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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 20909 matches for " Chin-Fu Hsiao "
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Analysis and Practice of Uniquely Decodable One-to-One Code
Chin-Fu Liu,Hsiao-feng Lu,Po-ning Chen
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper, we consider the so-called uniquely decodable one-to-one code (UDOOC) that is formed by inserting a "comma" indicator, termed the unique word (UW), between consecutive one-to-one codewords for separation. Along this research direction, we first investigate several general combinatorial properties of UDOOCs, in particular the enumeration of the number of UDOOC codewords for any (finite) codeword length. Based on the obtained formula on the number of length-n codewords for a given UW, the per-letter average codeword length of UDOOC for the optimal compression of a given source statistics can be computed. Several upper bounds on the average codeword length of such UDOOCs are next established. The analysis on the bounds of average codeword length then leads to two asymptotic bounds for sources having infinitely many alphabets, one of which is achievable and hence tight for a certain source statistics and UW, and the other of which proves the achievability of source entropy rate of UDOOCs when both the block size of source letters for UDOOC compression and UW length go to infinity. Efficient encoding and decoding algorithms for UDOOCs are also given in this paper. Numerical results show that the proposed UDOOCs can potentially result in comparable compression rate to the Huffman code under similar decoding complexity and yield a smaller average codeword length than that of the Lempel-Ziv code, thereby confirming the practicability of UDOOCs.
Insulin Resistance: Regression and Clustering
Sangho Yoon, Themistocles L. Assimes, Thomas Quertermous, Chin-Fu Hsiao, Lee-Ming Chuang, Chii-Min Hwu, Bala Rajaratnam, Richard A. Olshen
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094129
Abstract: In this paper we try to define insulin resistance (IR) precisely for a group of Chinese women. Our definition deliberately does not depend upon body mass index (BMI) or age, although in other studies, with particular random effects models quite different from models used here, BMI accounts for a large part of the variability in IR. We accomplish our goal through application of Gauss mixture vector quantization (GMVQ), a technique for clustering that was developed for application to lossy data compression. Defining data come from measurements that play major roles in medical practice. A precise statement of what the data are is in Section 1. Their family structures are described in detail. They concern levels of lipids and the results of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We apply GMVQ to residuals obtained from regressions of outcomes of an OGTT and lipids on functions of age and BMI that are inferred from the data. A bootstrap procedure developed for our family data supplemented by insights from other approaches leads us to believe that two clusters are appropriate for defining IR precisely. One cluster consists of women who are IR, and the other of women who seem not to be. Genes and other features are used to predict cluster membership. We argue that prediction with “main effects” is not satisfactory, but prediction that includes interactions may be.
Regulation of Cellular Metabolism and Cytokines by the Medicinal Herb Feverfew in the Human Monocytic THP-1 Cells
Chin-Fu Chen,Chun-Huai Cheng
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nem061
Abstract: The herb feverfew is a folk remedy for various symptoms including inflammation. Inflammation has recently been implicated in the genesis of many diseases including cancers, atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. The mechanisms of action of feverfew in the human body are largely unknown. To determine the cellular targets of feverfew extracts, we have utilized oligo microarrays to study the gene expression profiles elicited by feverfew extracts in human monocytic THP-1 cells. We have identified 400 genes that are consistently regulated by feverfew extracts. Most of the genes are involved in cellular metabolism. However, the genes undergoing the highest degree of change by feverfew treatment are involved in other pathways including chemokine function, water homeostasis and heme-mediated signaling. Our results also suggest that feverfew extracts effectively reduce Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-mediated TNF-α and CCL2 (MCP-1) releases by THP-1 cells. We hypothesize that feverfew components mediate metabolism, cell migration and cytokine production in human monocytes/macrophages.
A Dynamic Stochastic Model of Frequency-Dependent Stress Fiber Alignment Induced by Cyclic Stretch
Hui-Ju Hsu, Chin-Fu Lee, Roland Kaunas
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004853
Abstract: Background Actin stress fibers (SFs) are mechanosensitive structural elements that respond to forces to affect cell morphology, migration, signal transduction and cell function. Cells are internally stressed so that SFs are extended beyond their unloaded lengths, and SFs tend to self-adjust to an equilibrium level of extension. While there is much evidence that cells reorganize their SFs in response to matrix deformations, it is unclear how cells and their SFs determine their specific response to particular spatiotemporal changes in the matrix. Methodology/Principal Findings Bovine aortic endothelial cells were subjected to cyclic uniaxial stretch over a range of frequencies to quantify the rate and extent of stress fiber alignment. At a frequency of 1 Hz, SFs predominantly oriented perpendicular to stretch, while at 0.1 Hz the extent of SF alignment was markedly reduced and at 0.01 Hz there was no alignment at all. The results were interpreted using a simple kinematic model of SF networks in which the dynamic response depended on the rates of matrix stretching, SF turnover, and SF self-adjustment of extension. For these cells, the model predicted a threshold frequency of 0.01 Hz below which SFs no longer respond to matrix stretch, and a saturation frequency of 1 Hz above which no additional SF alignment would occur. The model also accurately described the dependence of SF alignment on matrix stretch magnitude. Conclusions The dynamic stochastic model was capable of describing SF reorganization in response to diverse temporal and spatial patterns of stretch. The model predicted that at high frequencies, SFs preferentially disassembled in the direction of stretch and achieved a new equilibrium by accumulating in the direction of lowest stretch. At low stretch frequencies, SFs self-adjusted to dissipate the effects of matrix stretch. Thus, SF turnover and self-adjustment are each important mechanisms that cells use to maintain mechanical homeostasis.
Increased Risk for Entamoeba histolytica Infection and Invasive Amebiasis in HIV Seropositive Men Who Have Sex with Men in Taiwan
Chien-Ching Hung,Dar-Der Ji,Hsin-Yun Sun,Ya-Tien Lee,Shui-Yuan Hsu,Sui-Yuan Chang,Cheng-Hsin Wu,Yun-Hsien Chan,Chin-Fu Hsiao,Wen-Chun Liu,Robert Colebunders
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000175
Abstract: Background Incidence of Entamoeba histolytica infection and clinical manifestations and treatment response of invasive amebiasis (IA) in HIV-infected patients have rarely been investigated before. Methodology/Principal Findings At the National Taiwan University Hospital, medical records of HIV-infected patients who received a diagnosis of IA between 1994 and 2005 were reviewed. The incidence of amebiasis was investigated in serial blood and stool samples from 670 and 264 HIV-infected patients, respectively, using serological and specific amebic antigen assays. DNA extracted from stool samples containing E. histolytica were analyzed by PCR, sequenced, and compared. Sixty-four (5.8%) of 1,109 HIV-infected patients had 67 episodes of IA, and 89.1% of them were men having sex with men (MSM). The CD4 count at diagnosis of IA was significantly higher than that of the whole cohort (215 cells/μL vs. 96 cells/μL). Forty episodes (59.7%) were liver abscesses, 52 (77.6%) colitis, and 25 (37.3%) both liver abscesses and colitis. Fever resolved after 3.5 days of metronidazole therapy (range, 1–11 days). None of the patients died. The incidence of E. histolytica infection in MSM was higher than that in other risk groups assessed by serological assays (1.99 per 100 person-years [PY] vs. 0 per 100 PY; p<0.0001) and amebic antigen assays (3.16 per 100 PY vs. 0.68 per 100 PY; p = 0.12). In multiple logistic regression analysis, only MSM was significantly associated with acquisition of E. histolytica infection (adjusted odds ratio, 14.809; p = 0.01). Clustering of E. histolytica isolates by sequencing analyses from geographically-unrelated patients suggested person-to-person transmission. Conclusions/Significance HIV-infected MSM were at significantly higher risk of amebiasis than patients from other risk groups. Despite immunosuppression, amebic liver abscesses and colitis responded favorably to treatment.
Stretch-Induced Stress Fiber Remodeling and the Activations of JNK and ERK Depend on Mechanical Strain Rate, but Not FAK
Hui-Ju Hsu,Chin-Fu Lee,Andrea Locke,Susan Q. Vanderzyl,Roland Kaunas
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012470
Abstract: Cells within tissues are subjected to mechanical forces caused by extracellular matrix deformation. Cells sense and dynamically respond to stretching of the matrix by reorienting their actin stress fibers and by activating intracellular signaling proteins, including focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the mitogen-activated proteins kinases (MAPKs). Theoretical analyses predict that stress fibers can relax perturbations in tension depending on the rate of matrix strain. Thus, we hypothesized stress fiber organization and MAPK activities are altered to an extent dependent on stretch frequency.
Expression of a Novel Antimicrobial Peptide Penaeidin4-1 in Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) Enhances Plant Fungal Disease Resistance
Man Zhou, Qian Hu, Zhigang Li, Dayong Li, Chin-Fu Chen, Hong Luo
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024677
Abstract: Background Turfgrass species are agriculturally and economically important perennial crops. Turfgrass species are highly susceptible to a wide range of fungal pathogens. Dollar spot and brown patch, two important diseases caused by fungal pathogens Sclerotinia homoecarpa and Rhizoctonia solani, respectively, are among the most severe turfgrass diseases. Currently, turf fungal disease control mainly relies on fungicide treatments, which raises many concerns for human health and the environment. Antimicrobial peptides found in various organisms play an important role in innate immune response. Methodology/Principal Findings The antimicrobial peptide - Penaeidin4-1 (Pen4-1) from the shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus has been reported to possess in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activities against various economically important fungal and bacterial pathogens. In this study, we have studied the feasibility of using this novel peptide for engineering enhanced disease resistance into creeping bentgrass plants (Agrostis stolonifera L., cv. Penn A-4). Two DNA constructs were prepared containing either the coding sequence of a single peptide, Pen4-1 or the DNA sequence coding for the transit signal peptide of the secreted tobacco AP24 protein translationally fused to the Pen4-1 coding sequence. A maize ubiquitin promoter was used in both constructs to drive gene expression. Transgenic turfgrass plants containing different DNA constructs were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and analyzed for transgene insertion and expression. In replicated in vitro and in vivo experiments under controlled environments, transgenic plants exhibited significantly enhanced resistance to dollar spot and brown patch, the two major fungal diseases in turfgrass. The targeting of Pen4-1 to endoplasmic reticulum by the transit peptide of AP24 protein did not significantly impact disease resistance in transgenic plants. Conclusion/Significance Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of Pen4-1 in a perennial species against fungal pathogens and suggest a potential strategy for engineering broad-spectrum fungal disease resistance in crop species.
Cobalt Oxide Nanosheet and CNT Micro Carbon Monoxide Sensor Integrated with Readout Circuit on Chip
Ching-Liang Dai,Yen-Chi Chen,Chyan-Chyi Wu,Chin-Fu Kuo
Sensors , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/s100301753
Abstract: The study presents a micro carbon monoxide (CO) sensor integrated with a readout circuit-on-a-chip manufactured by the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process and a post-process. The sensing film of the sensor is a composite cobalt oxide nanosheet and carbon nanotube (CoOOH/CNT) film that is prepared by a precipitation-oxidation method. The structure of the CO sensor is composed of a polysilicon resistor and a sensing film. The sensor, which is of a resistive type, changes its resistance when the sensing film adsorbs or desorbs CO gas. The readout circuit is used to convert the sensor resistance into the voltage output. The post-processing of the sensor includes etching the sacrificial layers and coating the sensing film. The advantages of the sensor include room temperature operation, short response/recovery times and easy post-processing. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the CO sensor is about 0.19 mV/ppm, and the response and recovery times are 23 s and 34 s for 200 ppm CO, respectively.
Performance Assessment of the Top Ten TFT-LCD Manufacturers
Chin-Fu Yang,Chung-Che Pai,Zon-Yau Lee
International Journal of Electronic Business Management , 2012,
Abstract: The global thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) manufacturers concentrate in Korea, Japan and Taiwan. In view of growing rapidly of demand in the world, the competition of TFT-LCD manufacturers has been a fierce phenomenon. The most important subject for every TFT-LCD manufacturer administrator is how to make the best disposition of resources and create more and more profits. This study applied the window analysis of data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure the dynamic performance in TFT-LCD manufacturers from 2002 to 2007. Korea, Japan and Taiwan TFT-LCD manufacturers are the study object in this research via the annual financial statement of the ten manufacturers and the relevant trend analysis in the public statement. The study results show that the Innolux has the highest management performance, next are LG Display and Samsung.
Expressed sequence tags from Peromyscus testis and placenta tissue: Analysis, annotation, and utility for mapping
Julie Glenn, Chin-Fu Chen, Adrienne Lewandowski, Chun-Huai Cheng, Clifton M Ramsdell, Rebecca Bullard-Dillard, Jianguo Chen, Michael J Dewey, Travis C Glenn
BMC Genomics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-300
Abstract: The 5' ends of 1,510 placenta and 4,798 testis clones were sequenced. Low quality sequences were removed and after clustering and contig assembly, 904 unique placenta and 2,002 unique testis sequences remained. Average lengths of placenta and testis ESTs were 711 bp and 826 bp, respectively. Approximately 82% of all ESTs were identified using the BLASTX algorithm to Mus and Rattus, and 34 – 54% of all ESTs could be assigned to a biological process gene ontology category in either Mus or Rattus. Because the Peromyscus genome organization resembles the Rattus genome more closely than Mus we examined the distribution of the Peromyscus ESTs across the rat genome finding markers on all rat chromosomes except the Y. Approximately 40% of all ESTs were specific to only one location in the Mus genome and spanned introns of an appropriate size for sequencing and SNP detection. Of the primers that were tried 54% provided useful assays for genotyping on interspecific backcross and whole-genome radiation hybrid cell panels.The 2,906 Peromyscus placenta and testis ESTs described here significantly expands the molecular resources available for the genus. These ESTs allow for specific PCR amplification and broad coverage across the genome, creating an excellent genetic marker resource for the generation of a medium-density genomic map. Thus, this resource will significantly aid research of a genus that is uniquely well-suited to both laboratory and field research.Members of the genus Peromyscus are mice found from Alaska to Central America and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. They occur in a wide range of habitats including sea-level wetlands and beaches, forests, prairies, deserts, and mountains of elevation up to 14,000 ft. This genus contains not only the two most wide-spread mammals in North America, the deer mouse (P. maniculatus) and the white-footed mouse (P. leucopus), but also contains North America's most endangered mammal, the Perdido Key Beach Mouse (P. polionotus tris
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