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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3605 matches for " Chinese Sufu "
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Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Texture Profile Analysis between Camembert Cheese and Chinese Sufu
Liying Li,Jianming Wang
Biotechnology Frontier , 2012,
Abstract: Chinese sufu and camembert cheese were similar in the proc essing technology and final appearan ce. The study was a comparative analysis of common soft ripened cheeses and Chinese traditional fermented soybean products on the market. The result of chemical analyses revealed that cheese’s moisture(61.63%), pH(6.41), protein(23.16%), and fat(24.33%)were higher than sufu’s moisture(52.76%), pH(6.31), protein(14.87%) and fat(10.34%), while cheese’s amino acid nitrogen(1.36mg/g) and salt(1.21%) were lower than sufu’s amino acid nitrogen (6.64 mg/g) and salt (8.21%). Although Chinese sufu’s the total amoun t of free amino acids (147.93mg/g) were lower th an camembert cheese’ (90.28mg/g), the types were more complete. Texture profile analysis of the camembert cheese and Chinese sufu showed that all of the indicators of cheese we re higher than sufu. The chewiness (81.23g) , adhesiveness (-42.24g.sec), c ohesiveness (0.69), springiness (0.75) and resilience (0.27) were higher than the sufu’s chewiness (29.65g), adhesiveness (-281.52 g.sec), cohesiveness (0.45), springiness (0.65) and resilience (0.084), and the significant difference was very. However, the hardness of cheese (155.89g) and sufu (95.10g) was significant difference.
Microbiology of traditional fermented soybean curd (Sufu)
Suntinanalert, P.,Chalad, C.,Phumathon, S.,Sangkaew, S.
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2005,
Abstract: Microorganisms in traditional fermenting soybean curd (Sufu) were quantitated. Total microbial populations of bacteria, molds and yeasts were 1.6×101 to 4.0×105, 2.4×101 to 3.9×105 and 4.4×103 to 8.0×105 CFU/g, respectively. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Bacillus were dominantly found in koji inoculum. Bacillus, Pediococcus and Saccharomyces were mainly detected throughout the fermentation process. The other microorganisms were Staphylococcus, Pichia and Debaryomyces. All isolated microorganisms were halotolerant at salt concentrations between 5 to 20%. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Bacillus could produce potential proteolytic and amylolytic enzymes, implying that these microorganisms may play significant roles in the fermentation of tofu substrate. The nutritional evaluation of fermenting Sufu had protein content between 16.09-21.91%, sugar 4.23- 9.14%, lipid 7.20- 12.76%, salt 10.06-11.26%, humidity 47.55-57.97%, ash 9.24-15.63%, fibre 0.10-0.16%, pH 4.99-5.75 and fermenting temperature at 29-31oC. Additionally, aflatoxin B1 at the concentration of 10.8- 22.8 ppb could be detected in the fermenting Sufu by ELISA methods whereas the final product of Sufu remained 18.4 ppb. Additionally, the commercial Sufu in the markets had aflatoxin in the range of 1.5-15.2 ppb which is in the control of FDA (U.S.A.) standard that aflatoxin in food and peanut products should be less than 20 ppb.
Chasing the Chinese Dream in America: 20th-Century Chinese Christian Students in the United States and Their Quest for Modernization  [PDF]
Yi-Hsuan Chelsea Kuo
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2014.33015
Abstract: This paper looks at the Chinese Christian students of the early 20th century in the light of their own publication The Chinese Christian Students. For these overseas Chinese students, Christianity represented not just a personal belief but a means of modernization, a way in which individuals could continually renew, or more accurately reaffirm, their identity via religious and ideological conversion. The author argues that Christianity provides these Chinese students a way to fulfill their traditional, “old China” role of literati in America, and thereby to build or at least to envision, a new modern China.
FERMENTASI SUFU RENDAH GARAM DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN BEBERAPA KAPANG INDIGENUS DAN LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM KIK [Fermentation of Low Salt Sufu using Indigenous Moulds and Lactobacillus plantarum kik]
Nurhayati1)*,Betty Sri Laksmi Jenie2),Harsi D. Kusumaningrum2)
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan , 2010,
Abstract: Sufu is a traditional Chinese fermented soybean curd (tofu) resembling a soft creamy cheese-type product. It is made by fungal solid-state fermentation of tofu (called pizi) followed by aging in saturated brine solution. The aims of this study were to obtain the best indigenous mold strain for sufu fermentation and produce a low salt sufu by applying Lactobacillus plantarum kik. Four indigenous mold strains were used i.e Rhizopus oligosporus, R. oryzae, Mucor hiemalis and Actinomucor elegans during pizi fermentation. The salt concentrations used in brine fermentation varied in the range of 6% - 12%. The results showed that the fermentation time of pizi depended on the mold species. Based on the density of the mycelium and the spores colour, pizi fermented by R. oligosporus and R. oryzae were produced after 24 hours of fermentation, while those with M. hiemalis and A. elegans were formed after 36 hours at room temperature and 55-68% relative humidity (RH). Sensory evaluation of the pizi flavor indicated that the pizi fermented by A. elegans and R. oligosporus were ranked as first and second, respectively. Sensory evaluation (Balance Incomplete Block Rating Design) on the hedonic rating of sufu revealed that fermentation in 9% brine by Lactobacillus plantarum kik produced the most preferred sufu according to the panelists. Combination of L. plantarum kik and pasteurization of sufu could maintain the quality for three weeks.
丹参含药血清对肝星状细胞Hh通路中SuFu和DYRK2表达的影响
韩仕庆,王海兰,冯藜枥,曹文富
中国中药杂志 , 2015,
Abstract: 观察丹参含药血清对瘦素刺激的大鼠肝星状细胞(hepaticstellatecell,HSCs)丝氨酸/苏氨酸蛋白激酶抑制剂(SuFu)和双特异性酪氨酸磷酸化调节激酶2(DYRK2)表达的影响。清洁级SD大鼠(60只)给予丹参水煎剂、生理盐水、秋水仙碱,连续灌胃10d制备丹参含药血清。体外培养的肝星状细胞(HSCs),除空白对照组外,其余各组均予瘦素100μg·L-1刺激24h,各组含药血清干预后置于37℃,5%CO2孵箱中培养。24h后收集细胞,采用MTT法检测HSCs的增殖,分别采用RT-PCR和Westernblot法测定SuFu和DYRK2的表达情况。用瘦素刺激大鼠HSCs后,DYRK2mRNA和蛋白表达均明显升高(与空白组比较P<0.01),SuFumRNA和蛋白表达均明显降低(与空白组比较P<0.01或P<0.05)。抑制剂组(cyclopamine)、丹参含药血清、秋水仙碱组干预后,DYRK2mRNA和蛋白表达明显降低(与模型组比较P<0.01),SuFumRNA蛋白表达均明显升高(与模型组比较P<0.01)。在模型组的基础上加入Hh通路激动剂(purmorphamine)充分活化后,DYRK2mRNA和蛋白表达均明显升高(与模型组比较P<0.01),SuFumRNA和蛋白表达均明显降低(与模型组比较P<0.01)。用丹参含药血清干预激动剂组后,DYRK2mRNA和蛋白表达明显降低(与模型组比较P<0.01),SuFumRNA和蛋白表达均明显升高(与模型组比较P<0.01)。丹参含药血清可通过干预瘦素诱导的HSCs中SuFu和DYRK2的表达,进而影响HSCs的活化增殖。
Investing in China: Opportunities and Risks in the Future  [PDF]
Yunhua Liu
Journal of Financial Risk Management (JFRM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jfrm.2012.11001
Abstract: Investment environment in China is changing due to the drastic change in world economic environment and the intrinsic evolution inside the Chinese economy. Although China is facing a series challenges for its further growth, a soft landing of the economy is expected. To meet the external and internal challenges and to overcome the constraints for further growth, China has to transit the growth pattern which will generate two areas of new demand, expansion of new industries for green economy and for resources saving goals and promoting the purchasing power of low income group. Fast urbanization and moving to the west are the other two major development opportunities. Risks and uncertainties in the coming time could come mainly from the slowdown of external demand growth, the appreciation of Chinese currency, the labor cost increase, domestic competition and product mimicking, resource supply constraints, and trade disputes.
The Experience of Happiness among Chinese Postpartum Mothers  [PDF]
Ching-Yu Cheng, Rita H. Pickler, Tsui-Ping Chu, Yu-Hua Chou
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.56058
Abstract:

Postpartum maternal happiness, an indicator of quality of life that may decrease the effects of negative emotions such as postpartum depression, is not well studied. The purpose of this analysis was to explore how postpartum mothers experience happiness. Data were part of two cross-sectional studies with snowball sampling designed to understand health status of Chinese postpartum mothers. Forty-eight and 151 Chinese mothers within 1-year postpartum in the United States and Taiwan, respectively, answered an open-ended question about the happiest events they experienced during the postpartum period. Qualitative data were analyzed by bracketing contexts to meaning units, aggregating meaning units into themes, and deriving a thematic structure that fitted all themes. Interconnectedness and fulfillment were identified as describing postpartum maternal happiness. Existence of the baby, interaction with the baby, connecting everybody in the family, and integration of the baby into the family were the categories of interconnectedness whereas extension of mother’s life, achievement, and being supported were the categories of fulfillment. The center of the postpartum mother’s life was the baby and the baby, as well as activities associated with the baby, was the main source of mothers’ happiness. Family support and achievement of various expectations, including continuation of the family name, also contributed to maternal happiness. Helping new mothers to understand both positive and negative emotions may encourage further discussion about areas in which mothers are feeling particularly challenged. Interventions such as cognitive counseling that stresses positive emotions may be used to assist new mothers find a healthy balance of emotions, especially cope with depression or feelings of sadness.

A Retrospective Study of Radiographic Anatomy of Wrist in Chinese Population  [PDF]
Chris Yuk Kwan Tang, Fung Kwok Keung Boris, Fok Margaret Woon Man, Lee Juliana Tsz Yan, Aslam Muhammad Zeeshan, Fang Benjamin, Wong Joyce, Yeung Kelvin
E-Health Telecommunication Systems and Networks (ETSN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/etsn.2018.73003
Abstract: In wrist pathology, there is a need to establish the normal range of radiographic measurement parameters. Previous study showed that the contralateral wrist might not be valid as a reference for all parameters. There is a lack of literature describing the normal range of wrist radiographic parameters in literature. As a result, a retrospective study was carried out. Patients who underwent standard wrist x-rays during the period February 2012 to February 2013 (one single year) were retrospectively reviewed. 71 patients were included. Scapholunate angle was 54.7° (±6.5°). Scapholunate interval was 2.0 mm (±0.4 mm). Ulnar variance was +1.0 mm (±1.8 mm). Carpal height was 31.8 mm (±3.0 mm). Radial inclination was 25.1° (±2.1°). All 71 patients had 1 sesamoid bone at first metacarpal. 16.9% (12 out of 71) patients had positive cortical ring signs. All these parameters are valuable clinically, especially in monitoring of the wrist disease progression, in the design of wrist implants and for future clinical research.
Conversation Analysis of Chinese Language Teachers in Bangladeshi University Classroom  [PDF]
Md. Shihabuzzaman, Tongtao Zheng
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2019.81001
Abstract: This paper analyses the condition of teaching and learning Chinese in Bangladeshi university classroom. Analysis of classroom conversation and interactions between teacher and student has been done to demonstrate the nature of interactions. The different subjects of interactive discussion were coded in order to determine how the approach of teaching impacted upon discourse. For this analysis, author used both qualitative and quantitative model to analyze the data and tried to figure out the nature of classroom interaction and compare between native and nonnative teacher’s classroom interaction. From this research, we have found that the nature and amount of classroom interaction between native and non-native teachers with their students is not the same. Our result will help the organization to make a decision whether a native or a non-native teacher will be more appropriate for Chinese language teaching in Bangladesh.
青方腐乳发酵过程中大豆异黄酮的转化研究
马艳莉
- , 2015, DOI: 10.13982/j.mfst.1673-9078.2015.6.039
Abstract: 本文比较了青方、红方、白方和低盐红腐乳中大豆异黄酮组成和含量差异,并对青方腐乳发酵过程中大豆异黄酮含量和构型变化规律进行研究。结果表明,四种类型腐乳中大豆异黄酮基本以苷元形式存在,青方腐乳大豆异黄酮含量明显低于其他类型腐乳,仅为红方腐乳的33.01%,从单一异黄酮来看,大豆苷元和染料木素在四种类型腐乳中的含量明显高于黄豆黄素;青方腐乳发酵过程中大豆异黄酮转化研究发现,白坯中大豆异黄酮以糖苷型为主,染料木苷含量高于大豆苷和黄豆黄苷,前酵过程中糖苷型大豆异黄酮转化为苷元型大豆异黄酮,盐腌过程中糖苷型大豆异黄酮含量有轻微降低,发酵过程中苷元型大豆异黄酮总量在后酵前30 d显著下降,其中大豆苷元可能部分转化为雌马酚,导致青方腐乳大豆异黄酮含量明显低于其他类型腐乳,对其转化物质需进一步鉴定。
Soy isoflavone composition and content were compared between grey, red, white, and low-salt sufu (or fermented tofu). Changes in soy isoflavone content during the fermentation of grey sufu were also investigated. The results showed that soy isoflavone glucosides were almost completely converted to aglycones in all four types of sufu. Isoflavone content in grey sufu was significantly lower than that in the other types of sufu, in addition to being only 33.01% of the content in red sufu. Additionally, daidzein and genistein content was significantly higher than that of glycitein in all four types of sufu. Monitoring soy isoflavone conversion in grey sufu during the fermentation process showed that glucosides were the main forms of soy isoflavone in pizi, among which, genistein content was higher than daidzein and glycitin content. Soy isoflavone glucosides were converted to soybean isoflavone aglycone during the pre-fermentation process. There was a slight decrease in soy isoflavone glucoside content during the salting process. The total amount of soybean isoflavone aglycone decreased significantly at 30 d post-fermentation. Among soybean isoflavone aglycones, daidzein might be partially converted to equol, which resulted in the lower content of soy isoflavones in grey sufu than in other types of sufu. It remains to be seen if the transformed substance was equivalent in the four types of sufu.
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