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Affect-Loaded Questions in Japanese Storytelling: An Analysis of Grammar, Prosody, and Body Movements of Story Recipients’ Questions  [PDF]
Chisato Koike
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2015.55043
Abstract: The present study explores affective stance in conversational storytelling by investigating the ways in which unknowing story recipients display affective stances toward a teller’s story through questions that deploy multimodal resources. The data are based on videotaped natural face-to-face conversations between native Japanese speakers. While unknowing story recipients ask questions of the storyteller only to elicit factual information (“neutral questions”), they also ask questions layered with affect (“affect-loaded questions”). Building on studies on affect and stance, assessment, questions, and alignment and affiliation in storytelling, I demonstrate how unknowing story recipients ask affect-loaded questions to elicit and display affective stances toward story contents by exploiting linguistic and non-linguistic resources. First, I explicate how unknowing story recipients employ not only linguistic devices (e.g., emotion words, wh-questions, and deictic expressions such as sonna “like that”), but also prosody, facial expressions, body movements, and pre-/concurrent-laughter in order to load questions with affective stance that display, for example, disgust, humor, sarcasm, criticism, or surprise. Secondly, I show how unknowing story recipients use rhetorical questions to express their affect (rather than to elicit information from the storyteller). Thirdly, I demonstrate how affiliation of affective stance between storyteller and unknowing story recipients influences the trajectory of storytelling and how the participants negotiate their affective stances. This study sheds light on the interactional process of how participants in talk-in-interaction display affective stance through a range of multimodal resources, by examining how unknowing story recipients ask affect-loaded questions of the storyteller. It illuminates the social practice of story recipients’ active participation in storytelling activity that is embedded in social interaction, through their use of questions that dynamically co-construct and negotiate affective stance.
Genomic Profiling of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization
Shunichi Yoshioka, Yoshiyuki Tsukamoto, Naoki Hijiya, Chisato Nakada, Tomohisa Uchida, Keiko Matsuura, Ichiro Takeuchi, Masao Seto, Kenji Kawano, Masatsugu Moriyama
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056165
Abstract: We designed a study to investigate genetic relationships between primary tumors of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and their lymph node metastases, and to identify genomic copy number aberrations (CNAs) related to lymph node metastasis. For this purpose, we collected a total of 42 tumor samples from 25 patients and analyzed their genomic profiles by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. We then compared the genetic profiles of metastatic primary tumors (MPTs) with their paired lymph node metastases (LNMs), and also those of LNMs with non-metastatic primary tumors (NMPTs). Firstly, we found that although there were some distinctive differences in the patterns of genomic profiles between MPTs and their paired LNMs, the paired samples shared similar genomic aberration patterns in each case. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis grouped together 12 of the 15 MPT-LNM pairs. Furthermore, similarity scores between paired samples were significantly higher than those between non-paired samples. These results suggested that MPTs and their paired LNMs are composed predominantly of genetically clonal tumor cells, while minor populations with different CNAs may also exist in metastatic OSCCs. Secondly, to identify CNAs related to lymph node metastasis, we compared CNAs between grouped samples of MPTs and LNMs, but were unable to find any CNAs that were more common in LNMs. Finally, we hypothesized that subpopulations carrying metastasis-related CNAs might be present in both the MPT and LNM. Accordingly, we compared CNAs between NMPTs and LNMs, and found that gains of 7p, 8q and 17q were more common in the latter than in the former, suggesting that these CNAs may be involved in lymph node metastasis of OSCC. In conclusion, our data suggest that in OSCCs showing metastasis, the primary and metastatic tumors share similar genomic profiles, and that cells in the primary tumor may tend to metastasize after acquiring metastasis-associated CNAs.
Downregulation of SAV1 plays a role in pathogenesis of high-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma
Keiko Matsuura, Chisato Nakada, Mizuho Mashio, Takahiro Narimatsu, Taichiro Yoshimoto, Masato Tanigawa, Yoshiyuki Tsukamoto, Naoki Hijiya, Ichiro Takeuchi, Takeo Nomura, Fuminori Sato, Hiromitsu Mimata, Masao Seto, Masatsugu Moriyama
BMC Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-523
Abstract: We performed array CGH and gene expression analysis of 8 RCC cell lines (786-O, 769-P, KMRC-1, KMRC-2, KMRC-3, KMRC-20, TUHR4TKB, and Caki-2), and expression level of mRNA was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. We next re-expressed SAV1 in 786-O cells, and analyzed its colony-forming activity. Then, we transfected siRNAs of SAV1 into the kidney epithelial cell line HK2 and renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTECs), and analyzed their proliferation and apoptosis. Furthermore, the activity of YAP1, which is a downstream molecule of SAV1, was evaluated by western blot analysis, reporter assay and immunohistochemical analysis.We found that SAV1, a component of the Hippo pathway, is frequently downregulated in high-grade ccRCC. SAV1 is located on chromosome 14q22.1, where copy number loss had been observed in 7 of 12 high-grade ccRCCs in our previous study, suggesting that gene copy number loss is responsible for the downregulation of SAV1. Colony-forming activity by 786-O cells, which show homozygous loss of SAV1, was significantly reduced when SAV1 was re-introduced exogenously. Knockdown of SAV1 promoted proliferation of HK2 and RPTEC. Although the phosphorylation level of YAP1 was low in 786-O cells, it was elevated in SAV1-transduced 786-O cells. Furthermore, the transcriptional activity of the YAP1 and TEAD3 complex was inhibited in SAV1-transduced 786-O cells. Immunohistochemistry frequently demonstrated nuclear localization of YAP1 in ccRCC cases with SAV1 downregulation, and it was preferentially detected in high-grade ccRCC.Taken together, downregulation of SAV1 and the consequent YAP1 activation are involved in the pathogenesis of high-grade ccRCC. It is an attractive hypothesis that Hippo signaling could be candidates for new therapeutic target.Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is histopathologically subdivided into various categories, of which clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype, accounting for 70-80% of all RC
Muscle endurance measurement using a progressive workload and a constant workload by maximal voluntary contraction  [PDF]
Shinichi Demura, Masakatsu Nakada
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.211186
Abstract: Muscle endurance measurement using a progressive workload method may reduce pain sensation in the subject. This study aimed to examine the relationships between force-time parameters during sustained static gripping as measured by maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) using either a progressive workload (PW) or a constant workload (CW). Sixteen subjects performed sustained static gripping with 7 gradually increasing relative demand values of 20% to 80% MVC and sustained static gripping by MVC. The staging of progressive workload was 10 s for 20% MVC, 20 s each for 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70% MVC, and 10 s for 80% MVC. The forces exerted at 120 s in the CW and PW methods were at around the 23-27% MVC level. Peak force, final force, and force during the last 30 s for the PW method evaluated muscle endurance after 1 min and showed high correlations (r = 0.746 ? 0.895). Significant correlations (r = 0.575 ? 0.605) were found between time to 40% MVC in the CW method and peak force, final force, and force in the last 30 s in the PW method group. The peak force in the PW method may be useful for evaluating muscle endurance with a short testing time and without high pain sensation.
Effect of past and present lifestyle habits and nutrition on calcaneal quantitative osteo-sono index in pre- and post-menopausal females  [PDF]
Masakatsu Nakada, Shinichi Demura
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.22019
Abstract: This study is examined the effect of past and present lifestyle habits and nutrition on the os-teo-sono assessment index (OSI) in pre- and post-menopausal females. The subjects were 200 premenopausal females (38.8±10.3years) and 156 postmenopausal females (59.2±5.9 ye- ars). BMD (Body mineral density) was estimated by right-calcaneal OSI using an ultrasonic transmission method with an AOS-100 device (ALOKA). The number of postmenopau- sal fe-males in the close examination and guidance required groups (80 cases: 51.3 %) (OSI < 2.428) was significantly higher than that of premeno-pausal females (44 cases: 22.0 %) (χ2=33.105: P<0.000). In premenopausal females, the proportion of subjects that had not taken vitamin D in the past (in junior high school and high school) was significantly higher in the close examination- guidance required group (OSI < 2.428) than in the normal group (OSI ≧ 2.428). However, in postmenopausal females, there was no signifi-cant difference in past and present lifestyle habits and nutrition between the close exami-nation-guidance required group and the normal group. In premenopausal females, it was deter-mined that the intake of vitamin D during pu-berty increased the absorption of calcium sig-nificantly.
The effect of past and present lifestyle, nutrition habits, and gender on bone mineral density  [PDF]
Masakatsu Nakada, Shinichi Demura
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.27109
Abstract: This study aimed to examine the gender and age differences of the quantitative osteo-sono assessment index (OSI) and the effects of the past and present lifestyle and nutrition habits on OSI in adult males and females from 20 to 70 years of age. The subjects were 155 males (20- 79 years) and 399 females (20-78 years). The bone mass was estimated by the right-calcaneal OSI using an ultrasonic transmission method with an AOS-100 device (ALOKA). The frequency of tests for OSI in women tended to increase rapidly in the 50-70 age group requiring close examination or guidance. In 50-70 year- old females, the proportion of dairy products and vitamin D intake in the past (junior high school and high school days) was significantly lower in the group requiring close examination or guidance (OSI < 2.428) than in the normal group (OSI ≧ 2.428). That is, there was insufficient calcium intake (through dairy products) and vitamin D intake, which is instrumental in calcium absorption, (through fish, chicken eggs, and fungi) during puberty, when bone mass increases with skeletal growth. In conclusion, the number in the group requiring close examination or guidance was high for 50-70 year-old males and females. The OSI decreases rapidly in females after their 50s and the number in the group requiring close examination or guidance increased rapidly.
The Characteristics and Laterality of Explosive Force Exertion of Hand Grip and Toe Grip  [PDF]
Masakatsu Nakada, Shinichi Demura
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2014.44021
Abstract: This study examines the force exertion characteristics and laterality of maximal explosive force exertion of hand grip and toe grip. Fifteen male subjects, aged 19 to 23 years, performed maximal explosive hand grip and toe grip exertions with their dominant and non-dominant sides. Maximal force value and integral force for 2 sec in the hand grip exertions were significantly larger than those in the toe grip exertions in both the dominant and non-dominant sides. The time required to achieve 90% maximal force value in the hand grip exertions was significantly shorter than that in the toe grip exertions in both sides. Correlations between the dominant and non-dominant sides were significant (r = 0.710 - 0.889) in maximal force value and integral force for 2 sec during the hand and toe grip exertions, but they were not significant (hand grip: r = 0.242, toe grip: r = 0.032) with respect to the time taken to achieve 90% maximal force value. In conclusion, a force exertion value increases more quickly in an explosive hand grip than that in an explosive toe grip. The laterality may relate to time parameters in both explosive force exertions, but not to ones related to force.
Potential for Biomass and Biofuel through Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture and Reduction of Food Losses and Waste  [PDF]
Jeffrey Skeer, Shunichi Nakada
Natural Resources (NR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2016.71002
Abstract: Substantial potential exists to expand supplies of biomass for energy applications through more systematic collection of agricultural residues, more intensive cultivation of croplands, and reduced waste and losses in the food chain. This study aims to show how the potential can be calculated from public information sources, to put the potential in the context of global needs for liquid transport fuels, and to suggest some practical policy options for bringing part of the potential to market. It finds that if the theoretical potential is fully realized, enough liquid biofuel could be produced to displace the equivalent of all current global liquid fuel use for transport.
Contact Urticaria Syndrome from Tofu  [PDF]
Maki Kitakawa, Tokio Nakada
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2016.56038
Abstract: A-52-year-old woman ate dinner after preening roses in her garden. Immediately, she developed oralaryngeal malaise and pruritic rash. Nasal obstruction and increase of cutaneous lesions were seen although she took betamethasone, 2 mg, orally. Physical examination revealed geographic wheal on trunk and extremities, and no overt mucosal lesions. History demonstrated that she had developed such reactions four times before: three of the four were seen shortly after eating soybean. Tofu was examined by prick-by-prick testing, and prick testing was performed with a petal, a piece of stem and rose leaf, positive and negative control. Positive reactions to tofu (wheal, 5 × 7 mm) and positive control (wheal 5 × 5 mm) and negative ones to others were noted. Although sensitization to soybean seemed to antedate pollen allergy on the basis of interview, oral allergy syndrome could be complicated because of various pollens-specific IgE. Since soy-bean specific IgE was class 2, such titer was not an effective predictor of clinical severity. This case should be classified into stage 3 of contact urticaria syndrome (CUS). Since CUS can be fatal, we must be careful in management for such patients.
Development of 2MASS Catalog Server Kit
Chisato Yamauchi
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1086/663234
Abstract: We develop a software kit called "2MASS Catalog Server Kit" to easily construct a high-performance database server for the 2MASS Point Source Catalog (includes 470,992,970 objects) and several all-sky catalogs. Users can perform fast radial search and rectangular search using provided stored functions in SQL similar to SDSS SkyServer. Our software kit utilizes open-source RDBMS, and therefore any astronomers and developers can install our kit on their personal computers for research, observation, etc. Out kit is tuned for optimal coordinate search performance. We implement an effective radial search using an orthogonal coordinate system, which does not need any techniques that depend on HTM or HEALpix. Applying the xyz coordinate system to the database index, we can easily implement a system of fast radial search for relatively small (less than several million rows) catalogs. To enable high-speed search of huge catalogs on RDBMS, we apply three additional techniques: table partitioning, composite expression index, and optimization in stored functions. As a result, we obtain satisfactory performance of radial search for the 2MASS catalog. Our system can also perform fast rectangular search. It is implemented using techniques similar to those applied for radial search. Our way of implementation enables a compact system and will give important hints for a low-cost development of other huge catalog databases.
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