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Globalization and health viewed from three parts of the world
Sitthi-amorn Chitr,Somrongthong Ratana,Janjaroen Watana S.,Owen John Wyn
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001,
Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium falciparum in Thailand, a low transmission country
Tepanata Pumpaibool, Céline Arnathau, Patrick Durand, Naowarat Kanchanakhan, Napaporn Siripoon, Aree Suegorn, Chitr Sitthi-amorn, Fran?ois Renaud, Pongchai Harnyuttanakorn
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-155
Abstract: The diversity and genetic differentiation of P. falciparum populations were analysed using 12 polymorphic apparently neutral microsatellite loci distributed on eight of the 14 different chromosomes. Samples were collected from seven provinces in the western, eastern and southern parts of Thailand.A strong difference in the nuclear genetic structure was observed between most of the assayed populations. The genetic diversity was comparable to the intermediate level observed in low P. falciparum transmission areas (average HS = 0.65 ± 0.17), where the lowest is observed in South America and the highest in Africa. However, uniquely the Yala province, had only a single multilocus genotype present in all samples, leading to a strong geographic differentiation when compared to the other Thai populations during this study. Comparison of the genetic structure of P. falciparum populations in Thailand with those in the French Guyana, Congo and Cameroon revealed a significant genetic differentiation between all of them, except the two African countries, whilst the genetic variability of P. falciparum amongst countries showed overlapping distributions.Plasmodium falciparum shows genetically structured populations across local areas of Thailand. Although Thailand is considered to be a low transmission area, a relatively high level of genetic diversity and no linkage disequilibrium was found in five of the studied areas, the exception being the Yala province (Southern peninsular Thailand), where a clonal population structure was revealed and in Kanchanaburi province (Western Thailand). This finding is particularly relevant in the context of malaria control, because it could help in understanding the special dynamics of parasite populations in areas with different histories of, and exposure to, drug regimens.Malaria is still one of the most important infectious diseases, endemic in the tropical and sub-tropical parts of about 102 countries, especially in the African continent. In T
Health Research Profile to assess the capacity of low and middle income countries for equity-oriented research
P Tugwell, C Sitthi-Amorn, J Hatcher-Roberts, V Neufeld, P Makara, F Munoz, P Czerny, V Robinson, Y Nuyens, D Okello
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-151
Abstract: A multi-disciplinary team with coordinators from each of four regions (Asia, Latin America, Africa and Central and Eastern Europe) developed a questionnaire through consensus meetings using a mini-Delphi technique. Indicators were selected based on their quality, validity, comprehensiveness, feasibility and relevance to equity. Indicators represented five categories that form the Health Research Profile (HRP): 1) Research priorities; 2) Resources (amount spent on research); 3) Production of knowledge (capacity); 4) Packaging of knowledge and 5) Evidence of research impact on policy and equity. We surveyed three countries from each region.Most countries reported explicit national health research priorities. Of these, half included specific research priorities to address inequities in health. Data on financing were lacking for most countries due to inadequate centralized collection of this information. The five main components of HRP showed a gradient where countries scoring lower on the Human Development Index (HDI) had a lower capacity to conduct research to meet local health research needs. Packaging such as peer-reviewed journals and policy forums were reported by two thirds of the countries. Seven out of 12 countries demonstrated impact of health research on policies and reported engagement of stakeholders in this process.Only one out of 12 countries indicated there was research on all fronts of the equity debate. Knowledge sharing and management is needed to strengthen within-country capacity for research and implementation to reduce inequities in health. We recommend that all countries (and external agencies) should invest more in building a certain minimum level of national capacity for equity-oriented research.Today, globalization threatens the health of our society with an undesirable effect on equity in health for development. The notion that Essential National Health Research (ENHR) is a key strategy for equity in development within and between countries i
The effect of long-term creep and prestressing on moment redistribution of balanced cantilever cast-inplace segmental bridge
Amorn Pimanmas
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2007,
Abstract: This paper addresses the effect of long-term creep and prestressing on moment redistribution for large prestressed concrete segmental bridge constructed by the balanced cantilever method. The PathumThani bridge across the Chao Praya River is investigated in this paper as a case study. Following the typical practice of bridge design, the bridge superstructure is modeled as an assemblage of three-dimensional linearbeam elements where each element represents a cast segment of the bridge. The partial creep factors are calculated based on the Norwegian code. The creep strain is calculated for each element and applied on theelement as restrained deformation. The result shows that the creep can increase the magnitude of negative moment, rather than decreases it as widely understood. A simplified method commonly known to practising designers is to estimate the creep effect from the fraction of dead load moment at completion and that in thecontinuous state. The finite element analysis shows that this simplified treatment may lead to a considerable error in creep estimation in case of prestressed concrete bridge. Sensitivity study demonstrates that the topcantilever prestressing has a noticeable effect on creep redistribution while the bottom continuity prestressing has little relative impact. Since cantilever prestressing counteracts the gravity, a higher level of top prestressingresults in a smaller decrease in long-term negative moment. If the prestress is beyond a threshold value relative to the bridge dead weight, the creep may increase the magnitude of negative moment. The simplifiedformula for estimating the long-term moment could not predict the increase in negative moment magnitude, and is therefore not always valid for prestressed concrete bridge. The rational analysis should trace the construction sequence of segmental casting and prestressing order.
Behavior and failure mode of reinforced concrete members damaged by pre-cracking
Amorn Pimanmas
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2007,
Abstract: The effect of pre-cracking on the behavior and failure mode of reinforced concrete beams damaged by pre-cracking is experimentally studied in this paper. The control beam was designed to fail in ductile flexural yielding under four-point bending and in brittle shear under three-point bending. The effect of precracking is studied under both four-point bending and three point bending. In the former, pre-cracks are inclined with respect to the beam axis and the shear span is short, hence the external load is resisted by diagonal compression strut. In the latter, pre-cracks are orthogonal to the beam axis and the shear span is moderately long, hence the external force is transferred through concrete tensile strength, i.e., shear in moderately slender beam. The tests under these two load conditions therefore cover the effect of pre-cracking on concrete under compression and tension where the mode of load resistance is different. It is shown that when the shear span is short, pre-crack reduces the shear crushing capacity due to the reduction in effective contact area and compressive strength deterioration due to micro-fracturing damages. The presence of precracks can change the failure mode from ductile flexure to brittle shear. On the other hand, when the shear span is longer, pre-crack elevates the shear capacity through crack arrest mechanism. In both cases, the precracking is demonstrated to be structurally significant and should be properly taken into account when analyzing existing members.
Lipase Inhibitor from Fruits of Solanum stramonifolium Jacq.  [PDF]
Watinee Chanmee, Chanya Chaicharoenpong, Amorn Petsom
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.45071

Obesity is usually considered as an overweight or excess body fat, leading to increased health problems. Obesity is a major risk factor for a number of serious diseases. Decreasing dietary fat absorption, through inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity, has been reported to be one of the most effective ways for managing obesity. The present study was aimed at investigating lipase inhibitors from edible plants. A lipase inhibitor was isolated from n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the ripe fruits of Solanum stramonifolium Jacq. by column chromatography and identified by spectral analysis. Its structure was elucidated as (22R)-3β-benzoyloxy-22-hydroxy-4α-methyl-5α-stigmast-7-en-6-one or carpesterol (1). Carpesterol exhibited moderate lipase inhibition activity with IC50 value of 56.0 μg/mL while orlistat, a well- know pancreatic lipase inhibitor, had IC50 value of 3.5 ng/mL. Moreover, the kinetic properties of carpesterol on pancreatic lipase were evaluated. Carpesterol is a competitive inhibitor and exhibited antagonistic interaction when combined with orlistat on lipase inhibition activity.

Impact of Inappropriate Empiric Antimicrobial Therapy on Mortality of Septic Patients with Bacteremia: A Retrospective Study
Saoraya Lueangarun,Amorn Leelarasamee
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/765205
Abstract: Background. Inappropriate empiric antimicrobials could be a major cause of unfavorable mortality rates in co-morbid patients. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and impact of first-dose and 24-hour inappropriate antimicrobials on mortality rates of bacteremic septic patients. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was employed. Case record forms of patients diagnosed as sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock with positive hemoculture during 2009 were retrieved from the medical wards, Siriraj Hospital. Demographic data, antimicrobial use, types of bacteria isolated from blood and susceptibilities, patients’ comorbidities, 28-day and overall mortality rates were collected and analyzed. Results. There were 229 cases, mean age (SD) of 63.5 (17.2) years and mean (SD) APACHE II score of 24.7 (6.8). The prevalence of first-dose and 24-hour inappropriate antimicrobials was 29.7% and 25.3%, respectively. The 28-day and overall mortality rates between first-dose inappropriate and appropriate antimicrobial were 67.6% versus 60.2% ( ) and 75.0% versus 68.3% ( ), consequently. Patients with septic shock and inappropriate first-dose antimicrobials significantly had higher 28-day mortality rate (61.6% versus 41.9%; ). Conclusion. Higher mortality rates in bacteremic septic patients were substantially associated with inappropriate first-dose antimicrobials and 3-hour delayed antimicrobial administration after sepsis diagnosis. 1. Background Sepsis is one of the most serious conditions related to high mortality in approximately 0.1–5 per 100 cases admitted to the hospital, and it also accounts for 5–15 percent of cases with overall infections. In 2007, there were 201 (5.8%) cases diagnosed as sepsis from 3,451 patients admitted to the medical wards in the Siriraj Hospital, of which 38.8% developed septic shock. Inappropriate antimicrobial therapy administration during the first 24 hours was observed in 34.2%. The mortality rate of patients with sepsis and septic shock was as high as 34.3% and 52.6%, respectively [1]. Two important factors on antimicrobial therapy pertaining to adverse events and death in septic patients were the initiation of inappropriate antimicrobial therapy [2] and the delay of appropriate antimicrobial therapy [3]. Inappropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy was attributed to 46.5% of cases, with 35% overall mortality [3]. The elapsed time to appropriate antimicrobial therapy was crucial for the mortality in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock [4]. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign’s 2008 “International guidelines for the management of
Gadada Naganagowda,Amorn Petsom
Molbank , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/M739
Abstract: 4-Amino- N-(2-hydroxy-4-pentadecylbenzylidene)benzenesulfonamide has been synthesized by reaction of 2-hydroxy-4-pentadecylbenzaldehyde with 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide in the presence of acetic acid in ethanol. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectral analysis.
Gadada Naganagowda,Amorn Petsom
Molbank , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/M734
Abstract: The title compound, 3-chloro- N'-(2-hydroxy-4-pentadecylbenzylidene)-benzo[ b]thiophene-2-carbohydrazide has been synthesized by reaction of 2-hydroxy-4-pentadecylbenzaldehyde with 3-chloro-1-benzo[ b]thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide in the presence of acetic acid in ethanol. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectral analysis.
Gadada Naganagowda,Amorn Petsom
Molbank , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/M750
Abstract: Novel 4-[(2-hydroxy-4-pentadecylbenzylidene)amino]-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-3 H-pyrazol-3-one was prepared via condensation of 2-hydroxy-4-pentadecylbenzaldehyde ( 1) with 4-amino-1,2-dihydro-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one ( 2) in ethanol/acetic acid under reflux. The structure of the synthesized compound was assigned on the basis of elemental analysis and spectral data.
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