivory Coast, J13 and J21 from Java, M5 from Madagascar) were the study material. Harvested cherries were evaluated for the rate of caracolis, bean size distribution and weight of one hundred beans. Mean weights of hundred beans are between 19.14 and 10.99 grams. The rate of caracolis at Barombi-Kang is 23.5% for the clone C5 and 10.6% for M5. The rates of the others are minor than 5%. At Nkolbisson, four clones have their rate of caracolis between 35 and 60% (C5, J13, J21 and M5). The results showed a highly significant difference (P< 0.01) among clones for bean size distribution and rate of caracolis. Only one group was found homogenous according to Newman-Keuls test, despite significant difference observed for caracolis rate. The results showed also that globally observed parameters depend nor to location, nor to clone.
P. Mendes Da Costa,Ch. Simoens,D. Smets,Ch. Ngongang
Jurnalul de Chirurgie , 2006,
Abstract: From 1987, when the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed, different surgical techniques were done by laparoscopic approach. We analised the type of the surgical procedures performed in the University Hospital Brugmann between 1995 – 2004: in the first 5 years (1995 – 2000) laparoscopic approach was used for cholecystectomies, surgery of the gastro-esophageal disease, perforated ulcer, appendectomies, splenectomies, treatment of the groin hernias, small bowell obstruction, colectomies and gastrectomies. From 2000 we used the laparoscopic approach in the treatment of the post-incisional hernias and in the last years for surgical treatment of obesity and retroperitoneal tumors. Postoperative morbidity after laparoscopic techniques was lower than for the similar open procedures, especially for postoperative pain, surgical site infections and incisional hernias. Conclusions: 70 – 75% of the surgical techniques were performed by laparoscopic approach. 25% from the operations were done by open approach, especially the operations performed in emergency, re-interventions and other complex situations. Postoperative haemorrhage and re-interventions by laparoscopic approach there are our present chalange.
Role of Estradiol, Progestins, Insulines and Adipocytokines in Breast Cancer Promotion in Post-Menopausal Women  [PDF]
Christian Jamin
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2010.11007
Abstract: Estrogens and artificial progestins used in hormone replacement therapy increase breast cancer risk. This seems to bedue to a promoting and not initiating effect. A synergic effect of estradiol and hyperinsulinism has been shown. Insulinplays a role in the increase of breast cancer risk when associated with android obesity, sedentariness, type II diabetes,and high glycemic index food, alcohol and trans fatty acids intake. Natural menopause induces insulin resistance anddoes not induce a risk decrease. The role of insulin gives a new outlook on the influence of HRT in breast cancer promotion:estradiol alone, which improves insulin-sensitivity, does not increase breast cancer risk. Artificial progestinsassociated with estrogens increase the risk, whereas estrogens associated with progesterone do not. This could be dueto the fact that artificial progestins increase insulin resistance, whereas natural progesterone does not. Adipose tissue,which is an endocrine gland, is insulin dependant. Breast cancer and its seriousness are correlated to adipocytokincirculating levels such as resistin, leptin, interleukin 1, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and are inversely correlatedto the level of adiponectin. Insulin could play a synergic role with sexual steroids by a direct effect and by increasingadipose tissue secretions.
The Timeliness of Direct Democracy in the EU—The Example of Nuclear Energy in the EU and the Institutionalisation of the European Citizens’ Initiative in the Lisbon Treaty  [PDF]
Christian Joerges
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2012.31001
Abstract: The catastrophic nuclear incident in Fukushima in March 2011 has shocked Europe. Its impact was particularly strong in Germany with its decade-old anti-nuclear movements. Political and technological re-orientations were initiated in that country without considering at any depth the potential of European law and politics to control or obstruct such moves. Somewhat paradoxically, the Euratom Treaty of 1957 and also the new Treaty of Lisbon confirm the right of each Member State to decide upon the use of nuclear energy autonomously. This means that European citizens remain exposed to the risks of that technology until the highly unlikely consent of all Member States to abstain from its further use. That constellation poses a dilemma for democracy because it implies that each political decision taken within parts of the Union exerts external pan-European effects. The article considers the chances for an inclusive democratic process which would lead to a legitimated European decision. It examines the possibilities offered by the new European Citizens Initiative which the Lisbon Treaty has institutionalized in its Article 12 and concludes that this instrument could indeed be used to instigate a European-wide debate which may eventually lead to pertinent changes in the Treaties.
The Methodological Implications of the Schutz-Parsons Debate  [PDF]
Christian Etzrodt
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31006

The aim of this paper is an analysis of the different standpoints of Parsons and Schutz concerning Weber’s suggestion that sociological explanations have to include the subjective point of view of the actors, the Cartesian Dilemma that the actor’s consciousness is not accessible to the researcher, and the Kantian Problem that theories are necessary in order to interpret sensory data, but that there is no guarantee that these theories are true. The comparison of Schutz’s and Parsons’s positions shows that Parsons’s methodology is na?ve and unsuitable for a sociological analysis. But although Schutz’s methodological standpoint is much more reasonable, it is also problematic, because it excludes highly abstract social “facts” such as social systems from the research agenda. Parsons can deal with such highly abstract facts, despite the drawback that with his methodology the truth content of theories cannot be judged.

Psychodynamic Positive Psychotherapy Emphasizes the Impact of Culture in the Time of Globalization  [PDF]
Christian Henrichs
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.312A169

The emphasis of Positive Psychotherapy on culture is a specific contribution to psychodynamic psycho- therapy and to contemporary psychological reasoning and intervention in general. In this article, it is argued that a consistent psycho-cultural perspective as introduced by the founder of Positive Psychotherapy, the Persian-German psychiatrist and psychotherapist Nossrat Peseschkian (1933-2010), is beneficial for humanity’s psychological needs in the time of globalization. Also elementary concepts and the style of intervention in Positive Psychotherapy are described.

Conservation of Gravitational Energy-Momentum and Inner Diffeomorphism Group Gauge Invariance  [PDF]
Christian Wiesendanger
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.48A006

Viewing gravitational energy momentum \"\" as equal by observation, but different in essence from inertial energy-momentum \"\" requires two different symmetries to account for their independent conservations—spacetime and inner translation invariance. Gauging the latter a generalization of non-Abelian gauge theories of compact Lie groups is developed resulting in the gauge theory of the non-compact group of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of an inner Minkowski space M4. As usual the gauging requires the introduction of a covariant derivative, a gauge field and a field strength operator. An invariant and minimal gauge field Lagrangian is derived. The classical field dynamics and the conservation laws for the new gauge theory are developed. Finally, the theorys Hamiltonian in the axial gauge is expressed by two times six unconstrained independent canonical variables obeying the usual Poisson brackets and the positivity of the Hamiltonian is related to a condition on the support of the gauge fields.

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